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SERMON IX. (page 4.) 

Sign's Praises. Psalm cxWii. 12 — 15. Praise ye the Lordt O 

JtrMsakm, Sfc, 

General scope of the Psalm, 6, 7- 

Pnise is dae unto. God for his absolute greatness ; and for his relative 
goodness to his church and people. In these claims to our praise, 
we must adore the excellencies of God, 9; rejoice in him as our 
only good, g ; prefer him above all things, acknowledge his free 
grace, ioroke his name, 10, and obey his commands^ U. 

Glory results unto God from his creatures, in a way of general pro- 
Tidence, II; in a way of judgement, 1 ] ; and in a way of obe- 
dience, 12. 
The ingemination in the text. Praise, Praise, teaches lis our indisposition 
to this duty, 13; David's zeal for God's honour, 14; the necessity 
of the duty, 13; the manner and measure of it, 14. 
Application' of the text to the more immediate occasion of the ser« 
mon, 16*-44. 

SERMON X. (page 25.) 

Uses or Human Learmimg. Acts vii. 22. And was learned in 
eil the wisdom J 4^. 

Ohierratioiii on the learning of Moses, SQ — 32. 

True learning is desirable as an ornament to the mind, 34; for the uses 

whereunto it may be applied, in regard of evil men, 35 ; in regard of 

holy men, 36; in regard of the truth of religion, 37, 38. 
Hnmao learning must not be used unnecessarily, 39, vain -gloriously, 40, 

proudly, heretically, profanely, 40; but with humility, 41, and with 

holiness, 42.^ 
Teachers and learned preceptors should be honoured. Funeral eulogy of 

Mr. Lang LET, 45, &c. 

a 2 


SERMON XI. (page 49.) 

Crown of Great Actions. Nehemiah xiii. 31. Remember 
mCf O my God, for good. 

Merits and excellencies of Nehemiah, 51 — 56. 

The text may be considered, 1. as the comfort of Nehemiah ; and, 11. as 
his prayer, 56. 

I. A knowledge of duty performed is a comfort ; since a godly life hath 

pardon of failings, 59; is God's own work, 59; honours God and 
benefits man, 59; and brings a happy death, CO. 

II. Good men, who have done service unto the church, may pray that 

God would approve their deeds and pardon imperfect services, 6l ; 
preserve from misconstruction ; impart counsel, 62, assistance, and 
success, 63. 

A sound faith in God is the great principle to quicken us in great un- 
dertakings, 65 — 67, and a source of comfort in reviewing them, 67. 

An interest in God as our God is a notable argument In prayer, for ob- 
taining reward for ser^'ices. 

SERMON XII. (page 72.) 
The Rich Man*8 Charge. 

To the Right Honourable Sir Richard Chiyerton, Lord 
Mayor of the City of London^ and the honourable Court of 

Right Honourable, 

It is truly resolved by learned men, * that theology is 
not a bare speculative science, which ultimately terminateth 
and stoppeth in the understanding, but that it is a doctrine 
ordered and directing unto practice, prescribed not only the 
^knowledge of spiritual truth, but the^ doing and loving of 
spiritual good. The apostle calleth it the "^ acknowledge* 
ment of the truth which is after godliness ; the learning 
of Christ, and of the truth as it is in Jesus. As light and 
heat, lustre, motion, and influence, are united in the sun, 
the one working with and by the other ; so treasures of 
wisdom and knowledge are joined with fulness of grace 
and holiness, in the sun of righteousness, whose wings have 

• Aquin, part. I. Qu. 1. Art. 4. et Scholastici in Prolog. Sent. ^ John 

zvii. 3. Ephcfl. iv. 13. « Matth. vii. 21. Jam. L 22. John xiii. 17. 

d Tit. i. 1. Eph. iv. 20. 

' healing ii 



The doctrine of religion \a like the*) 
pbeCs vtsioD of chembitiis, where lie saw wheels Inll ofeyei, 
the on« for virion, the other for motion : and lianda under I 
wings; tbetie to soar in coulemjihilion ; those to be em- ] 
ployed i» action : and lamps, and burning coals of fire; the ^ 
on« for light, tlie other for heat'. As an heathen's and 
retick's moral actions do not benefit him without faith in 
4?hrist; 80 a Christian's' speculative kiiowted'je, and mere i 
doctrinal faith will not save him without good works, and ' 
the fruits of new obedience **. 
- Though therefure we dare not ascribe unto good works ' 
4QV meritorious dignity or pruper causality, whereby they 
f rocute or produce salvation fur us; yet such a ' necessity 
of them we ever acknowledge, as that without walking in ~i 
ibe May of holiness, we shall not arrive at the kingdom of 
glory: wiiliout doing the will of God, we can never expect 
to receive the promises. And as it is a dangerous tempta- 
tion of Satan on the one hand, to persuade men to deify 
Iheir own good works by putting confidence in them ; so it 
is no less dangerous on the other hand by mere notional, 
«iry. and Platoiiical speculations, to eat out all care of ^ood 
works, and those moral duties of piety, temperance, right- 
eousnese, and charity, in which the life, power, virtue of 
true saving faith doth exert itself. 

These considerations moved me, when I was invited to H 
preach before you at that solemn time, when many proper! 
objects of good works use to be presented to your eyea, 
to single out that argument to treat upon. And that so ^ 
mncl) the rather, because we live in times, wherein there n 
• coocorrence of many of those symptoms and distempers, 
■pan which our Saviour' hath concluded, that the love of ^ 
aaay should wax cold: wars, and rumours of wars, nation. ^ 

,i.8, 13,16,18. 'y*<«.deCiy. Dei, 1. 19. c. 15.— De Nupt. wti 1 

:. 3.— Conlr. 2 Ep. PeUg. 1. 3. c. 4.— Cuntra Julian. Pelag. L, J 

> Aug. Ton. 1. lib. lit fide el opei. c. 14. Ad Simpilclm. J 

^ Aug. de Tiinlial. 1. lb. c. IX. Qualit at illi canltitia, qom' 1 

rAOtoera^t. ui pro nihilo ejus ducu impeiium? aui quumiido ex anin 

" Damine, Domme," Bi ejus, quem Domlnuin cnnfilcniur, 

t Gfntllein non fidct lanlum debcl, 
Ktl ciiam «iu diuingoen. Hirr. epiit. w) dlat. de ratlonc pie viteadi. 
' Hebr. *». 14- i-36. Vide DavmmH. de Jusiitia actuali, c. :il), 31. 



#g^ihit nation ; kingdom against kingdom ; many offended ; 
-many hating one another, many false teachers, many se- 
duced people, and above all, an abundance of iniquity. And 
indeed, it may be justly feared, that where there are so 
many divisions, prejudices, animosities, differences both of 
judgement and interest, to say nothing of the luxury, de- 
licacy, vanity and excess in private expenses, there cannot 
but consequently be a very great obstruction in the current 
of good woriLs.- 

My hearty desire and prayer is, that as this Sermon re- 
ceived favourable audience from you, and is now by your 
own direction exposed to a more general view, so some 
signal blessing may follow the publication thereof, that 
thereby the hearts of many rich men "* may be enlarged to 
honour the Lord with their substance, and to let their mer- 
chandise, and their treasures have inscribed upon" them, 
" Holiness to the Lord.*** 

Your Honours* most humble servant in Christ, 

Edward Reynolds. 

1 Tim. vi. 17 — 19. Ckargt than that are rkk in this worlds S^, 

These words have ibur parts. 

I. Timothy^ duty: charge. The rich must be charged^ not flattered, 

74 ; as being in more need, 77, and more danger than other peo- 
ple, 77. 

II. Subject of the charge, 78: charge the rich. The apostle does not 

forbid to be rich, or to acquire riches by lawful means, 79> 

■HI. Limitation of the subject of the charge: rich in this world, 80. We 
must labour for durable riches 81. 

IV. Matter of the charge. A rich man should not be high-minded, since 
riches confer no real value* 84. Rich men are but stewards, 85, 
and walk among more temptations, 85. The higher the rich are 
exalted by God, the lower they should be in their own esteem, 85 : 
they hare the more work to do, 86 : and never can hare just reason 
to despise the poor, 86. 

The rich must not trust in riches, which are not commensurate to the 
affections, 88 ; and are uncertain in their abode, 88, and in pro- 
mises, 89. Various motives for trusting in the living God, 89--9f . 

Rich men must be rich in good works, Qe. The objects of the good works 
are the worship of God, and the necessities of men, 95. The maimer 
of good works : they must be done richly, 95 ; readily, 96 ; dif- 
fusively, 97. 

» Prov. 3. 9. » Ii. M. If. 


Jklouvo lo wotks of DMKy : cliuily of God, gs ; example of Chriit. QB ; 

mp«ct to ourselves ind neighbour, gg; credit of the goapd, 100; 

no^iludc of future reward, 101 — 103. 
AfipKcatioo of ibe subject, to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, 103. 

SERMON XIII. (page 106.) 
God'i FiDBtiTV THK Chpkch's Safety. 

AmplissimU, prKstantiasimis, consuIUssimis Viri», 

D. JoHAMNi Ireton, 

Ho ao rati 881 mo Domino Pnefecto, 

Mngistralibus UDJversis, 

Totique Senatui 

CeleberrimK florentUsimseque 

Civitatis Londinensia, 

Coaciouein banc 

Coram ipsia habitam, 

Ipsorumque juasu 

Piiblici jyris factam. 

In honoris et debttffi observantice 


T). D. 

E. R. 

E«ra ix. 15. Lord God of Israrl, cAou art righttou*. Sft. 

Context cxplamed, t06 — IO9. The text comprises four particulars. 

L AeinatcUdgmeat of am, on Ikepart qf God'i people, which ire the marc 
aggravated, because commitled against light and conviction. 111; 
xgainsi mote tender love, the spiiii of grace, peace of God, spiritual 
wisdom. 118; against hope of salvarion, 1 13 ; against honour of tc- 
Ugion, and souls or the brethren, 114; and souls of thewictced, 115. 

tt. Adttoicltdgmenl qf God^i Hghtnusneu 10 the evil* which they «uf- 
fercd, 1 15, 1 Iti. 

III. JcknoieledgmenI of God'i fiitlily in the mercies which they enjoyed, 
116. The covenaoL of divine mercy is free and absolute. It?; im- 
muuble, lie: efficacious, lig; invincible, ISO ; fouoded on Christ's 
blood and intcrcuiiou, lil ; seconded by God's love, ISl, and holy 
Spirit, 12S. 

IV. A demonstralioii of divine mercy, IS9. This particular applied to 
England, 1S3— 133. 

SERMON XIV. (pHe 135.) 
BsoTHtALr Rbgoncili&tiok. Phil. iii. 15. Lrl ut, tiere/ore, 
u HMay lu be per/eel. b< thui mmded, ^. 
ScMOtl siiaJyiis of the taxi, t3S— 14e. 


vIk contents. 

I. The apostle makes a difference ampngst the membera of the Church, 


II. The perfection of a Christian standeth in thinking of Christ* and of 

himself, as St. Paul did, H3 ; by being humble-minded ; by re- 
joicing in Christ's righteousness, and by having a conformity to 
Christ, and by being touched with a sense of our imperfections, 144. 

III. Differences of judgement will exist in the best ages of the Church, 

IV. Mutual charity should^be exercised, except where the differences 
contradict faith and holin<^s, 148 — 152. 

V. Rules for reconciling differences in the Church, 152; studying the 

scriptures, 152; a seteocion of fundamental doctrines in which all 
agree, 155 ; unity in love, holiness, and designs, 157* 
Application of the text, to the Parliament. 

SERMON XV. (page 162.) 

Brotherly Aoreemint. Philipp. ii. 1, 2. 7/*, therefore^ there 
be any consolation in Christy 4^. 

I. Matter of the duties proposed ; viz. 1. Coment in the same doctrines as 

Christians, l64; the necessity and advantages of this consent, l65-— 
\6Q; and how it may be effected, I69— 176. 2. Unity qf affections 
as citizens, 177* 

II. Manner of pressing the duties^ by way of insinuation and argumen- 

tation^ 17Q — 182. 

III. Means of procuring the duties, ]82« 

SERMON XVI. (page ia4.) 
The Bbamd plucked out of the Fibs. 

Amplissimis, prsestantisBimig, 

Oonsultissimis Viris, 

D. Trio. Aleyn, 

Honoratisftimo Domino Prsfe^to, 

Magistratibus universiB^ 

Totique Senatui 

Celeberrimee florentissinifleqiie 

Ciyitatis LondineDsis, 

Concionem banc 
Coram ipsis habitam, 

Ipsorumque jussu 

Publici .juris factam, . 

In honoris eVdebite obaerrantise 



£• Iv. 



Zedur. ui. I, 2. J-l ke ihm»d mt Jtuhia tkt Higk Prittl, , 
TW apcdal ntnj u> JtMbu* ii tri fonli in ih« mannrr o 

I. Joilna Mottl, I. Uf<w Hnwt, igO, lo minutrr belar* ihc I 
aadS. Umfmamnm, igi, toiDnrcrriM himwirMMlothtn, 101. 
IL Satan •wod w miM Jo*Imm, u a uattitet aad accaiar, 19»— 19«. 
!IL CbriH u tbc adnicau mT lh« Churcb. 1(>4— I9S- 

IV. Viamy «*«r Saw, wbo b '(^vi^W by Chriit. 

V. FsB^alioa «r Ihu ticturj: I. God'* fcnciiMi dcciion ; 8; i 

Uota nncdiaia aypfieaiMo o( ibe S«raoD, fOi . 

SERMON XVII. (page lOJ] 
Tub MntKT or a vusitbd rtortr. 

Ta lie A>irib HonoirahU Thomas Alkvh, Lord Mayor of 
iJkc City of iMtdtyHt Ikt Court of Aldemtm ami t'ommom 


Wren I wu by you callml tn benr k part in ibit a»- 
•oaabls and oeceaury wrrice of yoor late aolemn hiimtlia- 
tioo, I cciiiMtUrvd the lad condtlion wbcrruntn thne nntion* 
vere reduced; the many and great provocalicma which mc 
ltav« bc«a guilty of; the miacrvble cow motion a and cartJi- 
qsMke*, which have not only ahakm, but even diatoKcd our 
Ibandfttiona, and nude lb«ni all ont of courar. I MTioualy 
looked b«ck on tbs daik and gloomy providcncea of God 
% n aoogml d>, the antimely death of pniicea, the diroitlialin;; 
and diaaolving of ParlianienU, the rre<|U(!nt cxpiraliona niid 
noasitodr* of GovrmmenU, the buirid apoal>*y, atheiim, 
•cepticiun, indiflerency, prodifjic* of phreDetick and ]>er. 
niciona opiniona, wheieby multitudes have played the wan- 
tooa with aa gloriout a light of orthodox religion, as any 
oation oodcr Ucaven enjoyed ; the dtfaming of miniatry, 
decrying of ordinancea, encroacfaing of many Romiib doc- 
triaea aodcf a dHgoiae, and other like diatempera, Mbercby 
■e ar* become a biuing and aatoniahmeut to the nations 
rotnid abost os. Id a word, it aecmed uuto me, that thu 
acaiw of tb« ten Itibca ma tranalated into these nations, 
and iIhI we wer^ making baatc lo b* a Jcireel, a Lo-Ru- 
a Lo-Animt, aa tbey once did. And therefore. 



though my habitual disposition usually led m^ to arguments, 
which have more of mildness and gentleness in them, as re- 
membering the counsel of the Apostle, * to instruct in meek- 
ness those that oppose themselves;' yet I thought it a duty 
little less than absolutely necessary, in such a day of trouble 
and rebuke, to set the trumpet unto my mouth, and to re- 
present unto you the doleful condition of a deserted people, 
and, withal, the sad misgiving fears (whereunto the symp- 
toms of these sick and sinful nations did lead me), lest the 
Lord were now departing from such a people, who, after a 
hundred years^ possession of the Gospel, did still so wan- 
tonly abuse it, and walk so unworthy of it. 

Yet, if any man shall say unto me, that it shall not be so ; 
that the Lord will still own us, and continue his presence 
with us ; I shall answer, as once the prophet Jeremiah did, 
.'* Amen, the Lord do so i*^ the Lprd forbid that I should 
desire the woful day ; or, with Jonab, be displeased with 
the patience and goodness of God. Far may this Sermon 
be from a prophecy or prediction ; let it be only an instruc- 
tion, and a warning unto us. But certainly the maturity of 
our sins, and the face of our distempers, do so far threaten 
USy as that we ought thereby to be awakened to cry might- 
ily unto God, and to hold him fast ; lest he be weary of 
repenting, and, after so many despised mercies, take at last 
the plumb-line into his hand, and refuse again to pass by us 
any more. 

If hereunto this weak service of mine may be any way 
useful, either to city or country ; to magistrates, ministers, 
or people; I shall have abundant cause to bless the Lord; 
to whose gracious presence and protection, in these dan- 
gerous times, I desire, in my daily prayers, to commend 
these three nations, and this great city, and so to be 

Your most humble and faithful servant 
From my study, in the work of the Lord, 

Bee. 19, 1659. Edward Reynolds. 

Ho8. ix. It. Yea^ wo also to them^ when I depart from them. ^ 

Analysis of the whole chapter, 206. The text comprises two parts. 

I. Ood*s departure Jrom hit people. In what senses Grod is present with 

his Church, 209 i ^^^ what are the benefits of that presence, eiO. 

II. Mieery consequent on God's departurei In what senses Goil <leserts: 



nr • way of {iropiiiaiioD, Sit ; of pratanon, fit; 
rithcr puioD«l or puUkk, tIJ, at*. G«d'* drparum from m |Maplr 
dcODlci * mbduciion of pMC«, oT prcicoM in Dnliiunce*, of gifi> 
and gntxt, SIS j of plotcclion ; m judiciarjr iradtlioo, f l6, cult oB 
all rcUtiiM) >nd coanDUDion »iih (itti, (10; cuii olTiht glory ofi 
proplv, tl7 ; »mI* up under wraih, frc. tl7. tit. 

Jauioe «f Gorf, iolbnakiiiga raiion.sit. 

Wbai lun proroke God'i dcpartiigi. 9f0. 

Wbu aie ihc (jrinploiiK of hii iJrparttue, ttl, Mt. 

hitimlai application of the inbjrct, m—m$. 

SERMON XVIfl. (pagttSI.) 
Tmk Waj.1. ASD C-LOKY £ir isRutALCx. Zfcli. ii. 9. f vUt 
tt utfa irr « koA o/frr, and lit glnry, tfr- 

I. Cod a • awti «f>rf. He it s wo/J of (urliiiim ui tcparair ihi Choich 

fran ifae wortd, t34; a urall of conjunction ia oniiing ibc (tani lo 
MM rammon inltiol, t34 ; a wall of proicrtion, in a vriy of pntmnr, 
f^"**, and prD«»d«acc, 1136 ; in • way of gf>cc, 837 ; and a* a neat 
Asdadcquaic dtttoet, Z3». 
Hit pMcciioD is titejirr, bjr being Lcrribic aud coiitpimmii, impregnable. 
popMiMl. and aciiic. V3y. 

II. Go4 it the glorj of bii Church, h; bii ipifiluil pretrnrr. S4< ; by hii 
MttMOCn^ t4« ; by (^hriitiant IwJng irantlalcd intn a rtltlion of 
ri^ia— met and af umiliip, t*3, ?44. 

Let n, ihenJoTC, ace ibe foll]r of pcrtcculios ik* Church. 84> ; or of 
ouog linAil ibeaai of protccuiui ii, v'4}. Lrt m not *o>y ihc gloi} 
sf the world, f46; boi. abo'c all thingt. hold fail God, S«6; arid 
IT gloiy not in our o«m powrn, but in God alone, 947- 

SERMON XJX. (page 248.) 
t AtTTMOK aRi> SrBJCcT or Hf^alimo i 

R CnrBCH. 

To lAe R^ht HoHOurabit tht LortU ami Commoiu, OMUmUid 
in Pariiament. 
Right IIoHoiiBABi.E, 

Wmen I waa commanded, by the Council of SUI«, to 
preach beTorv yom on the day of the Parlrament'a au«niblinf{. 
I CAuld not but tvflcct ou the woful and ne*«f enough lo b« 
Uineoted coofutioiu, under which these nationa were ready 
to siafc and pariah, till th« Lord waa [ilcuHed, as it were, 
«i ^^«*w, to raise up an honoursbU initrument, by hia 
wwdom aod ralour, to put a atop to the progrcM. and to 
open a way, that you, by yout coun&el and authority, might 


.phi' a period to the being of them. In order whereunto, I 
thought it my duty, as a minister of the gospel of peace^ 
and a servant to our great Lord, whose work it was to ^^ heal 
and recover" (Luke iv. 18) humbly to set before you, the 
author and the object; and on the Monday following, be- 
fore the Right Honourable the House of Peers, the means 
and method of God's healing a sick nation ; and thereupon 
to beseech you, so to imitate the example of Christ, who is 
*^the Lord that healeth us,*^ so to promote the fear of his 
name and the great work of humiliation, supplication, and 
reformation amongst us, as that you might comfortably 
plead his promise, to " hear, forgive, ahd heal the land :*" 
for the Lord will be with you, while you are with him ; and 
if you seek him, he will be found of you. 

And for this work of setting up the fear of God, and real 
conversion unto him, though godliness have as many- ene- 
mies as there be devils in hell, or wicked men in the world ; 
yet profaneness is in itself so shameful, and holiness so 
amiable, that endeavours in this most weighty work will, I 
am confident, meet with no prevalent opposition or ob- 
struction among you. All sober men of every persuasion, 
however otherwise divided, acknowledge the necessity^ and 
professing their desires, that the name of the Lord may, in 
parity of doctrine, and in holiness of life^ be magnified 
amongst us. 

You have made a happy entrance unto this healing work : 
(for certainly the great sufferings of our princes have had a 
strong causality upon our distractions ; it can never be well 
with the body, while it is ill with the head :) and you have 
hereby blasted the projects and attempts of any, whose am- 
tiition might animate them to awaken old, or kindle new, 
flames amongst us. If, together with this noble act of jus- 
tice and of loyalty, you proceed to secure the interest of 
Jesus Christ, by establishing the true reformed religion, and 
x>rtfaodox, learned, and painful ministry, pure worship, and 
the omer of godliness, suppressing and putting to shame all 
profane practices, whereby the wrath of the Lord may be 
kindled against us ; you shall thereby greatly blast the de- 
aires of evil and licentious men ; and comfort the hearts, 
mnd give evidence of the answer of God to the prayers of 


food men. Which that you may be enabled and assisted to 
do by the power of divine grace, is the moat earnest prayer 

Yotir Honours' moat humbly devoted 
in the Lord, 

Edward Rbymolds. 

s/iall the Sun o/RigAUous- ' ' 

o duty; growth 

May 5, 1660. 

Text: — But unloi/im thai j'ea 
nru oriit, iic. 
The text pttienis lix particulars. 

I. The dbciiminating grnct of Goil between a remnant that fearnl hit 

name, and the body ofn corrupi people, 25 1 — S5S. 

II. Thai the holiest uicfi want healing, B55. 

III. The Author of this ticalinx "s ih« Sun of Righte 

IV. The meaoa by which ChrJM heals. His ruing denoles I 
turn, 958 ; uianifcBiation in spirit and power ; rousing 
ignorance and security; his hfaverly conduct and dirt 
Hi* 6f%l coniisu hi his heavenly doctrine, and in the I 
kh Spirit, SSg. His leiagi are his word and ordinances 
irioM pfOvidcuce, l!5y ; his more iinincdiale serranis; hi 

V. Theiulgecl of this healing; thn/ thai fear h.h mate, 26l. 
1i1. Effects and consequences of this healing: courage u 

in grace; and victory over enemies, 262. 
Fmm the metaphor, which represeaiB Christ as light, let us infer the 

fceeneas aud liilness of his grace ; the dependence of the Church 

upoa bis fulness, 363; and the cocijunctjon between the righteou^i. 

new of Christ and his healing, s64. 
Application of the subject, to the P^krliamenl. S64. &c. 

SERMON XX. (page 371.) 
Tmk Meaks and Method of Healino in tub Church. 
2 Cbran. vi>. 13, 14. If I ihul up heaven, S(c. 
71mi« wonts GODuin ihrct parlicular^. ' " * 

I. A lappnsilion of judgements i which light not upon a people casu- 

■Jlf ; and are rarloui in their naluie, 273— B77. 

II. A Erection unto duties, 378, whereby judgements may be removed : 

humiliation. 891; prayer, 289; rcconciliaiioii, EQO; conversioo, 29O. 

III. A giacious promise of mercy, Sgl. 

SERMON XXI. (page 295.) 
The. Lord's Peopebtt in his Redeemed feople. Ye are 
w/ yoar Ottft ; /or gt are bought with a price : therefore, glorify, S^. 
The lest impUet ihrte particulars. 



I^ Wic ate not QUI own: we ftre God't. Wt hold notbing by original 
propriety, 296 ; but by derivative, 299. 

A roan acts, as if he were his own, when he makes his reason his supreme 
rule, 301 ; or makes his own will, his chief law, 304 ; or makes his 
own interest, his ultimate end, 304; or his own performances, his 
chief ground of hope, 305. 

II. God batli bought us with a price. This purchase implies onr pre- 
vious alienation from God, voluntarily and penally, 307. 

Christ claims his people by right of his divine nature, 308 ; and by his 
mediatorship, 309. The right of Christ is founded on his authority 
and power, 309. He has purchased us, by way of ransom, 310; and 
of acquisition, 312. 

in. Let us glorify God, 312, by adoring this mystery, 313 ; by admiring 
the severity of divine justice, and by applying to ourselves the com- 
fort of so precious a doctrine, 374. 

SERMON XXII. (page 322.) 

DiTiXB ErficAcr without Humak Power. Zech. iv. 6. This 
U $ke word of the Lord untu Zerubbabelt 4^. 

L Great care of the Lord to remove the discouragements of his tervants, 


II. The means' of God's encouiBgements in bis word, 327* which is 

true, authoritative, 327» and efficacious, 328. 

III. The vehiculum of that word, is Christ, 330. 

IV. lite' subject t>f the encouragement ia Zembbabel; who shows, ta a 
typie, that magistratea should build the Church, by the aid of God's 
wora, 932, 335. 

V. The matter of the comfort is the Spirit of God, 336-— 338. 
Particular application, to the House of Commons. 

SERMON XXIII. (page 343.) 
Prbachino of Christ. 

To the Reverend my dearly beloved Brethren^ the Dean^ Pre- 
bendaries, and the rest 0/ the Clergy, of the Cathedral 
Church and City of Norwich* 
Revbrend and beloved Bbethrbn, 

Ever since the preaching of this plain sermon, I have 
been importuned * quotidiano convicio'* (if I may use the 
orator^s * expression) to make it publick. I have, at last, 
suflfered myself to be overcome by the persuasions of my 

* Quintilian* 


frienda. My chief end therein hath been, that I might 
provoke my younger brethren to make it the main design of 
their ministry, to render the Lord Jesus, his divine person, 
ktB sacred offices, his heavenly doctrine, hia blessed ex- 
ample, his spiritual graces, the fellowship of bis sufferings, 
(Philip, iii. 8, 10) the power of his resurrection, the ex- 
cellency of his knowledge, the unsearchable riches of his 
love, (Eph. iii. 8, 1«, 19.) and all the mysteries of his. J 
kingdom, amiable in the eyes of their hearers; as it was I 
foretold of htm, that he should bf the Desire of all nations, I 
(Hog- ii- "■) the Chiefest of ten thousand and altogetbei ■! 
lovely: (Cant. v. 10, 1(3.) That, in preaching the Law, they I 
nay lead men to Christ for mercy to pardon the transgreK. I 
nons, and for grace to obey the commands of it: — That^ I 
ill preaching the Gospel, they may direct men unto Christ I 
for faith, to believe the promises of the covenant ; for he is 1 
the author of our faith ; (Hehr. xii. 2) for hope, to wait for I 
liie fulfilling of them ; for he is unto us the Hope of glory { I 
(Co), i. '27.) and fur love to inflame that purity and holinesa, I 
which they are intended to kindle in us; for " the love of^ 
Christ conatraineth us." (2 Cor. v, 14.) That by the awa I 
and dread of the name of Christ, in whose stead they speak I 
(2 Cor. V, 20); and unto whom, as the "chief Shepherd^ I 
of the sheep (I Pet. v. 4) they must give an account, (Heb. I 
liii. 17), they may be deterred from all those ways of pas- ■ 
sioD. ostentation, and vanity, whereby men are sometimes 
transported to preach themselves rather than Christ, and the 
conceptions of their own heart rather than his counsel (Jer. 
jiiiii. 16, 22, 26) ; and thereby provoke the people (1 Sam. 
ii. 17) to abhor the ofiering of the Lord. 1 have taken the 
liberty of dedicating it unto you, that I might thereby tes- 
tify the love and honour 1 owe your persons, the value I set 
upon your learned and pious labours, and the real thanks 
which I return unto you, for the great love which you have 
expressed towards my person, and assistance which you 
have aJTorded me in mine attendance on the service of that 
diocess. And, I hope, it will not be grievous unto you, or 
affensive nnto any, if, after the example of the ancient 
bishopa in the primitive and purer ages of the Church, who 
•ere wont to sit with their clergy, and preside in an eccle- 


siastical * senate, I shall^ in matters of weight and difficulty, 
entreat the advice and assistance of you, who are ' Pres- 
byteri urbis,^ in order to the more safe, judicious, regular, 
and inoffensive determining of them. And so I commend 
you to the grace of God, and remain 

Your most loving brother and fellow-labourer, 
in the service of Christ and his Church, 

Ed. NoBwicH. 

, 2 Cor. iv. 5. For we preach not ourselves^ but Christ Jesus the 
Lord, and ourselves your servants for Jesus* sake-. 

The words comprise: I. a duty, to preach ; II. the subject of the duty; 
not ourselves, but Christ, 

I. The duty, preaching. lu dignity, 343, and difficulty, 344. Necessity 

of preaching, in regard to Christ, 344 ; in regard to the ends of the 
Gospel, 345 ; in regard to ourselves, preaching should be attended 
with demonstration, 347; wisdom, sincerity, spiritual authority, 
meekness, 348 ; boldness, and piety of life, 349. 

II. Matter of preaching. Men preach themselves, by lording over the 

flock, 349 ; by making themselves the authors of their own minis- 
try, the matter of their own preaching, 360, and the end of it, 3dl. 

Christ is the author of preaching, 352, by giving a mission, and call in- 
ternal and external, 353, 354 ; by being the matter and substance of 
preaching, 355—358 ; by being the end of preaching, 358. 

Exhortation to ministers, and to candidates for the ministry, 359, &c. 

SERMON XXIV. (page 363.) 

The Church's Triumph over Death. Is. xxti. 18, 19. H^e 
have been in pain, S^. ; thy dead men shall live, <^. 

General exposition of the context, 363 — 366. 

The words contain two parts : I. complaint, II. triumph, of the Church. 

I. The complaint intimates the greatness of the affliction, 36?; con- 

trivances used to procure deliverance, 368; disappointment of 
them, 369. 

II. The triumph. The matter of it, deliverance from the lowest to the 

best condition, 370 — 372. Reasons of the triumph refer to the 
subject of it, the Churches dead body, 378 ; and to the author of it, 
the Spirit qf God, 3Sl. 
Funeral eulogy on the Lady Mart Lavoham, 383. 

ft *IffpdK ff6ffmfui, (rw49pto¥ Bffov, Ignai, St^onffui h itedarp tv^ci, Origei^, 
Conseuus Cleri, Cyprian. Senatus Ecclesiss, Hieron, Vid. Cyprian, passim, 
Epist. 6, 18, 19, 24, 28, 31, 32, 33, 35, 40, 46, 58, S^y 71, 72. 

r SERMON XXV. (page 388.) 

Tde Pabtdbal Office,* 1 

To lAe right worshipful the Magistrates, and lu llie revemid I 

Miniiters, and other memben of the Corporation of Ipswich, I 

in Sujoik. I 

Dearly beloved, I 

Though I could not, with any decency, decline the pub- 1 

lication of this sermon, which had been by you so earnestly 1 

desired, tlien, when the greatness of your love and reapecti ■ 

my person and function did, for many days, express itself- I 

a most free and noble reception ; yet it pleased diving I 

Providence, by a sore visitation on my family, to obstruct I 

'ihe performance of this service, so lon^, till I', might justly I 

have hoped to have been no more minded of it. But being I 

dSeappointed in that hope, I now, though late, send it foith,| I 

witJiout altering any one line or period of what I then de- I 

lirrred. And although it be but a very slender return from I 

Ibe «reat favours I received from you alone, yet I muat -M 

crave your leave to profess, that as a ring, though placed ■ 

only on a finger, is yet a token of love to the whole person ; I 

ao l})is little aermon, though dedicated only to you, is in- I 

tended as a testimony of that honour and thanks, which I- I 

one to all orders in this great diocess, for those signal and I 

pnblick. favours, which, in mine attendance on the service I 

thereof, 1 every where received. All the answer I can make I 

to so great an obligation, is daily to pray, that the Church I 

of Christ, in this large diocess, aiay be beauti&ed with the I 

UestiogH of truth and peace, of unity and holiness; that I 

Ifac Clergy thereof may, with all fidelity, deliver the Word of I 
God's grace; and that it may, by his etfectual operation,,' 
ikave a free and successlnl passage into the hearts and lives 
of the people committed to their charge. And as this is 
Ae continual prayer, so I hope, that, through the assistance 
of divine grace, it shall be the unwearied endeavour of him, 
«ho desires to approve himself 

An unfeigned servant of your faith and salvation, 
En. NoRvic. 

"i MMi •> rf aipiyyi- 



Zech. xi. 7. And I took unto me two staves^ SfC. 

The tuHf staves denote the restoration of beauty io the Church, and the 

gathering of a scattered people, 389- 
The words comprise two particulars : I. the office of the ministry, /eedU 

ing : 11. the ends of that office, pitrUif and unity, 390. 
I. The office implies the necessity, and certain duties. 
The necessity is that of improving our engrafted notions of God, 390; 

of improving the law of Moles, 391 ; of explaining the mysteries of 

the Gospel. 391 ; of perfecting the Gospel-salvation by the impetra- 

tion of grace and the Holy Spirit, &c. 39 1. 
Necessity of a standing and a regularly ordained ministry, 392—395. 
if. Duties of the pastoral office, 396. 
The honour of the ministerial office, 397- 
Mattcr of preaching, 398. 
Method of preaching, 399; touching the conscience; sinctrely, 400; 

wisely, boldly, and meekly, 401 ; and plainly, 402. Preaching 

shoiild be enforced by pnyer, and godliness of life, 404. 
How far a minister may make use of human learning, 402. 
Exhortation to the clergy, 405, and to the people, 406. 

SERMON XXVI. (page 409.) 

The Staves of Bbautt and Bakdb.* 

To the right worshipful the Magistrates^ and to the reverend 
Ministers^ and other members of the Corporation of Yar- 
mouth, in Norfolk. 

Dearly beloved. 

This sermon was preached before you, in order to the 
peace and unity of the Church of God amongst you ; and 
I presume, in order to the same good end, I was by you 
pressed to the publishing of it. Which motion I have the 
more readily entertained, that the arguments unto so neces- 
sary a duty, which I found prevalent with you then, might 
be always at your hand, to revive in you the same affections. 
And truly those many men in all parts of this nation, who, 
upon whatever plausible and specious pretences^ have given 
entertainment unto novel opinions (never, before these loose 
times, heard of in the Church of Ood) and thereupon do 
forsake the assemblies, and disturb the peace of an orthodox 

* Meritum Christianse Tirtutis vilesdt in cunctis, si unitatem non habet pactt ; 
nee pervenit ad vocabulum Filti, niti per nomen * pactfici .* August, de Tempore, 
ler. 169. Vera et breTit definitio vtrtatit est * ordo amoris,' Avg, de CiTit. Dei, 1. 
15. c. 23. [Motto to the original SermonJ] 

C0NT1KT9. XtX 

md refonned Cbordt, lj|tl« consider the advanUi^ Uwjr 
five (be coatnoa »dTttsaty : who. no doubt, rqoicelh lo we 
Bi bnak OM UHXlwr wilh our own buids, wbom th«y, with 
lbeiim» hitherto have not been able lo berm : u Vetpenao it 
obaemd by Joeephitt to have doae ia the tiege of Jeruu- 
leco, ikM cbooemg to •torm the Jews by any boktile atuult, 
■ritilc they w«fe dntroying one another l>y lh«tr inteslinr 
confiraion*. CeTtaioIy, whatever prejadicrs wmk and cr^ 
daloas men may have their oyea danled withal, dWiaiona 
and coDteationa in ibe Church h4ve alwaya flenhly ItiaU at 
the UrtioA of them, aa the apoatle aiteitreih tia, I Cor. iii. 3. 
Not are they only fniita of sin in men, bat evidence* of 
wraU) io Ood, and aad aymptoma of hi> further ditplcasure. 
When (leaiah ix. 21) MaoaiBeh is against Ephtaim, and 
Ephraim against Maoasaeb, and both against Judah, it ia 
avgo thai God^s anger is not turned away. l>nt that hia 
band U stretched oat still: — schisms in a church being like 
ieaia in a ship, or breaches in a aea-bank, which threaten 
speedy and estremeat danger. And tberefore all who » ish 
well to Sion. sboold listen unto healing and uniting cfiun- 
■eta ; not su&hng, in so impQrlant a buainess at the peace 
and proaperity of the Church, tiny secular designs, singlo or 
divided interests, carnal nnimosittes, or perverse disputes, 
to embitter their spirits, or alienate their afTcctioDS from 
other tbeir bielhren, heirs of the tame common salvation; 
or to draw theta away from the communion of Uiat church, 
from whoae breasts they have often sucked the sincere luilk 
of the word, and in whose fellowship they may still un- 
doobtedly partake of all the means of salvation. The l^rd 
grant that all of ut, in all places of the land, both pastors 
and people, may be unaniniouBly zealous for the peace of 
the Cbnrch. lliat ministers, by aound and wholesome doc- 
trine, which cannot be disproved ; by holy, humble, pru- 
deotf and peac<«blc lives, and by uoweuricd diligence and 
fidelilyia their «:aUiogM, may atop the mouths, and win upon 
the atfecUona of tbeir gain-aayers : and that the people may 
not lean en tbeir own wisdom, nor be carried away blind- 
Ibid with ancharitablc prejudices, or with every wind i>f doc- 
trine, but may yield tbemstlves to the guidance of their 
bithful paatoca, and be swift to hear, (Jutnes i. 1!>) slow lo 
ik, alow to wrath i for conletiUuu is usually the mother 


of disobedience. Now (Rom. ii. 8) the Lord of peace him- 
self give you peace always by all means : — the Lord be with 
you alL 

Yours in all Christian affection to serve you^ 

Ed. NoRVic. 

■ ■ 

Zeeb. xi. 7. And I took unto me two staves, Sfc, 

The two staves denote : 1. the beauty, and IL unity of the Church, 

L Christ renders the Church beautiful by the verity of his doctrine, 410; 

by spiritual worship, by sanctity of life, by decency of order, 4l 1. 

Various properties, by which the excellency of this beauty may be dis- 
covered, 414. 

The ends of Christian ordinances evidence their own beauty^ being in- 
tended to quicken, purify, heal, comfort, and prepare us for the 

The manner, in which Christ governs the Church, is full of beauty, 417. 

And therefore great is the indignity of despising Christ and his ordi- 
nances, 418. 

II. Christ advances the unity of his Church, 1. by way of disposition 
and order in a variety of offices, ordinances, and gifts, 423 : 2. by an 
integral completion in unity between Christ and the Church, and 
between Christians themselves, 424 : 3. by an essential unity, wh^ch 
enlivens alt Christians in one spirit, and by a unity of faith in the 
doctrines of salvation, 425 ; by a unity in obedience, worship, 426, 
ends and designs, 427. 

In what sense Christ sends a sword, 428. 

Vindication of secession from the Roman Church, 431. 

Arguments for unity. The enemies of the Church are united, 433. Unity 
is enjoined by Christ, 434 ; is attainable, 435 ; is possible, 435 ; is 
useful to the Church, 435 ; is pleasant, 436; is enforced by the ex- 
ample of God and Christ, 436; by the nature of the Gospel, and of 
the Sacraments, 437- 

What conduct ought to be adopted, in differences of judgement, and to 
recover the peace of a disjointed Church, 438 — 445. 

SERMON XXVII. (page 449.) 

Moderation. Philipp. iv. 5, Let your moderation be known 
unto all men : the Lord is at hand. 

I. Methods of evincing moderation. 1. In not being arrogant in our 
Christian condition, 451 ; in maintaining an even disposition under 
the vicissitudes of events, 453 ; in hearing injuries with patience, 
candour, and meekness, 454-6; in asserting our rights not too ri- 
gidly, 466; and in using our knowledge with sobriety, humility, and 
charity, 457; our power with lenity, 459 > our passions, with reason 
and practical judgement, 46l. 



.]!. JUolivf* to madrralion. iModcralion becomes ihe Chcislian character, 
464; adoms Chris tianity, 464; heals divisions, 464; is enforced by 
the Ticiuitudu of even li, 465, and by the nearness of the judge- 
ment, in which Chiist will pass b final sentence, 465 — 467, 

.Application to the subject of the pestilence, 46g. 

SERMON XXVIII. (page 473.) 

PkEACHED BEFOBB THs KiMB, OK Ej>8TEB-DAr. Uchr. xiii. 

I, 21. AToaj the Cod uf peace, ibat brought agoinfrom the dead oar 

The words contain : I. a prayer; II, arguments to enforce It. 

(,' In the prayer, wc may observe, 1. the matter of it, pcrfeel'ton in every 

* food irork, 473 ; 2. the rule of our perfeciion in working, GoSi lAII, , 
476; 3. the end of doing his will, to pieaic Aim, 475 ; 4. the prio- 

'' ciples of this perfeclinn, God'* peaceablr affection towards us in 
Cbrul, 475; and his gracious aorkitig in us, 47B. 

11. The vgHnieittx to enforce the prayer are drawn, I. from the free 
gi»c« of God in an everlaitiug cevenaal, *79 ; S. from the love of 
Chriu in purchasing the mercies of that covenant with the price of 
tit uem^dtiod, 480; 3. from ihe power of God, bearing witness to 
the rffioey of that blood, in raising Christ from the dead, 465 ; 4. 
from the pastoral office of Christ ia dispensing the mercies of thi* 
coicnaut, 487- 

SERMON XXIX. (page 490.) 
Pbvachbd BBfOBE IBB KtKO. Phtl. iji. 8. I count all ihingt i 
tut hi*, for the excellency of the Inumilcdge of Christ Jesun ncjr , 

TW excellency of the Gospel will appear, 1. by con-.patinK it with the 
■taieafinnoceDcy in paradise, 4gE; S. with ihe law of Moses, 41)4; 
3. with the noblest perfectinns, acijuirable by natural abilities, 497; 
A. by rtfctring to the abtolule excellence of the Gospel, 498; its 
loblimity, godliness, 4ggi its recunciliBtioo of divine alltibuies, 4gg, 
■> the (nesoi of salvation, 501 ; its sufficiency for its purposes, 502; 
precioiunesi of objects contained in it, 503; its introducing ui 
u> lh« po*session of God end Christ, 505 ; the eternity of iu future 
rIoT. *07- 

SERMON XXX. (page JU.) 
pRXACDBO BsroBE THE Lord Mayok. Micali vi. 6—8. IVhtrt- 
\ wtik tladt I tome btj'urt the Lord, IfC. 
LThe words contain two parts: 1. the question ofa guilty people; 11. the 

answer of the prophet 10 that enquiry. 
I I The qneition implies, I. a fcsiinaiion, wherewith shall I eomr, 517; 
3, their humility, and hiu' myself, 519; 3. an aiilieip«iinn of the 


' prophet'* «itwer» by proffering esteraal tenriecs^ and works of an- 
' '' pererogadons/ invented Kythemtetresy 580— 693. 

11. The prophet's answer contains: 1. a reprehension of confidence in 
external diities, and of projects 6f human d^vottbh, 584. 8. a di- 
rection to appear before God with the duties of juc^ement in ad- 
ministration. 587» in negotiation, 589, in couTcrsation, 530 ; with the 
duty of mercy, 531, and of humbly walkipg with God. These duties 
must Yit founded on the light of Grod's law, and on the authority of 
God's will, 533. The mode of discharging the duties must be marked 
by constancy, 634, by sincerity, 534, by humility and self-denial in 
our persons and duties, 634, and by faith, 535. The inducements 
unto these duties are the considerations of human frailty, 535 ; of 
God's nature, who, as a most high Grod, cannot be otherwise aj^ 
proached ; and, as a God of mercy» will teach us how we may draw 
near to him, 536. 

These duties are good by their conformity lo the will of God, 636, and bj 
their contributing to the felicity of man. 




TOL. V. B 


Opened in a SERMON, preached before the Right Honourable the Lord 
Mayor, Aldermen and Common-Council of London : on the day of Solemn 
Thanlugitring unto Ood for his long and gradoui preterration of that great 
City, from Pfntilence, Fire, and o^er Dangers. 






KiGHT Honourable, 

Instead of a dedication, I must make ah apology, that 
this short Sermon hath been so long in the second birth of it 
from the press ; for besides my various diversions and indis^ 
posedness, by reason of infitmities, to speiid much time td- 
gether, in revising^ transcribing, and maturing short tiotes 
for a public view ; 1 had at the same time another servide 
of the like nature upon me, which having been before beguo^' 
I could not, till finished, cohveniently attend this. It pleaseth 
the Lord still so to continue those merciei^ to this city, for 
the thankful recounting whereof, he put it into ydur hearts 
to appoint this service, that as the duty was very seasonable 
when it was performed ; so t hope the publication (though 
too long after) may not be altogether improper, to mind us 
«U of the Lord's great goodness, in continuing those com- 
forts unto us,— und of our duty, daily to resume and revive the 
nemory of tliem. If this weak endeavour of mine to 
<pickeD you Mt myself unto that great work of praising 


4 sign's praises. [serm. IX. 

God be, through his blessing, of any use to engage your 
hearts thereunto, and to provoke you unto any of those 
expedients, which you were in this Sermon minded of, I 
shall have abundant cause of glorifying God, for so great a 
fruit of so small a service, and for your professed subjection 
unto the Gospel of Christ. Which is the earnest desire of 

Your Honours' most humble servant 

In the work of the Gospel, 

Ed. Reynolds. 

PSALM CXLVIl. 12, 13, 14, 15. 

Praise ye the Lord, O Jerusalem : praise thy God, O Zion. 
For he hath strengtherted the bars of thy gates : he hath 
blessed thy children within thee. He maketh peace in thy 
borders : and Jilleth thee with the finest of the wheat. He 
sendeth forth his commandment upon earth : his word runneth 
very swiftly. 

. God is all-sufficient unto himself, and standeth not in need 
of any of his creatures to add any excellence unto him, any 
more than the sun doth of the light of a candle. That which 
is wholly of him, can contribute nothing at all unto him. 
He hath all perfection infinitely, all the perfections of the 
creatures (without the finite bounds and limits wherein they 
enjoy them) eminently in himself. Our goodness* extendeth 
not unto him. If he be hungry ^, he will not tell us; for the 
world is his, and the fulness thereof. Can a man be pro- 
fitable unto God % as he that is wise^ is profitable unto him- 
self P Who hath first given to him^, and it shall be recom- 
pensed to him again f 

Though the Lord be thus wholly self-sufficient, and do not 
receive any thing from the creatures ; yet he is pleased ^- 
ciously to communicate himself unto them in several prints 

• Pcalm XYi. 2. ^ Psalm 1. 12. c Job zzii. 2. <i Rom. xi. 35. 

REBH. IX.] SIUn's PlIAIStS. 5 

kntl degrees of goodness ; as the son sheddeth light U|ion , 
^ose bodies, from whence it receiveth no retribution at all. J 

But, of a\\ creatures, he h»th chosen his church to bi I 
nearest ' unto him, and to participate most of him ; that i^ M 
a society of men which he hath ' formed for himself, to be i I 
cho«en generation, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, am 
peculiar people '. As the sun manifesteth its light unlo us iA I 
the moon, more than in any other of the stars ; so the LorcT M 
hia goodness and wisdom in the church, more than in any I 
other creatures. 1 

And now, as the moon, receiving light from the sun, doA 1 
not swallow it up and bury it, but reflecteih it, and (as it J 
vere) reporteth and publisheth it abroad anto the world; 36^ 
the Lord, having shewed mercies unto the church, requiretD I 
that they be not buried in oblivion, but that the glory and I 
praise of them be acknowledged unto him. Great luminariefc I 
haTe ceilain beams, as pipes and channels, through whicB I 
their light is derived and diffused upon others. Thank^ J 
ig is the beam of an enlightened soul, whereby it maketfl 1 
report of thoee mercies, which, from the Father of light, ' 
bath been shed abroad upon it. Every thing naturally re- 
turns to its original. " All rirers run into the sea ; unto the 
place from whence they come, thither they return to go." 

ccte. i. 7) A straight line drawn into length, the further 
it goes, U still the weaker ; but in a circle, returning to its 
flrst {>oint and original, it recovers strength : so thecreaturp, 
(he further it goes from God, is still the weaker, till it re- 
back unto him again. And the best w^iy of returning 
mto hiiii, ts by praising of him : for praises are the language 
of hesveo, where it is that men are perfectly taken home to 

Yet, as vre said, nothing is hereby added unto him, but 
only his own glory acknowledged and adored by the church ; 
•s wbeo the sun shines on a diamond, the lustre thereof is 
not increased, but reported. And as we esteem those stones 
iDost precious, which do most exquisitely admit and reflect 
Ihe splendor of that light which shines upon them ; so they 
lite Lord's ' best jewel ' (as he calleth them. Mai. iii. 17) 


^hich can modi notably set forth the glory of his name. As 
he who caUf with greatest eloquence, commend the virtues 
of an excellent person, is the best orator, though his oration 
doth not put excellency into the person, but only represent 
f^nd sj^t(t fprth unto others. 

^^tii (hetefdtefoi any advantage or accession unto himself 
(who cannot be a gainer by his creatures) but only for our 
benefit and comfort, is the Lord pleased to require praises 
for his people : as the window admitteth the light of the sun, 
not for the benefit of the sun, but of the house into which 
it shineth. 

And as God requires this duty at all times of his people, 
'SO most then, when he ^oth greatest things for them. And 
this was the condition' of the church at this time, which in- 
terpreters refer to the state thereof after its return out of 
Babylon : and therefore, in the Syriac and Greek versions, 
we find the names of the prophets Haggai and Zechariah pre- 
fixed, as leading to the times whereunto the mercies, here 
mentioned, did relate. 

The whole psalm is an invitation unto praising of God. 
Arguments thereunto are drawn. 

First, From God's general goodness to the world, ver. 
4, 8, 9, 16, 17, 18. 

Secondly, From his special mercy to his church. 1. In 
restoring it out of a sad and broken condition, ver. 2, 3. 
2. In confirming it in a happy and prosperous estate, both 
temporal, in regard of strength, peace, and plenty, ver. 12, 
13, 14, and spiritual^ in regard of his word, statutes, and 
mdgements made known unto them, ver. 19, 20. Lastly, 
These mercies are all commended by the manner of bestowing 
them, * powerfully and swiftly.' He doth it by a word of 
command, and by a word of speed : ** He sendeth forth his 
commandment upon earth ; his word runneth very swiftly." 
. The former part of this happy estate, together with the 
manner of bestowing it, is in these words, from which we 
must, by no means, exclude the consideration of the latter. 
And what can be wanting to a nation which is strengthened 
with walls, blessed with multitudes, hath peace in the 
border, plenty in the field, and (which is all in all) God in 
the sanctuary, God in the bar of the gate, the father of the 



children, the crown of the peace, the Btaff of the plenty, a 
^te restored, a city bleseed, a border quieted, a (ield 
crowned, a sanctuary beautified with the oracles of God; 
wbat can he wanting to such a people but a mouth filled, a 
fieart enlarged, a spirit exalted in the praises of the Lord? 
*• Praise the Lord, O Jerusaleoi ; praise thy God, Zion." 

In the words we have three general parts. 

1. A duty required, and that with an ingemination, Praise, 

2. The subject of whom required, Jerusalem, Zion. 

3. Arguments enforcing it, drawn from conuderation, 
1. Of God's relation unto them, as the Lord, that had au- J 
tbority over them, as Thy God, that, was in covenant with 1 
them. 2. Of the benefits wrought for them, wherein is con- 
siderable, — l.The substance of them; ver. 13, 14. 2. The 1 
manner how performed, by a powerful and a speedy efficacy; 
»er. 15. 

In the substance of the benefits, we have a great climax \ 
*nd gradation of mercy. 

First, Jerusalem and Zion, which erewhile lay ruinous and ' 
desolate, have now walls ; and those walls, gates ; and thosa 
gates, bars ; and those bars, strengthened and made fast bj 
tlie liand of God. By all which we understand both the ma- | 
tenal walla and gates newly built by Nehemiah, maugre the 
opposition of Sanballat and Tobiah ; (Nehem. ii. 8, 9, and vi, 
1, and Tti. i) and also the policy and government, which in 
■aid to be administered in the gates. {Dent. xxi. 19. Arruu I 
V. 16) For the strength, the walls, the gates of a kingdom ' 
land in the righteous administration of judgement, whereby , 
the throne is established.'" (Prov. xvi. 12) 

Secondly, Not only strength in the wall.i, but blessing in 
the city within them, namely, multitudes of inhabitants, a 
cording to that promise, " I will sow the house of Israel 
and of Jodah with the seed of man, and with the seed of | 
beaaL* (Jtr. xxxi. 27) There shall yet old men and old wo* ; 
men dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and every man with 
liis ataff in bis hand for very age. And the streets of the city 
iball be fall of boys and girls, playing in the streeU thereof.' 
iZtci. viii. 4, 5) The safety, tmnqnillity, and pence, should 

8 SIOK's PRA13£S. [^CRM. IX^ 

b^so great, as that U should extend to all sorts of men; eveo 
those who were most subject to fear and danger, old me% 
old women, boys and girls. 

.Thifdly, Because potent enemies might break the strongest 
gates, though they were of brass and iron, as the Lprd pra« 
imseth Cyrus; (liai. xIt. 1, 2) and being .broken in, vnight 
easily diminish the multitudes there, till they be left as fi 
tree bereft of branches on the top of a mountain, till a man 
be more pieeions than the golden wedge of Ophir; (JsaL 
xiii. 12, and xxiv. 6, and xxx. 17) there is furUier added, 
*' Peace id thy borders ;'' yiolence shall no more be heard in 
thy land. (Jms. ix. 18) 

Fourthly, Because famine may do as much harm within, as 
an enemy in the borders; the sword without may make them 
eat their children within, {Deui. xxriii. 63 — ^56) therefore 
plenty is joined unto peace; he ^fiUeth thee with the finest 
of the wheat ; the .vine shall g\re her fruit, and the ground 
shall give her increase, and the heaven shall give her dew, 
and the remnant of this people shall possess all these things.^ 
{Zech. viii. 12) 

Fifthly, Because these inferior blessings without Ck>d, 
can neither defend nor comfort a people; therefore he ia 
pleased to give himself unto them, to be their portion : He is 
^^Thy God, O Sion:^ he is pleased to own it as his name,. 
*' The portion of Jaoob.^ (Jer. x. 16) 

Lastly, Lest they should be discouraged by any present 
difficulties, which might seem to render these mercies very 
improbable unto them, he stiengtheneth their faith by this 
assurance— that he can, with a word of his mouth, give 
being to every one of these promises, and can '^ send fordi 
his commandment** as a winged executioner of his will. *' He 
sendeth forth his comsMLndment on earth ; his word runneth 
very swiftly." 

The main doctrine of the text, and work of the day, is the 
tribute of prs^ise which we owe unto Ood for these great 
mercies. It is 'the glory due unto his name;^ (Pjo/m 
xcvL 8) for, * according to his name, so is his praise.' (Piatm 
xlviu. 10) 

And it is due to him in the text upon a double title: 

1. As he is ' the Lord ;' for his absolute greatness in bim< 

•ERM. IX.] sign's praises. 

2. As be is 'thy God;' for his relative goodness to his 
-cfcurcb and people. 

Id the first respect, it implies an adoring of his excellenciea. 
9nibe liirn for his excellent greatness ;' (Psalm cl. '2) an ex- 
tolling of his great name, an acknowledging of his abao- 
Ine Boverei^ty over us, and surpassing dignity above us, 
Wtd accordingly abating ourselves in his presence. I have 
teard of tbee by the hearing of the ear; bnt now mine eye 
^■eetb tbee ; therefore, ' I abhor myself." .lobxWi. 5) " Woe 
{•me, I am nndone; for I am a man of unclean lips, and 1 
'dwell amongst a people of onclean lips ; for mine eyes have 
ikeen the lung, the Lord of hosts." (Isai. vi. 5) This is that 
'iriiich oar Savioor roakelh the principal and first petition in 
^ayer, " Sanctified be thy name;" that is, " Be thou thyself, 
h all the ways whereby thou makest ihyselT known, glori- 
fied by as.'" To sanctify, is to separate and single out unto 
some (tecutrar approprinted honour. So Israel is said to be 
a people • holy to the I-ord f separated as a peculiar people 
Irom all others, to know and to serve him. '* Ye shall be 
boly ; I have severed you from other people, that ye should 
be miDe." {Lev. xx. 26) " This people have I formed for my- 
self, they shall show forth my praise;" (hn. xliii. 21) ayio* 
tad wnAi are opposed to one another ; that which is common, 
is unclean -, that which is holy, is separated and reserved anto ' 
special use. i.^ef» x. 14, 15) 

To mnctify, then, the Lord, and to make him our fear (a« \ 
be i* called the ' fear of Isaac,' Gen. xxxi. 42) is to acknoW 
tedge his intinite, peerless, surpassing, and unparalleled eif 
celleacies and preeminence, and to serve him with a peculiar 
and in communicated worship, to exalt his glorious nanie^ 
above all blessing, and above all praise, as being Lord alone; 
t\M. ix. 5, 6) as being God above all ; (1 Chron. xxix. ! 1) 
higher than the highest, {Ece/es. v. S) there being none holy ' 
facnde* him. ( 1 Sam. ii. i) He is God alone : among tbc ] 
gwU then it none like him. (Ptalm Ixviii. 8, 10) He is e» | 
rilMl Tar above all god«. (Ftatm xcvii. 9) " Who is a God j 
hk« nto our God?'* {Mir. vii. 18. EtotI. xv. II) " Whd 
thall not fear thee, O Lord, and glorify thy name 7 for tbtM 
only art holy." (Hev. xv. 4) 

In the oext respect, it implies, 1. A rejoicing in him a* \ 
nur only ^ood. " Rejoice in the Lowl, O ye rigfateoaa, fo»j 

10 8I0n's PRAIS£S. fsEKM. IX. 

praise is comely for the upright.^' (Psabn xxxiii. 1) So the 
prophet concludeth his triumphal song: '* Although the fig- 
tree shall not blossom, neither shall fruit be in the vines, the 
labour of the olive shall fail, and the fields shall yield no 
meat 4 the flock shall be cut ofi* from the fold, and there 
shall be no herd in the stalls ; yet I will rejoice in the Lord, 
I will joy in the God of my salvation,^ Hob. iii. 17, 18. 

2. A preferring him in our estimation infinitely above all, 
as our sovereign and principal end ; living, dying, thinking, 
speaking, working, walking, so as that he may be glorified 
in us and by us. {Ram. xiv. 7, 8) 

3. An acknowledging unto him his free and rich grace, in all 
those manifold mercies, and precious promises, wherewith )xe 
hath blessed us in his beloved, who are less than the least of 
all the goodness and truth, which he hath shewed unto us. 
For ^* it is of the Lord's mercies alone, that we are not con- 
sumed.^ An humble sense of our own misdeservings ^ and 
utter unwortbiness, is essential unto this duty of praising 
God« The Pbarisee^s thanksgiving had a contradiction in 
it 4 ** God, I thank thee, that I am not as other men, or as 
this publican.**^ — Pride and praise are inconsistent: whoso- 
ever arrogates to himself, derogates from God. *' Not unto 
us, not us, but unto thy name C* we cannot give glory to 
Uod, till we disown it ourselves. {Psalm cxv. 1) When the 
apostle begins and concludes with thanksgiving, he doth not 
only recount God'*s mercy, but his own unwortbiness; '^ 1 
was a blasphemer, a persecutor, injurious, ignorant, unbe- 
lieving, the chief of sinners ; I thank Christ Jesus our Lord ; 
unto the king eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise 
God, be honour and glory.** (1 Tim. i. 12—17) 

4. Invocation of his name, and dependence upon his 
grace, as the only fountain of all our comforts. *' Sing, 
shout, publish ye, praise ye, and say. Lord save thy people.*^ 
(Jer. xxxi. 7) As prayer makes way for praises, when our 
petitions are answered, — ^' Call upon me in the day of 
trouble ; I will hear thee, and thou shalt glorify me C' {Psabn 
1. 15) so praises for mercies past, do encourage and en- 
large the heart to wait upon God, for the supply of our pre- 

^ M^funifUpos yAp rtis iSlas vrapd wima o^vtlas^ fufur^oji koI Tiff roi 
eMtf wofiL wJarra ihrffCoXiir. PkU, de Sacrif. Abel et Cain — Vid. Bernard. 
in Cam. Ser. 13. 

ssmif. IX.] Biov's rRAiscs. 1 1 

Mot wants. He hatb delivered ; he doth deliyer ; therefore 
we mwt trust, tbst be will yet delirer. (2 Car. i. 10) 

Lastly, obedience to bit commands, when the sense of his 
soTcreign authority over us, as the Lord, and of his special 
grace noto us, as our Ood, doth engsf^e our hearts to glorify 
him in a holy conversation: for herein' is Ood honoured, 
when his servants do bring ' forth much fruit.' (Jokm xv. 8) 
Hereby we put to sileoce the ignorance of foolish men : and, 
by our good works, do csuse enemies themselves to glorify 
&>d, as being ashamed to' accuse their good conversation. 
(1 Pti. ii. 1% 15, and iii. 15, 16) Justin Martyr^ professed. 
That the constancy of the Christian martyrs, was the means 
whereby be was converted to Christ 

We see the duty, and the title upon which it is due ; ike 
Lard, for his excellencies in himself; thjf God, for his good- 
ness unto thee. Let us next consider the subject, from 
whom it is due, Jerusalem and Sion. God made all things 
for himself, and will have the glory due unto his name from 
all his creatnres; {Prov. xvi. 4) all things are of him, and 
therefore all things are to him. {Ram. xi. 36) But there are 
three different ways, whereby this glory cometh unto him 
from his creatures. 

1. *• Pet modum pro video tise,^ in the way of genenil provi- 
dence ; when the motions *, order, influences, beauty, glorious 
contexture, and admirable co-operation and concurrence of 
all creatures, unto some excellent cnrorfAfo-fia, or consum- 
mate issue, do shew forth the wisdom , power, and goodness 
of that Supreme moderator, who leadeth such variety of 
agents nnto one end, as the artificer tempereth many colours 
unto the setting forth of one beautiful table. And thus heaven, 
earth, sea, snow, ice, bail, birds, beasts, are said to glorify 
and praise the Lord. (Pialm xix. 1, 2, and cxlviii. iii. 10) 

2. * Per modum justitiae,^ in a way of judgement and se- 
verity ; when the Lord, by the power of his justice, doth 
fetch glory out of wicked angels and men, and doth com- 
polsorily drive them unto those ends which they never in- 
tended : as the smith by bis furnace and hammer worketh 

• Mia ipotOi^ nn fi T it n t mmfk ipf^i^vwr, ra^m 1^, iktf if wrrA r^ S«f. 
CUwL. AUx, Scrocn. 1. 7. * Apolog. I. * Alrt* aWr 4 cri^ii 

T^ «><AA«K, ff a^«, T# ^wv^t, fi t^h ^ Xr<^«» *»? ZtmMmwif, rf iM^Mff , 
ri Afl^mAWf «{ mhm9 yamfU9^. &c. Chryunl. in Pnlm. US. 

12 SlON^S PRAISES. [sERlf. IX4 

iron into those shapes, unto which it could never have re- 
duced itself. . And thus they, whose whole study it is to 
dishonour God, when they fly out of the order of his pre- 
ceptS) do fall under the order of his providence, and are 
made, by their perdition^* to bring glory unto him. *''For 
this purpose,^ saith the ILord^ unto Pharaoh, *' have I raised 
thee up, that I might shew my power in thee, and that niy 
name might be declared throughout all the earth.*^' {Rom, 
ix. 17) And so the strong enemies of God^ who had been a 
terror unto his people, are said to glorify him, when they are 
reduced to heaps and ruin, never to be built again. {Isa. 
XXV. 2, 3) The Lord in the thing, wherein they dealt proud- 
ly, shewing himself to be above them. {Exod. xviii. 11) 

3. * Per modum obedientise,' in a way of obedience ; when 
a creature doth voluntarily, actively, intentionally, set itself 
to bring glory unto God ; and knowing the end unto which 
God hath ordained it to work, (Eph. ii. 10) doth accordingly 
apply itself to conform unto the will of God therein. And 
thus none can indeed praise God, but Jerusalem and Sion : 
his name is no where so great as in Israel, (Psalm Ixxvi. 1) 
whether we respect his own manifestations of himself in his 
word and gracious covenant; (which he hath magnified 
' above all his name,^ Psalm cxxxviii. 2, and which he hath 
shewed unto his church, and not unto others^ Psalm cxiviii. 
19, 20) or his people's cheerful adoration of him, and trust in 
him, according to the tenour of tbat word : and thus they vA\o 
are called by God^s name, are, in a special manner, said to be 
created for his glory. (IsaL xliii. 7) 

God hath done most for them : taken them nearest unto 
himself; (Dent. iv. 7) set them apart, and fitted them for his 
own use ; {Psalm iv. 3. 2 Tim. ii. 21) most notably revealed 
himself) and' the secrets of his love unto them. {Matth.iA* 
25. Psabn xxv. 14. John xiv. 21) They are most able to 
praise him, because they have his special and peculiar favour, 
called the 'favour of his people.^ (Psalm cvi. 4) He is 
their own: and property enlargeth praise. Praise is the Ian* 
guage of heaven, best becomes those who have been parta- 
kers of a heavenly calling. (Heb. ii}, 1) '^Excellent speech 
is not comely in the mouth of fools ;*" (Prov. xvii. 7) but 
•'praise is comely for the upright.** (P5tf/;/i xxxiii. 1) None 
can praise God in the pit ; the living, the living, he shall 

WRM. IX.] 

sign's PRA[4ES. 


fn'ue the«. {Isai. xxxriii. 19) No wicked man, "* liow spe- 
IJoai or plausible soever hia profesnions may be, is either so 
|1nre<l by the greatneas, or aflected with the goodness of God, 
■ to sanctify the lord in his heart, or to glorify him in his 
it : his wonls are fair, his conscience is foul ; his pretences 
n g;aiidy and flourishing, but his affections are crooked and 
perverse : as if a cook should poison his lord's dinner, and. 
Ultie meaD time, should garnish the dishes with painted or 
gilded vanities. If we cannot call God our God ; if we hare 
^ by faith and hope, an interest iu bis covenant and spe- 
itl mercies i if we be not, by his love shed abroad in our 
euU. conformed to his will and ways iJlaHer him perad- 
vcnture we may, but glonj'i/ him we cannot. He that order- 
ttii bis conversation aright, is the man that oSereth praiset 
nd glorifielh God. {P»<t/m 1. 23) 

There is one special thing more to be noted concerning 
|his duty, and that is the ingemination, Praise, pruite. It 

lescAeth ub 

'. First, The natural slutrjiishness und indisposition which ii 
B US, unto this duty. Want will make us importunate to 
friuaia good things;" but when our wants are supplied, how 
fev are (here who tliink of returning praises unto God ! All 
the ten lepers were clamorous for mercy ; but there was but 
ooe of tliem, and he a stranger, that returned glory to God. 
{LhJu xvii. 12, 13, 18) We are in this case like hshermen'a 
wcels,wideat that end which lets in mercies; but narrow 
tbere, wbere we should let out our praises. Our mercies are 
like Gideon's dew on the ground, very copious ; our praises 
Kke his dew on the Heece, very narrow and contracted. Mer- 
ciea run into us, as Jordan into the Dead Sea, where they 
■i« sll buried in oblivion. The Lord had saved Israel from 
sore bondage in £gypt, multiplied his judgements on their 
enemies, and his mercies unto them; had wrought wonders 
for (bem, and terrible things which they looked not for ; and 
jtt all these mercies, multitudes of mercies, wonders, mani- 
Cgld wonders (which, of all things, make the deepest impres* 
boo upon memory) were all forgotten, and that quickly; 

• *Or*if sie^f vnii sffit^ ilsrsiiifiaTi oix ivoftii^ncu, nSrat oiiSt XB^iau 
m il olnieu Tiw e«Bi) iTi.(*»... Buiii. in Pialro. 23, " HAotJ- 

Imfgix'"' Xf'f'iil'*"'' ytveiiiryst ii tdllai, tIAXomii nil Xoito^i'in. 

J4 sign's PRAlStlS. [SF.RM. IX^ 

neither did they say. Where is the Lord that brought as out 
of Egypt ? (Psalm Ixxviii. 11, 42, 43. Psalm cvi. 14, 21, 22. 
Jer. ii. 6) 

Secondly, The ardent zeal of the psalmist, to bare God 
receive his due. The duller men^s hearts are, the more im<» 
portunity should God^s messengers use to draw them unto 
duty. ** When the iron is blunt, we must put to the more 
strength." {Eccles. x. 10) Hence those frequent iteration* 
in scripture, to awaken men oat of their dulness,—*'^ Samuel, 
Samuel;'' <' Saul, Saul ;" <'0 earth, earth, earth, hear the 
word of the Lord." (Jer. xxii. 29) ** Precept upon prepept, 
precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line, here a 
little, there a little.'^ {hau xxviii. 13) It is called * whetting 
of the law,^ with stroke upon stroke, often and earnest incnU 
eating of it ; {Deut. vi. 7) ' fastening of nails,^ with blow upon 
blow. {Eccles. xii. 11) One threatening will not awaken 
stubborn sinners ; we have seven upon seven. (Lev. xxvi. 18, 
21, 24, 28) One curse will not startle the heart of a proud 
Pharisee ; they must have woe upon woe. (Matth, xxiii. 13— 
29) When the psalmist hath recounted various mercies, he 
doth rather wish and persuade, than expect a return of praise, 
and that with a quadruple ingeminatiou, " O that men would 
praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonderful work» 
to the children of men." (Psalm cvii. 8, 15, 21, 31) 

Thirdly, The great necessity of this duty ; when the Lord 
calleth for one thing, we must needs conclude that it i* 
' unum necessarium,^ one very necessary thing. The Hebrew 
expression of a superlative, is by doubling the word, ^'good, 
good ;'* that is, *' exceeding good :*" — " Holy, holy, holy,''' 
that is, '^ most exceeding holy.'' Thou shalt follow " justice^ 
justice,^ that is, thou shalt be ^' most just." So here 
*^ praise, praise," seems to note a more than ordinary excel- 
lency and necessity in this duty. 

Fourthly, The manner and measure how this duty is to be 
performed, '' Agaiitj again ;" with redoubled affections. 
There is no affection more copious and multiplying than that 
of joy. (Phil. iv. 4) It enlargeth and expandeth the heart ; 
it breaketh out into serenity of countenance, into fluency of 
expressions, into active and vigorous gestures, as David's, 
into leaping and dancing before the ark. If we look into all 
the scriptures, we shall seldom find so frequent and emphati- 

rSKHU. )X.] 



„ cal ingeminatious, as in this of praieing God. " Who ia like 
iBDto thee, O Lord, amongst the Gods? Who is like thee? 
^oriooa >D holiness, feaifiil in praises, doing wonders ?" 
:{Ejcod,xv. 11) " Awake, awake, Deborah; awake, awake, 
;^terasoog; arise, Barak," Stc. {Judgesv. 12) " Bless the 
ird, O my soul ; all that is within me, bless his holy name : 
Ueas the Lord, O my soul ; bless the Lord, ye his angels ; 
bless the Lord, ye his hosts ; bless the Lord, all his works; , 
ble&s the Lord, my soul." (PW«i ciii. I, 2, 20,21,22) la 
Ifae last psalm, containing but six verses, we are called upon 
thirteen times to praise the Lord. Jewels are made of divers 
1ous stones couched together : praise is a jewel, a comely, 
beautiful thing ; {Psalm xxxiii. 1 ) and we find one of these i 
iwelfl is made up of no fewer than six and twenty ingemU 1 
.tions. (Ptahn cxxxvi) ' Praise him for his greatness, he is 
:lli« Lord;' — and again, ' Praise him for his goodness, he is 
tby God.' If a man shew me a precions and stately thing. I 
■hall be thankful out of curiosity, as for a favour: butifbe i 
lew it, and then give it, I shall be a thousand times thank- | 
as for a rare bounty. Gietit and good, and mine: no- 
itfaing will move thankfulness, if excellency and property v 

The greatness of his power mine to keep me ; the v 
greatuesa of his wisdom mine to counsel me ; the greatness 
of fais grace mine to sanctify me ; the greatness of his glory 
nune to save me ; — who should be thankful, if not they wha 
want nothing 1 And who can be said to wont any thing who 
have God for their God ? " The Lord,^ saith David, " is my, 
■fafipberd; I shall not want." (P»alm xxiii. 1) 

or this excellent doctrine, I shall make these two tisea, 
and then speak a little to the present occasion, and so con- , 

First, We should leant from hence to bewail our long and 
great unthank fulness under as many and wonderful mercieSf 
aa scarce any nation under heaven is able to parallel. Un- ' 
thankfulness is, not setting so high a price as we ought upon 
a good taad, tjuiet habitations, fair estates, peaceable bor^ 
den, flonrishing fields, abundance of men, cattle, wealth, 
Inde, strength, and all other good things. Unthankfulneas 
If that which the apostle callelh ' the riches of the world,' 
the * salvation of the Gentiles ;' {Rom. xi. 1 1, 12) for the 
of God, the ark of bis presence, the glorious light of 


his gospel^ and powerful means of grace and salration, in 
abundance of which, I know not whether' any countries on 
earth can outvie and surpass this of ours. Unthankfulness 
(which is worse) in abusing mercies, waxing fat by them, 
and then kicking against the author of them ; filling ourseWes 
in our pastures, and then forgetCiDg Ood; making -them 
rather the iiiel of onf lusts against him, than the arguments 
of our love unto him ; turning peace into security, and plenty 
into excess, and grace into lasciriousness, and pardoning 
mercy into presumption of sinning; multitudes making little 
other use of the gospel than that' which the gospel doth 
abominate, to " continue in sin, that grace may abound ;" to 
drink poison the more freely, because they have an antidote 
by them ; — ^nay, which is yet more prodigious, not using nor 
improving mercies when we were in danger to lose them, 
when war and desolation should have taught us to value 
them ; to weep, and bleed, and languish, and have grey 
hairs ® upon us, to be set on fire round about ', and even then 
to lay nothing to heart **, nor to return to the Lord, nor seek 
him for all that ; to cement our souls and our lusts together 
with mortar tempered with our own blood and tears, to be 
wanton and dally with mercies, when they were ready to de- 
part from us ; and now when there is respite, and the Lord 
hath * given us a little reviving, and put Uie sword ^ into the 
scabbard ; to become thereupon like Agag% proud and deli- 
cate, because the bitterness of death seemeth to be past ; to 
abuse outward and inward liberty, not only with sensual 
excess and luxury, but with prodigies of wild and wanton 
errors, with a civil war of doctrines^ as before of blood ; — this 
is an aggravation of unthankfulness, than which I know not 
whether there can be a higher given. The not using a mercy, 
is to be unthankful for it : how much more sad account must 
men give of abused mercies ? of requiting the goodniess of 
the Lord with forsaking of him ; the culture and husbandry, 
the rain and dew which he hath bestowed upon them, with 
thorns and briars? {Deut, xxxii. 6. Luke xiii. 7. Heb, vi. 7) 
As the greater heat of the sun doth more speedily ripen fruit, 
so do great mercies hasten the maturity of sin, and m^ke 

o Hot. ▼ii. 9, 10. P Isai. xlii.2S. <l Exod. viii. 15. ■ Ezri 

iz. S. ^ Jer. xlvii. 6. « 1 Sam. zv. 32. 

SERll. IX.] tlON'S PRAISES. 17 

tbem as the rod of ao almond tree, which bloMometh before 
other trees; (Jer. i. 11) or as a basket of sammer fruit, which 
is qmickly ripe. {Amo$ viii. 1) It is a swinish thing at the 
sanie time to feed on blessings, and to trample them under 
foot y to live opon them, and yet to defile and despise them. 
Secondly, We should be exhorted unto the careful prac 
tice of this excdient duty. I shall not go out of the text 
for motives hereunto. 

1. He hath *^ strengthened the bars of our gates :*" we are 
not by the power or machinations of enemies devoured or 
dissolved ; we have yet the &ce of a potent nation, notwith- 
standing the devices of any to dissipate our laws, or to re» 
duce OS to confusion. 

2. He hath ^ blessed our children within us T though the 
swoid hath devoured thousands, and might justly have swal- 
lowed the blood of many more, should the Lord have dealt 
with us according to our provocations ; yet our streets, our 
fields, our cities, our churches are still full, old men with 
their staves, little children playing in the streets, with as 
much security as before. 

3. He hath given ** peace in our borders."*^ When Ephraim 
was against Manasseh, and Manasseh against Ephraim, no 
man spared his brother, whei\ the land did eat the flesh of 
its own turns, when the strength of battle was poured out in 
every comer, as if the Lord would have consumed ua all at 
once ; then was he pleased to try us once again with the 
keeping of so rich a jewel as peace. And when thereafter 
he raised up against us new enemies and troubles by sea, 
whereby trade was obstructed, treasure exhausted, protectant 
religion in danger to be weakened, and unhappy hostilities 
like to have continued amongst neighbour-nations, which 
had been before confederate and in amity ; this evil likewise 
the Lord put a stop unto, and made the sea, which wrought 
ind was tempestuous, quiet and calm again ; and thus hath 
confirmed peace in our borders, and abated the hopes which 
the enemies of the reformed religion had entertained upon 
those unhappy differences. 

4. He hath " fed us with the fat and marrow of the wheat," 
crowned the year with his goodness ; the fields and the pas- 
tSRs sing ; he hath sent a plentiful rain, and refreshed the 
iWtb ; the fields, and the clouds, and the sun, have been 

VOL. ▼. r 

18 sign's praises. [sERBI. IX' 

confederate and at an agreement to empty the blessings, 
wherewith God hath filled them, into our bosom, according 
to those gracious promises, Hos, ii. 21, 22. Zech. viii. 12. 

5. He sufFereth us yet to call ** him our God :" he is still 
in the midst of us ; we have yet (he custody of his oracles, 
and liberty of his worship ; he hath not yet given us a bill of 
divorce, nor cast us out of his sight, as our sins have deserv- 
ed. What great reason have we to ingeminate praises, when 
the Lord is pleased to multiply mercies ! Who would ever 
mistrust such a God, who can so powerfully and so suddenly 
"help ! Who would ever provoke such a God, who can as easily 
and as speedily destroy ! Who would trust in bars and gates, 
in castles and armies, in ships and navies, and leave him out 
who is the strength of them all ! Who would not trust in him 
w^ho is a God near, and a God afar off, a God in the gate, in 
the city, in the field, in the border, on the land, on the sea, 
whose way is in the sanctuary, and his path in the great wa- 
ters ? ^' Who would not fear thee, O king of nations, and glo- 
rify thy name? for unto thee it doth appertain, who alone 
art glorious in holiness, fearful in praises, doing wonders.** 

I shall conclude all with a few words unto you, the officers 
and representatives of this great city, into whose hearts the 
Lord hath put so worthy and pious a resolution as to appoint 
this day, in the which to recount his mercies, and to speak 
good of his name. And albeit yourselves, who are best ac* 
quainted with the state of the city» and God^s dealings there- 
with, can more abundantly present to your own thoughts, 
variety of particulars of divine goodness, than I, who am but 
a stranger, can, — yet give me leave to be your remembrancer 
in these few. 

1. Be pleased to look back on those bloody Marian days, 
when the streets of this city were defiled with the blood of 
Martyrs ; when the blessed members of Christ were drawn 
from coal-houses and prisons to stakes and flames ; and con- 
sider the indefatigable and crafty endeavours which have 
been, from time to time, by that party used (and no doubt 
they are as unwearied now as ever, though haply they aire 
under new shapes and disguises) to reduce us back again. 
And consider the purity of Evangelical doctrine and worship, 
and the great liberty you now enjoy therein. The Lord par- 
don, pity, and rebuke those, who, either through ignoranc^e 

8£RU. IZ.] SIOK's rNAI«F.%. 19 

or pro&neneM, do play tbe waotoaa with Bodi ft benefit 
sad ftbiMe it, to tlie rending and earning of bmcbea in llw • 
cbarch of Cbrist. 

2. Look, m the «ore pbgues, which hare beretorore rei| 
ed in tkia pbce* emptyiog the city of all that could iy, ud | 
■ e n din g amuea of liioM that remained weekly to the giwr*. 
Tbe city m probably now snich mora popnlovi, many thoa* j 
nnda of bonwa being aioce that tine newly erected, ami 
few either of tbe old or new withont inhabilaala ; yet, fof 
tbeae many years, this mg;ing diieaae bath been baniahe4 
from ifaia plaoe, when probably it might hare bren a doubU ' 
jndgemeol unto yoa ; and yon bare that bleMiog; which the 
Lord promiaed Jeraaaleoi, (ZrrA. viii. ^) made good unto 
yoo, "Hie straeu of the city full of boys and girU. playing ia 
ihoae atiecUt" where, in the days of pestilence, grasa ^rew 
foe ""T^f"*" and deaulation. 

3. Look OB the late bloody wars, when the Lord poared c 
on the nation llie strangth of battle, and set it on fire round | 
aboat, Epbraim Manasseh. and Manaaaeb Ephraim; whan liN ' 
people were as the fitel of the fire : you here heard not tbe 
fUodaf of tbe hofsei, nor tbe rattlin;^ of the wheels ; yoa 
mm ooC the glittering o( the swords, nor the displaying of 
ihm baonets ; yon were not witnesan of the confusions, wbidi 
otber pincea «aw aikd felt : Yoar bouses were not shaken 
with the roaring of tbe cannon, nor your wires made widows, 
oryoor cbUdren orphans by the edge of the sword: your city 
wsB then like (he top of tbe hill at Rephidtm, where Aaron 
aad Uor held op the bands of Moses; no hands lifted up 
here to fight, bat only to pray : no siefje here, but that nbout 
dtetfamoc of grace, " ut ad Deum, t^uasinianu foclit. ptccati- 
o^baa awbiaoraa' orantes :" no warring or wrestling here but 
ihat of Jacob with tbe angel. This city was. aa it were, the 
chapel, the oiutwry of the nation. 

4. Look back on the bte heavy blow* by fire in this city ; 
rkat aad and sudden blast by gunpowder in Towcr-streel. 
vbcreby dirers persona perished ; those dangerous fires afker- 
•anls in other places, unto which the Lord could have giren 
■ eooiinisaion to bar c sprvad and dilTuscd itself inloauni- 

rabon; the merciful rebuke which wu> upon 

■ Tfrn^, ApdI. 

c a 

20 sign's praises. [seum, IX. 

the fire then, and the safety you have since enjoyed from 
such dangers. And truly when I consider how many trades 
there are in this city which deal in combustible matters, as 
gunpowder, fiax, hemp, pitch, tar, turpentine, hops, tallow, 
paper^ oil, and many other like ; the casualties and careless^ 
ness which may be in many amongst so great a multitude, 
by knocking of links, by misplacing of candles, by falling 
down or sparkling of fire, by blowing out of tobacco, and 
other miscarriages not easily enumerable ; it is an evident 
demonstration of God^s watching over such a city, and being 
himself a wall of fire about it, and giving his ministers, who 
are a flame of fire, a special charge over it, that other fires do 
not break out in it 

6. Consider the goodness of Ood to this city, in giving it 
zealous and faithful magistrates, who make it their business 
to be vigilant over the good of this place ; who lay next their 
hearts the prosperity thereof, to encourage virtue, to punish 
and suppress wickedness, to preserve peace, to prevent pro- 
faneness, to look to the health and good order of the place. 

6. Consider the goodness of Ood unto you in a learned 
and faithful ministry ; what endeavours some have used to cry 
them down, and to leave this nation as sheep without shep- 
herds ; the copious and abundant light of the gospel which 
shineth on this place, this city being <' filled with the know- 
ledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea." If any city 
in the world may at this day be called, as Jerusalem once 
was, ** a city of truth, a holy mountain,^ in regard, I mean, 
of the doctrine of truth and holiness preached therein, — then 
certainly this may. Insomuch that foreigners, Hungarians, 
Germans, Batavians, others learn our language, and come 
over to this city, that they may hear your preachers, and read 
your English divines. 

In one word, look unto the concurrence with all countries 
at home, all foreign nations abroad to join in, to send va- 
riety of blessings and comforts unto this city. As the beams 
o(ti\e sun are united in a burning-glass, so a variety of bless- 
ings meets from a wide circumference in such a centre as 
this. The sea sends you in fish, and the air fowl, the fields 
com, and the pastures cattle. Some countries adorn you 
with silks and jewels ; some warm you with furs and cot- 
tons ; some heal you with drugs and balsams ; others com- 

SERH. IX.] sign's PRAISLS. '21 

fort and refresh you with wines and spices ; some send in 
materials to build your houses ; others seiid you in furniture 
for your ships. Read Ezek. xxvii. and that will shew you 
the benefits of a ' celebre emporium.' 

And when you have viewed these mercies, look* on the 
many and prodigious sins whereby the Lord is provoked in 
this place to withdraw these mercies from it. Sins are made 
the more atrocious by the mercies and light, against which 
they are committed. {John xv. 22. Amos iii. 2) 

Now, then, us the Lord hath put into your hearts to conse- 
crate this day unto his praise^^ and to stir up one another 
' to speak good of his name/ be pleased to set yourselves 
seriously about it. Consider, it is not the work of the lips 
alone, though it consist much in uttering the loving kindness, 
and in singing aloud of the goodness of the Lord. Remem- 
ber what David, that great artist in divine praises, did, 
Psalm ciii. 1 : He calls upon his soul, and upon all that was 
within him, to bless Ood's holy name. Our minds should bless 
him by meditation on his goodness, and admiration of his 
mercy ; our heads should study and contrive what to do, to 
bring honour unto the name of so great a God ; our hearts, 
wills, and affections, si)0uld resolve to take the cup of sal- 
vation, to call upon his name, to love the Lord because be 
bath beard our supplication; {Psalm cxvi. 1) to fear the 
Lord and his goodness ; {Hos. iii. 5) considering how great 
things he hath done for us. (1 Sam. xii. 24) Our mouths 
should make report what he hath done for our souls, for our 
immilies, for our cities, for our people. Our hands should 
praise the Lord, by rendering back out of his own blessings 
.(for of his own only do we give him, 1 Chron. xxix. 14) some 
homage and acknowledgement that we hold all from him. 
We read of the Lord'^s offering, Exod. xxxv. 21, and of the 
Lord'*s tribute, Nvm, xxxi. 28. Lev. v. 15. The ancients 
called them rii xufMixei, 'things belonging unto the Lord."* 
It is true, '' our goodness extendeth not unto him ;^' a man 
cannot be profitable unto God ; yet we must obey him, 
though we cannot do him good. First, therefore, let us 
give ourselves unto him, and, by a solemn covenant, become 
the Lord's people; (2 Chron. xxiii. 1(1. 2 Cor. viii. 5) re- 
folring, as a purchased people, to live to hiui, and not unto 
ourselves ; {Rofn. xiv. 7, 8) and when we have given our- 

22 sign's praises. [sehm. ix, 

selves to God, we shall more readily give him whatever else 
he requireth; for every thing else will follow a man^s self. 
Let us therefore labour for large hearts towards God^ to be 
^* rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing to commu- 
nicate.^ No riches are durable, but those that are conse- 
crated unto God. {Isa. xtiii. 18) Manna in the house had 
worms; manna in the tabernacle endured. Rust seizeth on 
metal that lies still : keep it in motion, and it never rusteth. 
" There is a scattering/' Solomon saith, " which tendeth to 
increase.**' {Prov. xi. 24) '* He hath dispersed,^ saith the 
psalmist, ** he hath given to the poor ; his righteousness en- 
dureth for ever; his horn shall be exalted with honour.** 
{Psalm cxii. 9) Men will buy great honour at a dear rate. 
{Acts xxii. 28) Here alms-deeds, which use not be very 
great sums, exalt a man unto honour. Riches take wings ; 
righteousness only endureth. Our glory will not go after us ; 
we shall carry none of our wealth with us; {Psalm xlix. 17) 
but our works will follow us into another world. {Rev. xiv. 
13) When you trade unto other nations^ you cannot trans- 
port there money and treasure ; but if you turn them into 
other commodities, then you may transport to another 
country : so our silver and gold we cannot carry to heaven 
with us ; but turn them into good works, and they will fol- 
low you as far as heaven. In trading, I suppose, you esteem 
it a very fair return, if you get one in five ; but, in sowing, 
you part with one^ and haply reap ten in the harvest : and to 
be sure when the sowing is on earth, and the reaping in hea- 
ven, we shall have a better return than Isaac had, who reaped 
a hundred fold. {Gen. xxvi. 12) As sanctuary-measure was 
double to other measures, so sanctuary-returns are double, 
centuple to other returns. 

Ask then your souls the question, '* What shall I render 
unto the Lord V* what shall I do for so good a God ? I have 
my life, my comforts, my soul, my heaven, from him ; what 
shall I do for his name ? — Remember you have the truth of 
God, a precious depositum, which Solomon bids us buy and 
not sell. {Prov. xxiii. 23) Countenance it, propagate it, as 
you are able. Hypocrites will be at great charges for a false 
way to heaven ; ** thousands of rams, rivers of oil.^' {Mic. 
vi. 7, 8) Be ye ready with heart and hand to further the 


tntli. YoQ have it; many places want it; there ure places 
wliere two, three, four towns belong to one parish ; where 
the mainteDance of the gospel is not twenty pounds a-jear ; 
siany a soul may go to hell in such places, for want of the 
gospel. Many haply of you are risen to great estates, who 
may reoiember such famished congregations in the countries 
where you were bom. O then, if you have seen and tasted 
how good the Lord is to your souls, endeavour to snatch 
others out of the fire, that they may taste of God's goodness 
too ! Haply it may lie in your way and power to stir up 
superiors, to take some course in bo necessary a work as 
this. Shew yourselves valiant for the truth ; study what 
may be done to preserve it, and to remove that deluge of 
errors which would plunder you of it Remember David, 
Jostah, Nehemiah, what they did for the house of God, and 
the officers thereof. You have the mesnenp'rs and ambas* 
sadors of Christ; remember what Hezekiuh did ; *' lie spake 
comfortably to those who taught the good knowledge of the 
Lord.^ (2 Chrtm, xxx. 22) Remember what yourselves in 
this city have been famous for, in this business of encou« 
raging your faithful ministers; and as the Lord, speaking of 
the distress of Jerusalem, which should have no parallel to 
liken it onto, said, ** Ariel shall be as Ariel ;^* (Isa. xxix. 2) 
so let London, in this particular, be as London ;— continue to 
love, to countenance, to esteem *^ beautiful the feet of those 
that bring glad tidings of peace." Shew your honour to the 
Lord, by your love to his officers: it will be so much the 
more your crown and comfort, by how much the more they 
are reproached by others. 

Lastly, You have the poor members of Christ amon^fst 
you. He, indeed, who was once poor, and was iiiiuistered 
onto himself, (Luke viii. 3) is now in glory : but he is cold, 
and hungry, and naked, and sick, and suffers in many of his 
members still. (Col. i. 24) Help them with your bounty, as 
Christians ; help them with your orders and authority, as 
magistrates: where you can do neither, help them with your 
prayers, with your comforts, as fellow mtMiibers : •* Rejoice 
with them that rejoice, and weep with them that weep.'* 
Remember, " None of us lives to himself, none (»f us dies 
Id himself;** we are " the LordV workmanHhip, created in 

24 sign's praises. [serm. ix. 

Christ Jesus anto good works, which he hath ordained that 
we should walk in them.^ Let it therefore be our chief care 
and study to live to the praise of his glorious grace, and to 
shew forth the virtues of him, that hath called us out of 
darkness into his marvellous light. The more glory we bring 
unto our Lord on earth, the more glory doth he provide for 
us in heaven. 





Pmdied ib Alcroen'^hapel, ml the Fiinerml oT that Iflamcd gnitkmui, Mr. 
JOHN LANGIiEY, lat« Scfaoolmaster of Paul't Srboul in Loodoo, on 
tlw 2Ut day of September, 165?. 

to the honourable 
Sir henry YELVERTON. Baronkt 


There is none amongst all my noble friends, unto whom 
the dedication of this Sermon doth more properly belong, 
than unto yourself; for beside that debt of honour which 
1 owe to your family, not only for the favours received 
from yourself, but from your noble father and grandfather^ 
now with God ; — when I consider the very great love and 
high esteem which your father did bear to that good man at 
whose funeral tlie Sermon was preached ; unto whose care he 
intrusted the two props of his family, yourself and your most 
hopeful brother (whom God took from that school to a celes- 
tial academy), and withal your own hereditary possession of 
the same love and esteem, as a grateful return unto this 
learned man for his special care in your education ; — and 
when I further remember the noble thoughts and singular 
honour which this worthy man ever had towards your father, 
yourself, and all the relations of your family \ it was not pos- 
sible for me to look farther for a nante to inscribe before 
this boiail book. 1 have therefore assumed the boldness to 


put SO poor a testimony of those bonourable affections, 
which I owe unto you, and of that great love which I bear 
to the name of that good man, who was so dear unto you, 
into your hands ; as knowing withal how much the ailment 
of this Sermon would be acceptable unto you, who can expe- 
rimentally subscribe to the excellency and use of that kam^ 
ing which it pleadeth for, and, as an eye and ear-witness, can 
attest the character of that worthy person, to whose obse- 
quies this last office of love was performed. My hearty 
prayer for you unto God is, that he will crown all those great 
blessings which he hath bestowed upon you, with a more 
abundant greatness of his heavenly grace, that you may be 
eminently serviceable to his great name, and may so tread in 
the steps of your worthy progenitors (which I persuade my- 
self you do), as not only to keep up the life and power of 
godliness in your own heart and family, but, further, to be 
a comforter, countenancer, and encourager (as they were) 
both of learned and godly ministers, and of others who love 
the Lord Jesus in sincerity. To his gracious protection and 
blessing I commend you, and all yours, desiring to be es- 

Your most faithful and humble servant, 

Ed. Reynolds. 

ACTS VII. 22. 

And Moses was /earned in all the zcisdom of the Egyptians, 
and was mighty in words and in deeds. 

In the former chapter, we read of a dispute between Ste- 
phen, and the members of a certain synagogue in Jerusalem, 
called the Synagogue of the Libertines*; of such Jews, who, 
having been servants to the Romans, were manumitted and 
made free ; for such the Romans called ' Libertines' : — of which 
sort of JewS| coming out of several parts of the world, that 
college, or convention, seemeth to have been made up : or, 

* Jiislm. Instit. 1. 1. tit. 5. Vid. Rosin, Antiq. Rom.1. 1. c. 20. Et Calvini Lcxic. 


as Grotias sapposeth, was built by them at Jerusalem for 
their countrymen and proselytes, as there are at Rome and 
Rbeims colleges for English papists. 

The issue of this disputation was, that, being worsted at 
arguments, these Libertines betake themselves-to calumnies ^ 
and false accusations : as the Pharisees, when their reasons 
were spent, were wont to take up stones to throw at Christ. 
Tliey bring him from a scholastical to a judicial defence; 
from the college to the council; and, by false witnesses, 
chaise him with blasphemy against Moses and God. Where- 
upon, being, * pro forma,^ permitted to make his defence (for 
persecutors will manage their cruelties under a form of law, 
that they may appear the more specious), he doth it largely 
with much wisdom and courage. 

The scope of the Sermon is to shew (upon a fair issue with 
his accusers) that he was not guilty of the charge given in 
against him ; that it did not follow, because he affirmed that 
Christ would destroy the temple, and change the customs 
which Moses delivered, that therefore he blasphemed either 
Moses or God. The argument of his justification is by an 
historical induction. L If Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and 
Joseph, worshipped God without a temple, and without 
such customs as Moses delivered, — and Moses did, without 
blasphemy against them, make that alteration which God 
was pleased to command him to make ;— then the worship of 
God is not peremptorily confined to an outward temple, or a 
Mosaical ministration : but Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and 
Joseph, by obeying the commands, and believing the promises 
of God, did acceptably worship him without a temple, or Mo- 
saical ceremonies : therefore it is no blasphemy to say, that 
God may so be worshipped. 2. Again, If Moses, a great, a 
learned, a mighty ruler and deliverer, did assure the people 
that * a Prophet God would raise,^ who should do as he had 
done, make new institutions, and set up a more excellent 
way of worship ; then it was no blasphemy against Moses, or 
God, to say, that the customs, by him introduced, should be, 
by that prophet, altered. But Moses himself did teach the 
people thus to believe : therefore Stephen, teaching the 

^ bts sunt hsreticorum machines, ut, convicti de perfidia, ad maledicta se 
Rmfnant : Hier. Apol. 2. adver. Ruff*. 


same, did not blaspheme Moses. 3. Again, That which was 
not blasphemy to a^rm of the tabernacle, though it were 
set up by God^s special appointment unto Moses, is not 
blasphemy to affirm of the temple: but it was not blas- 
phemy to affirm the use of the tabernacle to have been tem- 
porary, and consequently alterable : therefore to affirm the 
same of the temple is not blasphemy ; especially since the 
Lord hath said, that '' he dwelleth not in temples made with 

Together with these strong arguments, are interwoven 
apologetical reprehensions; Stephen justifying himself against 
their accusations now, by the same argument whereby Moses 
was to be justified against their fathers before. — " Moses 
did, by wonders and signs in Egypt, in the Red Sea, in the 
Wilderness, prove himself to be a ruler and judge, sent of 
God; and yet your fathers would not obey, but thrust him 
from them, and made a calf to worship). Now the Lord hath 
raised up the Prophet whom Moses foretold, who, by signs 
and wonders, did prove himself to be of God; but you 
thrust him from you, and resist the Holy Ghost, as your 
fathers did. And your refusing of Jesus is no more argu- 
ment against his doctrine and institutions, than their refusing 
of Moses was an argument against his : inasmuch as you 
are not able to allege any thing, why your fathers should 
have believed Moses, which we are not able to allege, why 
you oUj^ht to believe Christ^ 

Unto this strong defence of Stephen, neither the judges, 
nor his accusers, make any reply by way of argument: but 
though he professed himself to be, at that time, an eye-wit^ 
ness of the truth of Jesus' being in glory, yet, in a rage and 
outcry, they cast him out of the city, and stoned him. The 
stronger were his arguments for the truth, the more exces- 
sive was their malice against him for it. 

The words of the text are a branch of the second argument, 
drawn from the testimony of Moses, and the historical nar- 
ration touching him : and they contain the fruit which fol- 
lowed upon the noble education which he received from the 
hand and care of Pharaoh^s daughter ; he so prospered under 
it, that '^ he became learned in all the wisdom of the Egyp- 
tians," and was a mighty man both for oratory and action : — 


the Lord, by these civil •ccomplishmeuto, fitting him in part 
for the government w hereunto he reBer^ed bim. 

In the wordj we have. First, his intellectual perfections. 
He was learned and instructed ; together with the object of 
that leamingy — ** All the wisdom of the Egyptians.'*' 

Secondly, His civil, moral, and religious perfections; "a 
mighty man for elocution, a mighty man for action.*^ He 
improved and put forth his intellectual abilities for the good 
and service of others ; laid up all his power to do good to 
his brethren, in due time, when God should call him there- 

Moses was '* learned," or instructed and instituted (it 
ooCeth ' acquired knowledge' by the benefit of learned edu- 
cation) '' in all the wisdom of the Egyptians.^ — That nation 
was anciently famous for wisdom. From thence, some 
think, that the Grecians derived their learning : for we read 
in Diodoms Siculus^J and others, that Orpheus, Homer, 
Pytfaagoraa, Plato, Lycurgus, Solon, and others, did travel 
into Egypt for institution. But Cadmus, who first brought 
letters into Greece, was a Phoenician, — asEusebius, and, after 
him, other learned men have fully proved **. Therefore from 
tile Egyptians, the Greeks did not primitively derive their 
learning. What this wisdom of the Egyptians was, wherein 
Moses was learned, is by Philo, in tlie life of Moses, — by 
Diodoraii Siculus, (lib. i. c. 2) by Sixtus Senensis, (Biblioth. 
lib. ii) and others, described ; viz. mathematics, astronomy, 
geometry, arithmetic, music, natural philosophy, physic, 
symbolical and hieroglyphical writing, civil and political 
knowledge, for which that people seemeth to have been 
femoufl. (Isa.xix. 11 — 14) 

I shall not here inquire into the most ancient rise or ori* 
ginaJ of learning, or seat thereof; which some carry beyond 
the flood, and tell us of pillars with Hebrew inscriptions and 
characters, set up by Enoch and Seth. Nor shall I inquire 
whence the Egyptians derived their learning, which some' 
ascribe to Joseph, und the people of the Jews living there : 
others' to Abraham, of whose being in Egypt we read, Gen. 
lii. 10. It is sufficient for us to know, that, at this time, 

« Diod. SicttL LI. d Kutel\ dc prmp. Evang. 1. 10. sect. 5. Bothart. 

Ccfisnph. Mcr. 1. 1. c. 19, 20. • Joseph. Antiq. 1. 1. ' Alex. Pol. 

HflL apod Euseb. de prapAr. Eraag. 1. 9. c 17. 


there was learning there ; and that Moses was brought up, 
and proved excellent in it. 

Now we may liere observe, First, The great care of the 
king^s daughter, to bring up Moses in all kind of good litera^- 
ture, that thereby he might be fit for such great services, as 
his so near relation to a prince's court might probably have 
brought him unto. And truly so wise hath been the care of 
wise heathens in this particular (as we read of the Lacede- 
monians, Persians, and others), as may justly put to shame 
many Christians, who breed up their children many times so 
loosely, so ignorantly, so sensually, to gaming, sporting^ and 
excess ; as if an inheritance did serve to no other purpose, 
but to make the heir of it useless and good for noUiing. 
And as we see, many times, good ground grow mossy and 
barren, for want of culture ; so is it with good wits, which, 
being neglected, do usually become more vicious, than those 
of less hope and pregnancy. The foundations of an honour- 
able and comfortable age, are laid in the minority of chil- 
dren. If the plant be not kept straight at first, the tree will 
be crooked incurably at the last. No doubt but David had 
special care of the education of Solomon : for quickness of 
parts, without special culture, would hardly have arrived at 
so great a pitch of learning, especially in a disposition, as 
the event proved, by nature sensual enough : — and therefore 
he maketh mention both of his father and mother's teach- 
ing him. (Prov, iv. 1, and xxxi. 1) It is as great a folly to 
lay up estates for children, and to take no care of themselves 
who must enjoy them, as to be curious for a handsome 
shoe, and then to put it upon a gouty foot. 

And the greater men are, the greater should their care be 
for free and honourable, learned and religious, education of 
their children. First, Because it is a very incongruous mix* 
ture, greatness of estate, and meanness of understanding ; 
the one will be a perpetual blemish and reproach unto the 
other. Secondly, Because there will be the more fuel of 
lust, if learning and piety be not laid up to season a full es- 
tate. We see nothing grow upon a fat heap of muck, but 
weeds and trash. Therefore we find, what great care Theo- 
dosius had, ■ to have a good tutor to shape the minds and 

S Niceph. 1. 12. 


manners of his children, tiz. the famous Arseuius. And Jo- 
sephos^ telleth as, that Moses had a special care of the edu* 
cation of children in good literature; and we find some 
evidence of it in the scripture, where he commandetb the 
people to teach the words of the law diligently unto Uieir 
children. (Deui, vi. 7) 

And herein must our care exceed this of Pharaoh's daugh. 
ter; we must so provide to breed up our children unto wis- 
dom, as that we forget not the chief thing, — to have them 
seasoned with the knowledge and fear of God, which is the 
only true wisdom. (Job xxviii. 28) Julian ' the apostate had 
great scholars, Merdonius and Maximus, to his tutors : but 
being profane heathens, and scoffers at Christian religion, 
they laid the foundations of that desperate apostasy, where> 
liy he fell from Christ to the Devil. He that begets a fool, 
or by careless breeding maketh one, hath been the author of 
his own sorrow. '* A wise son maketh a glad father. ** — '* If 
thine heart be wise,** saith Solomon, " I shall rejoice."* {Prcv, 
xxiii. 15) It is very sad for children to have wicked parents, 
who wholly neglect their education ; and of whom Cyprian 
teiis B8 they will cry out at the last day, ** Parentes sensimus 
parricidas,'^ oar parents have been our parricides. 

Now then, by this important duty, we learn, 1. To set a 
high Talne upon such wise, learned, and religious tutors, as, 
at any time, we enjoy for the discharge of this great work. 
And, 2. To bewail it as a more than ordinary loss, when men 
whom God hath every way fitted with learning, industry, 
piety, and fidelity for so excellent a work, are, by a sudden 
stroke, taken away from us. 

We have considered the care of the kingV daughter, for 
the education of Moses :— let us, in the next place, consider 
the blessing of God upon it, in that thereby Moses was 
^' learned in all the learning of the Egyptians.'' 

Where, first, it is very observable, the different end which 
God bad in his providence, and she in her particular care. 
She intended, no doubt, the service of Pharaoh ; God intend- 
ed to qualify him the better, to be a ruler and a deliverer of 
his people from Pharaoh : — she intended the good of Egypt ; 
God intended the good of Israel. Many times, the wise and 

^ Jotepb. coocr. Apkm. 1. 1. ■ Eunapnu,^ in Maxim. Satom, lib. 5. c. 2. 


holy providence of God useth the diligence of one man to 
bring about effects for the good of others, which he never in* 
tended : as we see in Joseph^s brethren ; and Haman's die* 
tating the honour which was conferred upon Mordecai at 
that time, when he came to beg him for the gallows which 
he had erected. God useth the counsels of men, to effect 
things by them which they never thought of. ^ The Assyrian 
had his work, and God had his. (Isa. x. 6, 7) Judas looked 
after money ; Caiaphas and the high priests, after interest 
and revenge; Pilate, after Ccesar and his favour; but God^s 
end was the salvation of the world by the death of Christ. 
** In re una quam fecerunt ; causa non una, propter quam 
fecerunt.** God and Christ did it ^ in caritate;"* Judas and 
the Jews, * in proditione.' 

2. We may here observe, that as Moses, that great prophet, 
whom the Lord did after speak unto, mouth to mouth, {Num. 
xii. 8) is commended for his skill in the learning and wisdom 
of the Egyptians, a profane nation ; even human, secular^ 
and exotick learning is a noble gift of God, and a very great 
ornament and honour unto the most excellent men. As it 
was mentioned for the honour of Daniel and his three com- 
panions, that God " gave them knowledge and skill in all 
learning and wisdom,^ Dan. u 17 ; meaning, as appears, ver. 
4. the learning of the Chaldeans. Not as if they were sootlu 
sayers, as the Wise men of Chaldea were ; or Moses, a magi* 
cian and sorcerer, as the Wise men of Egypt were, and as 
heathen writers charge him to have been : ' — for the great 
miracles which Moses did, — and the interpretations of dreams 
and visions by Daniel, — ^were from God ; and not from the 
Devil, by the help of any magical enchantments. In like 
manner, Bezaleel and Aholiab are commended by God for 
that wisdom and understanding, which they had in all man- 
ner of cunning workmanship. {Exod. xxxi. 3 — 6) And it is 
mentioned for the honour of Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal Cain, 
that they were the first inventors of some particular useful 
arts for the good of human society. (Gen. iv. 20, 21, 22) 
And of Solomon, that he spake of trees from the cedar tree 
in Lebanon, unto the hyssop that springeth out of the wall ; 

^ Vid. Aug, in Psalm. 75 et 39. et tract. 7. in ep. 1. Jobannis, et epist. 48. ad 
Vincentium. 1 Plin. 1. 30. c.l. 


and that he spake alio of beaita» and of fowl, and of creep* 
log thiDgs, and of fishes. (1 King$ iv. 33) The high esteem 
which the heathen had of the first inventors of liberal sciences 
and necessary arts and manufactures, is noted as one princi- 
pal cause, by Diodonis Siculus "" and others, of the divine 
titles and honours which were given unto them. And Paul 
■lentions it amongst other his privileges, that he was brought 
up a scholar at the feet of the learned Gamaliel. (Aci$ xxii. 8) 
Yea, by that apostle, tlie Lord hath given so much honour 
onto human learning, as three times to make mention of hea- 
then poets, " and their sayings : Aratus, AcU zvii. 28. rvv y^ 
mm ym$ M-fMv : Menander, 1 Cor. xv. 33, f^tipovo'tf Ij/hi xf^ 
ifuXlmuoMml. — Epimenides, TiV. i. 12 ; Kf^H «! i^mirrm, &c. 
Truth is God*s, wherever it is found. '' Res fisci e^t, ubicMui- 
que natat C' as a mine of gold or silver is tlie king\, in nhose 
ground soever it be discovered. '^ Christianus Domini sui 
esse intelligity ubicunque invenerit, veritatem,^* saith Austin;^ 
A Christiaa knows that truth belongeth to Christ, whereso- 
ever he finds it. And again, *^ Tibi serviat,^ saith he, " quic- 
qaid utile puer didici.**'— As Israel took of the Egyptians 
jewels of silver, and jewels of gold ; as David consecrated 
the spmla of the Philistines, Moabites, Syrians, and all na- 
tiona whom he subdued, to the Lord ; (2 Sam. viii. 1 1 ) as 
the erowo of the king of Rabbah was set upon the head of 
David ; (2 Sam. xii. 30) so the spoils of all secular learning 
are to be dedicated unto Christ, and the use of his church, 
who is said to take from *^ Satan all his armour, and to di- 
vide the spoil ;^ {Luke xi. 32) for so, in triumphs, the one- 
sues were disarmed, and the spoils carried in state before 
the Tictor*s chariot. ^ Such spoils did Ori^en, Tertulliau, Cy- 
prian, Clemens Alexaiidrinus, J ustin, Cyril, Lactantius, Jerome, 
Aastio, Basil, Nazianzen, Arnobius, bu;. take from the gen- 
tile writers, and devote them to the service of ihe church of 
Christ. It is noted of Theodosius the emperor, "^ that when 
he destroyed the temples of the heathen idols iii Alexandria, 
—yet ail the vessels and statues of gold and bilver he con- 
nrrted to the use of the Christian churches. Yea Petrus 
£rodiiis, ' a learned civilian, out of Procopius tclleth us, 

■ Lib. 3. cap. 5. et lib. 5. ctp. 15. n JuUeh. Apol. 1. • De 

Iter. Chri-t. \. 2. c. 1*(, :*9, 4:1. Conf«. K I.e. l.'». F Lit . dtc. 4. 1. 9- 

* S^rmt. L d. c. 16. ' Dwrer. 1. I. tir. 6. tecc. 4. 

>OL. V. I> 


that the Christians did convert the very idol temples them- 
selves into churches, wherein to virorship Christ. For if an 
idol, ^' being nothing,^ did not so defile meat, but that as a 
gookl creature (though not in idol-communion) it might be 
eaten ; if the conscience of no man were thereby offisnded. 
as the apostle teacheth ; (1 Cor. viii. 4 — 7, and x. 25, 28) 
certainly neither doth it leave any such abiding pollution to 
any place, but that therein Ood may be worshipped. (2 Tim, 
ii. 8) 

First, All good learning and wisdom is, ' per se/ and in 
its own nature, desirable, as an ornament and perfection to 
the mind, as a part of that truth whereof God is the author. 
There is a knowledge of God natural in and by bb works : 
and a knowledge supernatural by revelation out of the word : 
and though this be the principal, yet the other is not to be 
undervalued : for '^ the works of God are great, sought out 
of all them that have pleasure therein.^' {PsaL cxi. 2) Now 
all secular learning is the knowledge of God^s works, * aster- 
nee veritatis particula,^ a small emanation from eternal verity. 
Philosophical and mathematical learning, the knowledge of 
his works of creation. Historical and political learning, tibe 
knowledge of his works of providence. Moral and economi- 
cal and civil learning, the knowledge of those remainders of 
his image and law, which are left in the minds of men, for 
their direction and conviction. Grammatical^ rhetorical and 
logical learning, the knowledge of the use of that reason 
which God giveth us for imparting our minds, and evidene-^ 
ing our conceptions unto one another. So then all true 
learning, being a knowledge of the works of Gk>d, and of 
that truth which he, who is the supreme verity, hath implant- 
ed in them, must needs be such as the works of God them* 
selves are, honourable and excellent,— ^^md so * per se^ deai*. 

Secondly, All true learning is desirable, for the uses where- 
unto it may be applied. We will consider these uses. 

1. In regard of evil men, many of whom are great scbo* 
lars, and eminent for various learning. 

First, It serves to beautify even them, and render them, as. 
learned men, great ornaments to their generation ; as many 
harmful herbs do bear beautiful flowers, and are, upon that 
account, special ornaments to the gardens where they grow. 


Goodly statues of gold or silver, though dead, though hol- 
low, and without heart or vital parts, are yet of great value 
and special honour to the places where erected. Such are 
even profane learned men, in regard of their learning. 

Secondly, It is useful unto them to convince them of 
Ood'*s glory and greatness, of his sovereignty and will : and 
so if it be not ^ preeexercitamentura/ as Clemens Alexandri- 
Dut calleth it, unto the more comfortable knowledge of him 
out of his word, namely, to kindle in them a desire to know 
more of so great a God from thence ; it wilt render them 
without excuse, for abusing the knowledge which they have. 
(Rom. i. 19, 20) 

Thirdly, It is by accident useful another way, viz. by 
honest and assiduous labours in the pursuit of learning, to 
keep them from the temptations of divers lusts, which, by a 
loose and idle life, would be more ready to assault them. If 
Dmvid had been at his study, when he was on his house- 
top, be had not been tempted unto adultery. 

Fourthly, It makes them, thus adorned, serviceable to 
homan society. Singular use have all ages had of the learn- 
ed kboura of profane historians, philosophers, poets, ora- 
torio mathematicians, physicians, ai^ists in divers kinds. 
And it is a comfort to any man to live to some good pur- 
and to be serviceable to his own and future generations. 

Fifthly, They are hereby useful to the church of God ; 
diat God who can make use of the sins of men to do his 
people good by them, (as of Joseph^s brethren, to make way, 
by selling liim, unto the safety of Israel and his family ;) can 
■ake use of the gifts and talents he bestows on wicked men, 
tor the service of good men. The hands of those that did 
diemsdves perish in the flood, were eo&ployed in building 
the sric for Noah and his family. It is true, very often 
wicked men do use their learning against God, as they do all 
odier his good biasings. Learned wickedness is ' armata 
ae<{aitia V Such learning degenerates into pride, arrogance, 
scorn, atheism, heresy, contempt of godliness, (as philoso- 
phers are called by the fiithers, ^ Haereticoruni Patriarchs^ ;') 
bat all this is accidental, and the fruit of lust. Yet as a 
malignant planet, when in conjunction with a good one, may 

« 'AMimU tx'*'^* trlim. AritU Rhec— r<pr<vZ. oont. Hermog. IS. Apol. c 47. 



have a benign influence ; so it doth often Tall out, that they 
who are, by sin, enemies, — may, by learning, be useful to the 
church. The Jews are bitter enemies to Christ; yet Ood 
hath, by their care, preserved the Old Scriptures from danger 
of corruption. ' 

2. In regard of holy men. 

First, Though learning be much inferior to holiness; 
(There are learned devils ; there cannot be holy devils ; for 
holiness is the character of celestial, not of infernal angels* 
Deut. xxxiii. 2) yet, in holy men, learning is a rare ornament 
and accession, as the golden ring to the gem which is in it. 
Like the marriage of a holy David, to a beautiful Abigail. 

Secondly, It enableth them to do the more service unto 
the church of God and the truths of religion. Every good 
gift sanctified is in such a way useful to the church, as the 
proper nature and excellency of the gift doth admit. Sancti- 
fied wit beautifies religion ; sanctified reason defends it ; 
sanctified power protects it ; sanctified elocution persuades 
others to love it. As different gifts of the people did, with 
a different value, serve the tabernacle, — the stones of the 
Ephod, more precious than the badgers' skins ; so thoogh 
every good man is ready to offer willingly to the service of 
the church, yet great difference between the learning of a 
Paul, or the eloquence of an Apollo8,or the power of a Con- 
stantine, or the acuteness of an Austin, or the courage of an 
Athanasius,— and the ordinary qualifications of inferior good 

Thirdly, It enableth tliem to procure more favour, and to 
bring more reputation unto religion, by the greatness of parts 
wherein they may be otherwise serviceable unto them, with 
whom it concemeth religion to have the honour thereof 
preserved. God is pleased, in his holy providence, to make 
other interests sometimes a preservative unto religion, where 
itself is not immediately, and * per se/ regarded. Ahasuerus 
was amorous and uxorious ; and that induced him to favour 
the Jevrs, whose worship he cared not for. Thus it is useful 
in regard of holy men. 

3. In regard of the church, and truth of religion. It it 

t Vid. Aug. de Civ. Dei, 1. 18. c. 46. ct in Ptalm 58. 


oieful as a bandnuid, in a way of aUeiidaace thereupon, 
and auhaenriency thereunto, several ways. 

First, Hereby the ancient fathers of the church, " were fur- 
oished to confute the pagan and idolatrous worship of the 
beathena, out of their own writers ; as Paul did the idolatry 
of Athens by the inscription of their own altar : {Jcii xvii. 
23) as David killed Goliath with his own sword ; as a tree 
ift cat down by an axe, the helve whereof was made out of a 
bough of the same tree. This course Origen, Clemens Alex- 
andrinua, Jualin, Eusebius, Tertuilian» " Minucius Felix, and 
osany others of the ancients, have taken. As likewise to show 
ibat maoy doctrines of the scripture have been owned even 
by profisne writers ; one God, by Plato ; one first cause, by 
Aristotle ; Divine Providence, by Cicero ; the last conflagra- 
tion, by the Stoicks, 8cc. 

Secondly, Uereby we shame Christians, ' when out of 
pro&ne writers, we let them understand of the continency, 
jostioe, temperance, meekness, clemency, and other amisble 
moral virtues of heathen men, — which they, having abun- 
dandy more means, come so exceeding short of; and thaC 
Fabricioa, Aristides, Antoninus, Epictetus, and many other 
virtnous heathens, shall rise up in judgement against them. 

Thirdly, Scriptures have much of poetry, philosophy, ma* 
thematica, laws, antiquities, and customs of other countries 
in them ; in the understanding of which, by secular learning, 
we may be much assisted. Physics in Genesis, ethics in 
Proverbs, logic in the disputations of the prophets, of Christ 
and his apostles, allusions to the nature of beasts, sheep, 
goat», wolves, lions, doves, &c. ' Many alhisiohM in the 
hooka of Ezra, Neheuiiab, and Ehther, to the i-ustoms uf the 
Persiaos; many pabsages in the prophets illuhtruble out of 
ibe hiatories of the times ainl places to \%hii:h tlit;y rf.*ft.T ; 
m^uy expressions in the New Testament, bent explicable nut 
of the Roman laws and antiquities. Many passages exqui- 
sitely paralleled in human author»(, and receiving much 
light from them, as that learned and good man, Mr. (lataker, 
liatii observed. * 

■ Legimuft noo ue tcncamu'^, «cd uc rcpudicinut. Jrnliot. |>rt«rin. in Luc. 
s Trrtul. dc ic^itn. Animc, c^*. 1. y \ Or. ii. 1 1. ■ Vid. Mhnt, 

}fnh'i. 2. * Ciiin. lib. 2. cap. 1^1. 

38 HUMAN LEARNING. [t£Blf. Zi 

Fourthly, The histories of the scriptures, and the min^ 
cles of Moses, of Christ and his Apostles, may even out of 
heathen writers ^ be confirmed ; and a testimony from adver- 
saries is of great validity: this hath been largely and learn^ 
edly proved by Mornay and Grotius, in their books '(!• 
Veritate Christianss Religionis.' * 

Fifthly, The knowledge of times by the Olympiads, Ai 
Fasti Consulares, and other standing ways of computatiott» 
are exceeding necessary to the exact distingoishing and 
digesting of sacred chronology, and of the occurrences of 
scripture to their proper times ; as Austin hath noted. ^ 

Sixthly, Many ecclesiastical writers, who either wrote 
against the Gentiles, or apologetical discourses for Christuui 
religion, cannot be clearly understood without the reading 
of secular authors ; those kind of writings, as Origen againsl 
Celsus, Tertullian^s Apology, Theodoret * de curandis Qrm^ 
corum Affectibus,* Cyprian * de Jdolorum vanitate,' Ansti^ 
' de Civitate Dei,^ Minucius Felixes * Octavius,* and othef 
the like, being brimful of such kind of learning and aU»> 
sions thereunto. 

To say nothing of the necessity of grammar and tongues^ 
to imderstand the words of scripture ; of logic, to under- 
stand the contexture, method, argumentation, and analysis 
of scripture ; of rhetoric, to understand the elegancies of 
scripture. * 

When I consider all these things, I cannot but beliere^ 
that the more learned men are, (having gracious hearts, as 
well as learned heads) the more sensible they are of their in. 
8u£Bciency, for so tremendous an employment as the sound* 
solid, and judicious preaching of the word of God ; and are 
more dismayed at the sense of their own wants for so weighty 
and arduous a service, that they do wonder at the boldness 
of illiterate men, — who therefore venture with more confi- 
dence upon it, because they know not that variety of learn- 
ing, as well as of spiritual wisdom and grace, which is re- 
quisite unto such an able discharge of it, as whereby a man 
may appear to be ** a workman who needeth not to be ashamed, 
rightly dividing the word of truth,*" 

b Hicr. in Dan. 1. « Mornay, cap. 26, Grot, lib. 1. rcct. 16. ct lib, 2. 

sect. 5. ** Dc doct. Christ. 1. 2. c. 28. • 1 'ilics>. v. 21. 


We have cooftidered some of the many nmt of secular 
leaniing. and that within the sphere of one only prorebMun, 
that it is as a 'dead hedge wherewith men Uked to fence a 
quick one : or, as Basirii similitude iH, as those * fulcinienta/ 
upon which meu do raii^eand bear up the vines; or as giound 
coiours, upon which God is to be overlaid. 1 shall conclude 
with a few inferences from this point for our use. 

First, Though there be excellent use to be made of human 
leaming, yet it is to be us€;fl witli much caution; as physi. 
cians use opium, or other dangerous things, with their due 

1. Use it not unnecessarily, where the nature of the mat- 
ter doth not rationally call for iL Some learned men ■ have 
upon this account blamed some of the ancients, Origen, Jus- 
tin, Clemens Alexandriuus, and others, for mixing philosophy 
with the theology, out of an opinion thereby the easier to 
gain the Gentiles unto the Christian faith. But none have 
been more blame-worthy in this case than the old schoolmen, 
of whom Melanctbon** saith, " that their doctrine is chiefly 
made np of two things, philosophy and superstition.'* And 
therefore it is well observed by a learned man, ' that school- 
men and canonists have been the fountains of that corrup- 
tion, which hath infected the church of Christ : the school- 
men in doctrine, by opinions of popery ; and the canonists 
in discipline, by the state of the papacy, of wliich the main 
cause hath been the admitting of Aristotle and his philoso- 
phy, ** In ipsa adyta et penetralia Ecclcsiaruni,^' as Ilospi- 
nian speaketh. ^ We find, even among the Heathens, men 
were punished for presuming to dispute of heavenly tilings, 
in tlie same manner as they did of natural causes. ' And for 
the like reason, ^£tius, the* herctick, being (;ivcn to un eristi- 
cal and contentious way of arguing in divine things, as one 
much addicted to Aristotelical learning, thereby purchased 
imio himself die title of ' atheist,' as Socrates and bozumeu 

' He&am. Horn. 5. I Jihnf. Thcol. ('roll. |iarc. J. |<ri)blrm 2. 

> Mrlanrt, Eptst. p. 890. i liitfiwld,con\. with liait. p. 72.— \ id.urat. 

2. Aati. Wiegel. tuavissimi dociUkiiniquc viri D. Johiin. Arri'Winiiih. k //^j. 

pjL. HlftC. Jesuit, in prsf. et Hi&t.S«cr4. p. 4()1. * (*u. tic nat. Deurum 

'^ Pfotag. Abderit. Ply tar. in Nicm ct in rciicic, de Auai. « \ifra 

'■ 3. c. 28. Soiom. 1. 2. c. 14. 


2. Use it not vain-gloriously, and unto ostentation. It is 
a puffing, ^ windy, a flatulent thing ; '* knowledge puiTeth 
up." (1 Cor. vii. 1) TertuUian calleth philosophers, * Glo- 
rise Animalia.* And I believe that this vanity doth scarce, 
in any thing, more put forth itself than in pride of wit or 
memory, in this way of learning. We may learn the danger 
of it by the example of Herod, {Jcis xii) who was smitten 
with worms, " because he gave not God the glory.'' 

3. Use it not proudly, with contempt and disdain of the 
word of God : like that profane wit, who said, ** He did not 
dare to read the scripture, for fear of spoiling his style.'' I 
have heard of some wretches, even amongst us in our days, 
who presume to magnify Socrates above Moses or Paul. 

4 Use it not heretically, in defence of error ; as Erasmus 
6aith of the Arians, '< Hoc ipso fuere pestilentiores, quod 
Aristotelicis argutiis essent instructi.** And as Jerome" 
complains, that they rose *' h Platonis et Aristophanis sinu 
in Episcopatum.'' We must take heed of making our reason 
judge of articles of faith, or setting human learning in the 
tribunal against divine truth. For this it was, thatTertul* 
lian ^ calleth philosophers *' the Patriarchs of Hereticks ; 
and that the apostle exhorteth us to ^* take heed, that no 
man spoil us through philosophy and vain deceit." (CW. ii. 
8) He meaueth not solid philosophy, the genuine issue of 
right reason ; but the arrogance of human reason, to sit as a 
judge of those things that are supernatural and of divine re* 
velation, as articles of faith, and forms of worship — when it 
will acknowledge no religion but what is deducible out of 
the principles of corrupted reason, nor admit any conclusions 
which are not consonant to those principles. 

6. Use it not profanely, to inflame lust, as some elegant 
writers do more corrupt by their lasciviousness, than benefit 
by their politeness, as Martial, Petronius Arbiter, 8cc. Cy- 
prian p said of the adulteries of the heathen gods, that by 

B Hier, adveri. Locifenn. o Vid. Tert, Apol. c. 46. de prescr. c. 7. de 

tnim. e. I, 2, 3. Vid. Daven, in Col. 2. 8.— ^/hn^. Theol. probl. p. 1 1.— Nos 4 
Prophetit et Chritto, non k Phtlosophit ct Epicuro enidimur : Terhd. contr. 
Marc. 1. 2. c. 16.— Vid. Darutum in Aug. Enchiiid. c 4. Mcr. 9, 10. p Prohi- 
betur Christiantf figmcnta legerc poctanim, quia per oblcctamenu inanium fabu- 
larum mentein czciunt ad incentiva libidinutn, !sid, lib. 3. Sent, de summo bo- 
no, cap. 13. — Vid. Tertul. de IJoloUc. cap. 10. ci /jiic. Pr/i'.». lib l.Epist. 63. 


their examples, '* Fiunt miseris delicta religiosa.'" Iii such 
a nse. we may justly fear the rebuke which Jerome "^ saith he 
bad, ** Ciceronianus es, non Christianus.^' 

But use it with humility, moderation, sobriety^ as a band- 
maid to Christ ; as painters lay a worser colour, when they 
mean to superinduce another. Pair the nails, cut the hair, 
lop the luxuriances ; carry it through the fire, as the spoils 
were appointed to be, that it may be purged for the use of 
the temple. 

Secondly, This justly reproveth all the enemies of learn- 
ing; who, because the apostle forbiddeth deceitful philoso- 
phy, and tells us bow vain the professors thereof became in 
their imaginations, do thence condemn all the sober and just 
use of trae learning. Sucbt he Weigclians, ' who tell us that 
there is no knowledge of Christ in any universities ; that all 
schools and academies are enemies unto Christ, and all their 
learning * merse corruptelee ;* who shut all learning out of the 
church, and all learned men out of heaven. Such was, it 
seems, friar Francis, ' the popish saint, who cursed a learned 
minister of Benonia for going about to set up there a school 
of learning without his leave. Yea, such, it seems, was Pope 
P^ul the Second ; of whom Platina ^ telletli us, that be did 
so hate human learning, that he esteemed the lovers thereof 
hereticks, and exhorted the Romans not to breed up their 
children thereunto. This hatred of learning must needs pro- 
ceed, either from ignorance ; for ** scientia neminem habet 
inimicom nisi ignorantem;*^** — or from malice, and a desire 
to have religion betrayed, (and therefore it is reckoned 
amongst the persecutions of the church, * that Julian prohi- 
bited the children of Christians to be trained up in the 
schools of learning :) or from avarice, and out of sacrilegi- 
ous desire to devour those revenues, wherewith the bounty 
of benefactors hath from time to time endowed the schools 
of learning. I shall not spend time to confute so ignorant 
an absurdity. Aretius, ^ a learned protestant, hath fully 

n Ad Eustocfaium de custodift virginitatis.— >^u^. Epitt. 119« — BasiL de leg. lib. 
Gcatild — Hieron. ad Pftininachium de obitu Pauline, ct Epist. ad Magnum orat. 
nom. 21, 23, 24. >* Hoarnbeec, Comroentar. de Weigel. Baldw. Casus 

Gxiscicn. 1. 4. c. 2. cas.9. « Grcf:, Thoios. de Rcpub. 1. 17. c. 12. sict. 5. 

< PUhn, in fine vitc Fauli 1. 2. ■ Aug. de civ. Dri, 1. 18. c. .^2. Confess, 

t. 8. e. 5. ' Grf^' iVin* Orat. 1. y Arct, Probiem. loc. 151. 


done it to my hand. But I cannot but take notice of it» aa 
doubtless a calumny cast upon Carolostadius and Melanc- 
thouy' as if they taught the youth at Wittenberg to cast off all 
philosophy and human learning, having been themselves so 
taught by Luther ; and that tliey turned to mechanic employ- 
ments, one to husbandry, the other to the art of baking ; 
and that thereupon many young men did burn their books of 
liberal arts, and betook themselves to manufactures* Bui 
how honourably both Luther and Melancthon thought of 
human learning in itself (though they might inveigh against 
the abuse of it in popish academies) is by learned men^ so 
abundantly cleared out of their own practice and writings, 
that I shall not need add any more in their vindication. 

Thirdly, We must get our learning seasoned with holiness : 
else it will not serve us to repress any temptation. Great 
learning may consist with monstrous wickedness. Who more 
learned than the Scribes and Pharisees? and who more 
graceless ^ and more bitter enemies to the doctrine of salva- 
tion? Who more learned than the Athenian philosophers? 
and who greater deriders of the apostle^s preaching ?*" Never 
had Christian religion more bitter enemies than Celsus, Por 
phyrius, Julian, Libanius,and the like great professors of hm 
man learning. None do the Devil more service in his oppo* 
sition to the church of God, than men of great parts, that 
are enemies to godliness. A proud heart and a learned 
brain, are Satan^s warehouses and armories, the forge where 
he shapeth all his Cyclopical weapons against divine truth. 
The Egyptians are here noted for wise men ; and yet they 
were of all others the most sottish idolaters ; insomuch tbi^ 
other idolaters derided them for theirs, as we find in Juve^ 

Oppida tota canem venerantur, nemo Dianam. 
O sanctas gentes, quibus base nascuntur in hortis 

Though therefore we * must covet the best gifts,' yet we 

• Suriut Comment, rcrura in Urbe gestarum Anno 1522. p. 116. » Baldw. 
C»s. Cons. 1, 4. c. 2. Cis. 2. — D, Arrow, orat. 3. Anii-Weig. b John vii. 47. 

c Acu xvii. 32. <* JuTcnal. Sat. xv. 10. 


most still remember there is ' a more excellent way ;" siid 
consider, if the knowledge of the viisdom of Et^pt be so ho- 
nourable, how glorious is the excellency of the knowledge 
of Christ, in comparison whereof all other knowledf^e is loss 
and doDg. '' Si tanti vitmm, qiianti veram mariraritaiii !*' If 
a glass jewel be so raluable, how excellent is an inestimable 
pearl ! 

Themistocles, though he was ignorant of mnsick, yet 
knew how to gOTem a state ; and a believer, though he be 
ignorant of all other learning, yet by the knowledge of Christ 
will be a blessed man ; whereas all the learning in the world, 
without this* will leave a man miserable. * To know the 
whole creation, and to be ignorant of the creator ; to know 
all histories and antiquities, and to be unacquainted with 
onr own hearts ; to be good logicians to other purposes, and 
in the mean time to be cheated by Satan with parallogisms 
in the bataness of our own salvation ; to be powerful orators 
with men, and never to prevail with God ; to know the con- 
steUatioos, motions, and influences of heavenly bodies, and 
have atiU nnbeavenly souls ; to know exactly the laws of 
men, and be ignorant and rebellious against the laws of Ood ; 
to abonnd with worldly wisdom, and be destitute of the fear 
of God^ which makes wise unto salvation, is sll but a better 
kind of refined misery : the Devils have much more than all 
this comes to, and yet are damned. We must therefore study 
to improve our learning unto the use and furtherance of holi- 
ness ; to better our minds ; to order our affections ; to civi. 
Use our manners ; to reform our lives ; to adorn and render 
DOT profession the more amiable ; to consecrate all our other 
endowments as spoils unto Christ ; to lay our crowns at his 
feet; and make all our other abilities and acquirements 
handmaids unto his glory. When learning is thus a servant 
SDto godliness, godliness will be an honour unto learning. 

Fourthly, Since learning is so excellent an endowment, 
the teachers of it ought to be had in great honour. And I 
iCArce know a greater defect in this nation, than the want 
of such encouragement' and maintenance, as might render 

• Au^. Ep. 36. Quid mihi prodcrit inf^enium per lUu doctriiiw agile, cum He- 
{:imi[cr rt vicriU^A turpitudine in dcrtrina ])*ct4ti» cirircm ! .-/.'j:. Confos. 1. 4. 
c K. \. l.c.H. ' Qui« cnim viitutem amplcctitur ipwm, ri»mu ^\ idI- 

lai.' Juvtn.SM. 10. 


the calling of a schoolmaster so honourable, as men of great 
learning might be invited unto that service. Erroi-s in the 
first concoction are not mended in the second : what is lost 
in the school, is hardly ever fully recovered in the University. 
And by how much the fewer men of great worth and parts 
are employed in that service, by so much the more should 
the loss of rare and worthy men in that way be bewailed by 
us. And certainly were they, while we enjoy them, so ho- 
noured as they should be, they would be as much lamented 
when we are deprived of them. We read of the honourable 
interment, which Augustus < gave unto his master; — of an 
honourable statue, which M. Antoninus Philosophus erected 
unto his. ^ Gratiauus the Emperor made Ausonius^ his 
master, consul : and Achilles ^ made his, a fellow-sharer with 
him in his own honour. And we read in the imperial law, 
that learned grammarians \ after they had taught diligently 
for twenty years, had special honour conferred upon them, 
and were numbered amongst those who were 'Vicarias 

What necessity there is to have the minds and manners of 
children formed and seasoned, "" while they are pliant and 
ductile, before license break out into pride and luxury ; 
before lust grows headstrong and intractable, while they are 
a Rasa Tabula, tender trees, and capable of shaping ; we need 
not to be told. '* Omnium hominum gravida estanima,'* said 
Philo,'* and want masters, as mid wives, to shape and fashion 
the offspring of them. And even heathen men"" have com- 
plained of the carelessness and neglect of parents in this 
particular. Diogenes p was wont to say, *^that a man were 
better be some men's sheep than their son ; the care of their 
cattle being greater than of their children." If then you 
set a value upon your children, you ought accordingly to 
prize religious and learned instructors of them, and to take 
care to put them under such. For if grammar-schools had 
every where holy and learned men set over them, not only 
the brains but the souls of children might be there enriched, 

I Dion, lib. 48. p. 376. h Ju|. Capitol. ^ Auion. in Grmt. 

Act. k HumtT. Iliail.9. » Cod.l. 10. tit. 15. « Vid. OuiH/i/. 

I. 1. c. 1, 2. n Philo. (Ic piain. ct |>oeii. o Ailian. Var. I list. 
1. 12. P Diog. Uert. 1. 6. 


and the vrork both ofleAniing, and oF conversion, and tinice, 
be timely wrought in them. 

Great waa the happineafi of this city in thin particular, 
while it enjoyed this worthy man, and great the Iohs in \mn)r 
deprired of him. For though, throu<ji[h God's poodnt-ss, 
there be many excellent men remainintTf out of whom some 
reparation may be made of so great a daniat^e ; yet still I 
look on the departure of this man, ok if the middle und 
most precious stone in a rich jcwc-l hhould drop out, whirh, 
though many others remain in, cannot but be greatly niiKfied 
aod bewailed. 

Moses was unto the people of Nruel, ' Po'dnefii^iiA ad 
Christum/ as the apostle spealtH of the law, (daL iii. 26) 
and of other teachers (1 Cor. iv. l'>) And although he 
were so great a man, as no other prophet (much le«s ordinary 
permoo) could parallel ; ( VuimA. xii. 6, 7, H) yet there may be 
resemblance, where there is not equality. 

Give me leave to make the comparison in several particu- 
lars ; three of which we have in the text, Moses was '* learned 
and mighty in word and deed ;^ in which three conaisteth the 
excellency of a teacher, and therefore the same is noted of 
Christ, the great prophet of the church. (LvAe xxiv. 19. 
Acts u 1) Learning qualifietb the teacher ; word and work, 
doctrine and life, institution and example, leadeth and di« 
recteth the scholar. And so Homer describeth Pbcenix, the 
master and instructor of Achilles^, iii$m rt ^frijfp* tfumtf 
•p*r5p« rf ^9>wr. 

First ; Our dear brother waa 'a learned' man, learned in the 
whole body of learning ; not only an excellent linguist and 
grammarian, historian, cosmographer, artist, but a most judi- 
cioas divine, and a great antiquary in the most memorable 
things of this nation. Into whatsoever parts of the land he 
travelled, he was able to refresh and to instruct his fellow, 
travellera in the most remarkable particulars of every country. 
Pansanias was not more accurate in the description of Greece, 
than he of England. And I have heard, that he had it some- 
thnes in bis thoughts to have published something in thia 
kind. He was a man of solid judgement; he always spake 
' i aulco pectoris ;* and I have, not without very great satis- 

Ifomrr.Iliail 94.43. 


faction, heard him give his notions upon difficult places of 
scripture, and arguments of divinity in ordinary discourse^ 
as if he had elaborately studied them. 

Secondly; He was '* mighty in word/' able, out of a full 
treasury and store-house of learningi to bring forth both 
new and old. I never knew any learned subject spoken of 
in his company, wherein he was not able most dexterously 
to deliver his opinion. He was a man of a copious discourse ; 
but withal so solid and judicious, as did ever delight his au- 
ditors, never weary them. As Livy said of Cato, ^* Natum 
ad id diccres, quodcumque ageret;*^ we may say of him, 
*' Doctum in hoc uno crederes, quodcumque diceret.*" 

Thirdly ; He was, as Moses, '* a worker/' as well as a 
speaker; he was not a barren fig-tree, that had leaves with- 
out fruit; not a tinkling cymbal, noise without love; be' 
taught by his life as well as by his learning. '< Verbis tan* 
tuol' pfailosophari non est doctoris sed histrionis,'*' as He 
said ; and ** dicta factis deficientibtis erubescunt,^* saith Ter* 
tuUian. ' And indeed he was a man of fixed and resolved 
honesty, and wondered in his sickness what men did leara 
Christianity for, if it were not, in every condition, to practise 
it, and adorn the profession of it. 

Fourthly ; He was, as Moses, ** a patient'* man ; patient ift 
his business. Moses was patient in his judicature firom 
morning to evening ; {Exod. xviii. 13) and he, patient in his 
school in Uke manner. Patient in his sufferings, willingly 
with Moses ' bearing the reproach of Christ,^ and not fearing 
the wrath of any man in comparison of the reverence he did 
bear to his own conscience. Patient in sickness, compo- 
sing himself with as an unshafken confidence to die, as, in 
time of healthy he would have gone about any other business. 

Fifthly ; He was, as Moses, a " faithful man ; {Heb. iii. 6) 
most exactly answerable to the trust of his place : *' Oppri« 
mi potius onere officii maluit, quam illud deponere," as once 
Tully spake. It was hardly possible for any friend, by any 
importunity, to draw him fVom a most punctual observation 
of timely attendance upon the duties of his place. And so 
tenderly fearful was he of miscarriage herein, and so sensible 
of any the least defect, that in a former sickness he desired, 

r T^rtui, de Paticntia. 1. 1. 


if be should theo bare died, to have been buried at the 
school-door, in regard he bad, in bis ministration there, come 
short of the dotiea which he owed unto the school. And 
this we shall ever find true, — the more active, able, conscien- 
tious, faithful, any are in discharge of duty, the more hum- 
ble, the more jealous, the more fearful they are, of comins; 
short of it. The fullest and best ears of com han^ lowest 
towards tlie ground ; and so those men that are fullest of 
wofthp are most humble, and apprehensive of their own 

Sixthly ; He was, as Moses, ** a constant,** resolved, 
steady man. Moses would not bait Fharaoh a hoof; kept 
dose to every tittle of his commission. (KxoJ. x. 9, 26) So 
was he panctnal and unmovable from honest princifilen. 
" Vir rigids innocentiv,^ as Livy said of Cato. He was of 
Polemo'*s judgement in this point', <*debere inesse qaan- 
dam moribns contumaciam;'' tliat men, having proved all 
thiags, should bold fast the best, and be pertinacious in 

Seventhly ; He was, as Moses, *' a wise'* man. Moses was 
often pat to the use of his wisdom, to compose tlie distem- 
pers of a froward people; and a masculine prudence is reqoi« 
site to tame and calm the wild and unswayed humours of 
yoang children. It is noted as a special piece of Socrates^ 
wisdooa, that he did, by his institution, fix and reduce the 
waadcffuig and vicious inclinations of Alcibiades. ' I might 
go on in this parallel, and instance in the authority, gravity, 
■Mekness, and zeal for the truths which were observable in 
this our dear firiend, as they were eminent in Moses. But I 
shall add only this one thing more ; the great care which he 
had of the school at his last, that there might be an able 
SDCoeasor chosen. Of Moseses care in this particular we 
read. Numb, xxvii. 15, K), 17 : and this good man, the even- 
ing before he died, with great earnestness commended it to 
the company, (by a member thereof who came to visit him) 
that they should use their uttermost wisdom and care to 
choose an able, learned, religious, and orthodox man into the 
pfaice ; naming one, of whose fitness, both he, and the com- 
pany, and school, had had, before, great experience. And 

• Dies- Laerc 1.4. t Vid. Grtif, Thoios, dc Rcpuh. 1. I5.c. 1. 


60 much were they pleased to honour the judgement and in- 
tegrity of this worthy man, that presently after his deatli 
they pitched upon that excellent learned man, whom he had 
so providently commended unto them. 

I might add one parallel roore^ in the death of this good 
man, to Moses. The Lord bid Moses ^' go up to the Mount 
and die;*^ (Deut. xxxii. 49, 50) and he did so. (Deut. 
xxxiv. 1 , 5) This worthy friend of mine, the Friday and 
Saturday before his own fit, was pleased to visit me; 
lying at that time under a sore fit of the stone. It 
pleased the Lord, the Monday following, to bring a like fit 
upon him : and sending to inquire of his condition, he sent 
me word how it was with him, and that he looked on this 
fit as a messenger of death from God unto him. And accord- 
ingly, though in obedience to God^s appointment, he made 
use of means, yet he still insisted upon it, that bis time of 
dissolution was now come; and accordingly, with great 
com posed ness and resolved ness of spirit, waited for death as 
a man doth for his loving friend, whom he is willing to em- 
brace. I assure myself that he had with Moses a sight of 
Canaan, which made him so undauntedly look death in the 

I shall conclude with th&t exhortation, — *' Let us go up to 
the Mount, and by faith look into our heavenly country : 
let us have our eyes fastened upon Christ our salvation ; and 
then we may, with old Simeon, sing our ^ Nunc Dimittis ;^ 
with the apostle, be willing to depart and to be with Christy 
which is best of all: and, with Moses, die not only patiently 
but obediently, as knowing that we have a city which hath 
foundations made without hands, eternal in the heavens, 
whose builder and maker is God.^^ 





In m SERMON preached December 4th, 1667 ; before the Honourable Eait 

India Company. 





Right Honourable, 

In the first entrance upon great actions, it hath been the 
«se of good men to begin at the Sanctuary, and there to seek 
of the Lord a right way, as knowing that whatever be the 
services of men, yet the success and blessing must be from 
God alone. A course which honourable persons amongst the 
heathens have sometimes used, as Scipio, in consultations of 
state, went first to the Capitol, and then to the senate. You 
were pleased in the great work which you have undertaken, 
thus to do ; and what businesses you are to prosecute by the 
concurrent counsels and services of men, to commend first to 
the favour and blessing of Grod. Wherein having used my poor 
lenrice, you were pleased so far to accept of it, as to desire to 
^ve it made more public. Hereunto I was the more easily 
persuaded, that the great and good example of Nehemiah 
might be still before your eyes, both to direct you in your 

VOL. V. E 


honourable undertakings, and to comfort you in your imita- 
tion thereof. The Lord be pleased so to remember you for 
good, as by his counsel to direct, and by bis blessing to re- 
ward, whatever you go about in conformity to his will, and in 
pursuance of his glory. To his most gracious protection I 
commend your persons and enterprises, and am 

Your faitf^ul servant in the toork of the Lord, 

Ed. Reynolds. 

Remember me^ O my God^ for good. 

Though all saints have all the members of the new man, 
and all the graces of Christ fashioned in them (for there are 
no monsters in his body) ; John i. 16, yet, as in the natural 
body, some excel in si^ht, or bearing, or swiftness, or 
strength, or beauty ; so, in the mind, one excelleth in one 
grace, — another, in another, — according as the Spirit is 
pleased diversely to distribute his gifts unto men. (1 Cor. 
xii. 11. Ephes. iv. 7) Abraham is renowned for faith; Isaac, 
for meditation ; Jacob, for plainness ; Joseph, for cha{>tity ; 
Job, for patience ; Solomon, for wisdom ; Moses, for meek- 
ness; Phinehas, for zeal; David, for devotion ; Mary, for love ; 
Nathanael, for singleness. And as some are more eminent 
than others in special graces, so likewise in special ser- 
vices : Joshua, for a warrior ; Hnsbai, for a counsellor ; Solo- 
mon, for a governor ; Paul^ for a preacher ; and, in thia 
book, Nehemiah, fpr a wise and a valiant manager of great 
and honourable actions. 

I would send a worldling to read Ecclesiastes, to learn the 
vanity of the creature ; a lover of Christ, to Solomon's CaiK 
tides; a devout person, to David's Psalms; an afflicted 
person, to Job's temptations ; a preacher, to Timothy and 
Titus ; a backslider in faith, to the Hebrews ; a moralist, to* 
the Proverbs; a justiciary and legalist, to the Romans and 
Ghilatians ; a libertine, to James, Peter, and Jude ; a soldier, 


to Jo«hita and Judges; a man iliat would study God's pro- 
videace, to Esther; and those who go about great under- 
takings, to the reading of this book of Nehemmh. 

There are many things, which such men may observe in 
Ilim for their special direction. And because he desires 
' God to remember them," I shall not look upon it as a depart- 
iofT from my text, if we, upon this solemn occasion, do a 
httle remember them likewise, iind consider of wiiat use they 
may be unto you. 

1. Observe his care of foreign and remote intelligence and 
correspondence; when he was in Shushan, he made enquiry i 
(i( the state of his brethren in Jerusalem. (Chap. i. 1, 2, 3) [ 
You that undertake great actions, must be especially careful to i 
bare accurate and distinct inteUigence. Vou have no ElishM 
amotigst you, to save you that labour ; (2 Kings vi. 12) and 
therefore, as the historian said of princes', tveUol fiaaikiim 
J^kA^Mi flraUtiicira, You had need have many eyes and many I 
ean in many parts of the world, tit see and hear by them, whrt j 
you cannot by yourselves. Abraham's intelligence recovered 1 
Lot; (fi«i. xiv. 14, 16) Rebecca's intelligence saved Jacob| ] 
(dai. ixvii. 42) the intelligence which the spies brought^ ] 
aaintated Israel ; {Jiuh, ii. 23, 24) AbigaiPs intelligeoce saved I 
Nabal; (1 Ham. xxv. H) Hushai's intelligence preserved I 
David. (2 Sam. xvii. 15, 22) Many a man, by speedy inteK , 
ligence, is enriched, is delivered. It was the way whereby 
Joahua overcame the kings of Canaan, {Josh. x. 9) by coming ' 
■sddealy upon them, before they could have intelligence 
of it ; and, in like manner, Abimelech discomfited Gaal by 
benefit of secret intelligence. (Judges \x. 30, 31, &.c.) 

2. Hia extraordinary love, zeal, and tender-heartedness to- 
wards his country, and the honour thereof; and his zealous 
prayer unto God night and day for it. (Chap. i. 4, 6) Men 
of ^eat and remote employments, should he very careful, by 
their vigilance, to prevent any reproach and injury against 
(be land of their nativity ; and to manage all their dealings 
vitb such honour and integrity, as that the very nation which 
brought tb«m forth, may have renown in the remotest parts < 
le world. {Deul- iv, 6) " Keep the statutes and judj 
a which the Lord eomnianded," saith Mueps, " and 

• Xenn|iliDn. C)riQj»c1. 


them ; for this is your wisdom, and your understanding in 
the sight of nations, which shall hear all these statutes, and 
say, Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding 

3. His not being contented with his own honour and 
greatness, who was in so near attendance upon the greatest 
prince on the earth, and was sure enough to live in plenty 
and prosperity himself, though his brethren were in affliction, 
but his improving that interest for the service of the com* 
munity, and particular comfort of God's people. Men of 
great and public undertakings, should not look only after 
narrow and domestical interests; but sliould make use of 
their own greatness, power, wealth, prevalency with potent 
persons, to do real offices of love and service to the poor 
church of (Sod. Esther might possibly have lived in splen- 
dour and royal majesty, though her people had been destroy- 
ed ; but she chooseth rather the danger of perishing^ than to 
neglect their salvation. ** If I perish, I perish.'' {E$th. iv. 
16) And so, Moses chose " rather affliction with the peo^ 
pie of God, than to be called the son of Pharaoh's daughter." 
\Htb. xi. 24, 25) Nature hath implanted even in senseless 
and inanimate creatures, such a love of community, as makes 
them forget their own proper motions, to preserve theirt 
whole from violence or reproach. How much more ahould 
we lay to heart public evils, even then when our own con- 
dition may seem prosperous ! 

4. His prudent vigilance, in viewing the state of the city 
secretly, and then imparting his commission to his brethr^. 
(Chap. ii. 12, 18) In great works, personal prudence and 
joint communication, are singularly necessary for the happy 
management of them : For " in the multitude of counsellors 
is safety." {Prov. xi. 14) 

6. His pious courage, animating his brethren, bearing up 
himself against envious aspersions of the en^my, and draw* 
ing in his brethren into an unanimous society in great and 
honourable works , and all upon grounds of faith, giving as- 
surance of divine help. (Chap. ii. 17, 18, 20, and Chap. iiL 
per tot. and Chap. iv. 1, 6, 14) Faith is a foundation of cour 
rage ; (no grace so valiant as that, Heb. xi. 33, 34. 1 John v. 
4) and courage a foundation of constancy. (2 Tim, iv. 17, 18) 



Aad tberefore raith and fortitude are necessary graces for 
those, wbo will go, with resolution, through great and diffi- 
cult undeitakiagB. And therein a special wisdom to work 
fell in a sweet and amicable concurrence, lo draw one way, 
■nd to join with special accord hearte and hands in the same 
work ; for ditferetices and divisions will uiijoint the frame of 
grest actions, and as a breach in a wall, will minister uuto 
■dversarieK an occasion of advantage, 

6. His wise discovery of adverse counsels and prepanu 
tionr (Chap. iv. 8, 9, 15) There never was any great eo- 
ti-rpme without special opposition. Zerubbabel met with | 
BouDtainous obslructiuns in the great work which be went i 
about; {ZecA. iv. 7) only these obstructions are more secret | 
■tid visible than mountains ; and therefore rnen that engage 
in gtcat works, must ever have their ' eyes running to and 
fro' lo discover dangers, that they may prevent them, (Provi A 
uii. 3) 

7. Ilis special care upon all emergent occasions, to cail)f 
the people together for new and further counsels. (Chap. iv> 1 
19, 20) Great businesses, being lull of variety of incidental | 

^d circomstantial contingencies, will frequently call for fur ' 
tber resolutions and renewed consultations; will, like giea^ j 
KueU, many times spring a leak, and require immediate ap-' J 
plication of remedies. And therefore it is a part of necok' | 
nry wisdom, as in great cities, so in great actions, to hav^ i 
pfayKtcians always within call, who may timely advise upoW J 
aJl needful expedients for safety. (Judges xix. 13) 

8. His indefatigable labour night and day, being nut only I 
t commander, but an example of unwearied patience to alt I 
the people. (Verse 22, 23) And all great actions will re-' f 
quire this part of self-denial. A man, either of sensual or 
^uggish principles, is very unfit for the management of any I 
ikrdnous and weighty afl'airs. It was a great business, but ' 
one would think a aad one, for a man to sacrifice his beloved 1 
lOD. and yet Abrabtmi ' rose up early' to go about it. (Gen, 
ixii. 3) 

9. Hia compassionate zeal, mixed with wisdom, imparti- i 
Jity. and self-denial, for the poor which were oppressed, re-* .1 
bukiog the oppreauois, aud forbearing bis own jiist allowauces, 
ud preventing the injuries of servants and ufiicers, (Chap, T. 


14, 16) In great employmeDU, which pass through many 
men's hands, it is neither impossible nor improbable, for in^ 
nocence many times to su&r, and much wrong to be done^ 
and that reductive, even by good men themselves, if their 
ears be too much open to misrepresentations ; as we see it 
was in the case of Ziba and Mephibosheth, (2 Sam. xvi. 1« 
4) unless much care, wisdom, and courage be used, to require 
all officers to do the things belonging unto them, with jus* 
tice and expedition. And here give roe leave to commend 
unto you the care of your poor brethren ; a duty which the 
apostles themselves have put one another in mind of. {Gal. 
ii. 10) You cannot be without many objects of that kindf 
even amongst those who serve you in these expeditions ; sick 
mariners, desolate widows, poor children : it would be a 
work of a sweet savour to God, to have a steady stock going 
for the advantage of these, as well as of the merchants. Their 
prayers may be wind in your sails, and bring down a blessing 
on all your undertakings. 

10. His bounty to the work : <* He bought no land,^ bnt 
spent himself upon the service, and upon hospitality to the 
people. (Chap. v. 16, 17, 18) Covetousness is not only a 
bar and obstruction to all honourable undertakings, but doth 
miserably corrupt and spoil them by a self-seeking manage* 
ment, when men drive on and interweave domestical interests^ 
under the precious pretence of public good. And therefore 
all great works do require great and large hearts, for the pro* 
moting of them. It was a great work, the building of the 
sanctuary; and the Lord gave greatness of heart to the 
people, to contribute unto it {Exod. xxxvi. 6) It was a great 
work, the building of the temple ; and God gfive imipense 
largeness of heart to David and his princes, in offering there* 
unto : For the sums offered ^ were so great, as surpassed the 
treasures of any other princes which we read of, Sardanapa^ 
lus only excepted ; as the learned Breerwood, ^ and Sir Walo 
ter Raleigh, ** have observed. (1 Chron, xxii. 14, and xxix. 14 
See Isa. Ix. 6, 7) 

11. His undiscouraged cpnstancy ; notwithstanding all the 
threats, slanders, letters, prophecies, misreports, and wicked 

>> Budgeus dc Asse, lib. 4. c Breerwood de Nummis, p. 16. ^Ra- 

ffifhj lib. 2. cap. 17. sect. 9. 


•rtificcs, purposely used by the aubtile enemies, to neakea 
and dishearten his resolutions. (Chap, vi.) None are fit for i 
^at actions, who are not men of constant and undaunted 
Xpiiit^, who cannot go through evil report* as well as good; 
'Whou the integrity of their own consciences cannot bear up 
above the reproaches of etieiiiies. (1 Cor. iv. 3. 2 Cor. vi. 8, 
6, 10} 

12. Hia wise and pious care to communicate part of the 
dtarge unto faithful coadjutors, whom he advanced, not bara- 
Ijr for their relation unto him, but for their fidelity to the ser> 
(Chap. vii. 2, S) Since it is impoetiible for great 
JKtioQS to be managed without much concurrence, singular 
re ift to be used, that good and faithful meu, by whose cars, 
d prudence, and prayers, they may be promoted, be em- 
lyed ill the trnusactJou of them ; that even near relations 
do tiot prevail with us, to entrust great works in the hands 
of weak or wicked men. Consanguinity hath a stroug bias, 
neu wiih good men. Barnabas did earnestly contend to take 
Hark tlong in his and Paul's expedition to visit the churches, 
vhicb Paul opposed ; Acts xv. 37, 38. The apostle doth 
liDpUctlly give us the reason of it in another place, Cvl. iv. 
10; where he telleth us, that Mark was sister's son to Bar- 
tabu. ' 

I IJ. Uia singular zeal for the purity of the people of Godj 
l»t they might be a holy seed ; and for the offices of God's i 
toiue, that they might not be polluted : (Chap, vii.) his care ' 
■fihe worship of God, preacbin^, praying, fasting, renewing 
Cavenant, restoring intermitted duties; (Chap. viii. 9, 10) of 
the chambers of God's house, that they might not be defil- 
ed; (Chap. xiii. 7, 9) of the portions of the priests and Le- 
»iie», that they might not be detained ; (ver. lU, 14) of the 
nbtnth, that it might be duly sanctified ; (ver. 15, 22) of 
the coorsea and services of the priests and Levites, that they 
might be appointed ; (ver. 3U, 31) of the holy seed, that 
tliat uiigbt not he, by healbenisbiuarridges, corrupted ; (ver. 
23, 30) of tiie name of God, that that might he duly praised | 
and glorified. (Chap, xii) By all which we learn, that the 


greater men's care is of the service and glory of Ood,< the 
fitter instruments they are tio do great works, and the more 
likely to prosper in the doing of them ; because *' they that 
honour God, he will honour.** (I Sam. ii. 30) So long as 
Uzziah '' sought the Lord, God made him to pro^per.^ 
(2 Chran. xxvi. 6) •' Hezekiah trusted the Lord,'' and clave 
to him, and the Lord was with him, and *' blessed him whi* 
thersoever he went.'' (2 Kings xviii. 5, 6, 7. 2 CAron. xxxi. 
21) But when Jehoshaphat joined with Ahaziah, who did 
very wickedly, the Lord brake his ships, and disappointed 
his expedition. (2 Chron. xxx. 85, 37) 

Lastly, His special wisdom and care to heal the sinful 
breaches and divisions which were amongst the people; 
causing them to enter into a solemn promise, to make repa- 
ration of all injuries done unto their poor brethren, and to 
prevent the reproach of the heathen. (Chap. v. 11, 12, 13) 
In great companies and great businesses, it is hardly pos- 
sible to carry things on in so smooth and regular a way, 
but that some differences of judgement may arise, and cause 
difficulties, breaches, and obstructions in the whole work: 
and as our Saviour saith of kingdoms, cities, houses; so 
may we of companies and undertakings, that divisions will 
endanger their standing. {Maith. xii. 25) It is one of God^s 
sore judgements, when he intendeth to shatter and disappoint 
enterprises, to send a spirit of division amongst those who 
are concerned in it, as he did between the men of Shechem 
and Abimelech ; {Judges ix. 23) and between the host of the 
Midianites ; (Jiid|g;esvii.22)and of the Ammonites, Moabites, 
and Edomites. (2 Chran. xx. 22, 23) And so he threatened 
to do with the Egyptians ; {Isa. xix. 2) and with the armies 
of Gog and Magog. {Ezek. xxx. 21) The like whereunto 
we read of in Pausanias**, and in Dionysius Halicarnasseus^ 
In which case, wise and prudent men (as Nehemiah here) 
will use their utmost endeavours to heal breaches, to 
close up divisions, to prevent mistakes, — to find out expe- 
dients, wherein all may readily agree for the preventing of 

c Romanos Oiagnot fccerunt domi ioduttria, foris justum imperium, animus in 
consulendo liber, nequc libidini ncque delicto obnoxius : Vid. Aug. de Cirit. Dei. 
lib. 5. c. 12. et 15. ^ Pausan. 1. 10. p. 654. Gr. La!. < Dionyu 

Hal, Aiitiquit. lib. 7. p* 429. 


those eTilsy which differences of judgement, if not timely 
cured, may be likely to produce. In which case, there is 
nothins: more conducent than mutual mildness, meekness, 
and condescension. So Abraham healed the breach which 
was going to be made between his family and the family of 
Lot his kinsman ^ {Gen. xiii. 7, 8) Therefore rulers are 
called ** healers.** {ha. iii. 7) And so Christ is described as 
a^binderup/ and a strengthener. (Ezek, xxxiv. 16) And 
Mosea, the first ruler which God chose for his people, was 
the ^meekest man alive.^ {Numb. xii. 3) Certainly meek- 
ness is a Tery great ornament, and a very great instrument 
of power. We may think that we shew our power by our 
stiffiseas and inflezibleness ; but it is a great evidence of 
power, to be of a yielding and meek disposition '. It shews. 
First, A great power which a man hath over his own spirit, 
which is a work of more power sometimes than the taking 
of a city". (Prov. xri. 32) Secondly, It shews great humi- 
litj and self-denial, when, as the apostle speaks, '* Nothing 
is done through strife, or vain-glory, but in lowliness of 
mind, each csteemeth other better than themselves ;'' {Phil. 
ii. 3) and " do mutually submit unto one another in the fear 
of God ;*• {Ej^es. v. 21. 1 Pet. v. 6) and " in honour prefer 
one another." {Rwn. xii. 10) The apostle made himself a 
servant to all, and studied to please all for their good. 
(1 Car. ix. 19, 22) ^^ Faciet sapiens,^ said Seneca, *' et qu® 
Bon probavit, ut ad majora transitum invebiat :^ a wise man 
will aometiniea deny his own judgement, in order to a greater 
good. And it is an excellent direction of Hilary ^ " Ei 
alioiia ntiUtatibua placere, nee offendere ex propriis :^' to be 
ready to make it appear unto men, that I am more desirous 
to please them upon the account of their profit, than to 
oflSmd them upon the account of mine own. " Istse cogita^ 
dones deprimentes superbiam, et tenentes caritatem, faciunt 
onera firatema invicem libentissime sustineri,*^ saith St. 
Austin*. Thirdly, It 'imitates the example of Christ, who 

k VidL exemplum Cbarecratts ct ChaBcephonds apud Xenopbon. 1. 2. Memo- 
abO. p. 7H, 646. Edit. Paris. 1625. 1 Vid. Cbrysost. in Psalm cxui. 1. 

■ Latins regnei, atidain tlomando Spiritum, quim si Libyam remotis Gadibus 
JHgM, et Dicrqae Poeaus Senriat nni. Horat. Vid. Philip. Camerar. Hor. subseciv. 
pm 3. c. 2S4 — LactoHt. lib. 3. c. 15 ■> Hiltar. in Psalm 54. o August. 

^quasLqii. 71. 


did not '' look on his own things, but on the things of 
others :"" (PhiL ii. 4, 6) And of the Lord, whom Moses be- 
sought by an argument drawn from his power, to be patient 
and long-suffering unto his people. {Numb. xiv. 17, 18) 

We have seen in Nehemiah, the things which he remem.- 
bered to do ; and which, having done them, he beaeeched 
Ood to " remember.** And though the word seem to have 
properly a retrospect only to what had been done, yet be- 
cause we find Nehemiah praying when he began these 
*' excellent works,^' (Chap. i. 0, 1 1) we shall therefore extend 
this prayer both ways ; both as an humble representation of 
his own sincerity before God, in what he had done; and 
likewise as an humble imploring of being remembered by 
Ood, in what he shall further do. 

For the former of these considerations, as the words have 
a retrospect to what he had already done, we shall consider 
them under a double notion. First, As the comfort of thia 
good man. Secondly, As his prayer. 

As bis comfort, he reviewed and looked back upon those 
good works, which God had enabled him to do, — with much 
complacency and delight. And this the Lord alloweth bis 
servants to do. For though in some respect, the apostle 
telleth us, that " he forgot the things behind,^ (Phil. iii. 13) 
as not esteeming his work finished, or his pace to be slack* 
ened upon his past acquirements ; yet in regard of comfort^ 
the same apostle doth once and again make mention of bis 
conscionable conversation, as matter of present rejoicing 
unto him. (Acts xxiv. 16. 2 Cor. i. 12. 1 ThessAi. 10. 2 Tim. 
iv. 7, 8) So did Job ; ^^ I have not concealed the words of 
the Holy One.^ (Job vi. 10) The conscience of his true 
faith, worship, and constant obedience to the words of the 
Holy One, made him assured of comfort in his death ; and 
so elsewhere. Chap. xxix. 10, 11, 12, and Chap. xxxi. So 
Hezekiah, Isai. xxxviii. 3. Yea, God is pleased to mention 
the good works of his servants for their comfort. (Job i. 8. 
John i. 47. Acts x. 4. Rev. ii. 2) And he hath appointed 
officers on purpose to *' shew a man his uprightness,^' and 
thereupon to comfort him, (Job xxxiii. 23, 26) and hath 
given every man a conscience in his bosom, to report the 
consolations of the Holy Spirit, unto well doing, and to be a 


continual feast' within him. {Prov. xv. 15) As auvTip>i<ns 
n habit of practical principles, so it binds ub; as <ruv)(S)]<ri{, 
kngwledge of duty done, so it comforts us. (1 Jo/irt iii. 20) 
•* Qui facit prFeceptnm, comparal Paracletum." 
Tile reasons hereof are ; 
1- A godly life hath pardon cf faihngs; and this is matter 
tl confidence, that as a husbandman looketh on his field of 
ipom with joy, though he see many weeds amongst it, and 
ytbafT about it; so we may look with joy on a holy life, 
lougb many corruptions are mixed with it, because God 
)th not remember against us " the iniquity of our holy 
Pardon of sin is matterof joy ; (Psahn xxx'i'i. 1, 2. 
Itti xri. 34) and therefore mixture of sin cannot deprive ua 
F iL The passover was a feast, though eaten with bitter 
etba-.anda ^ood conscience is a feast, though mingled 
Tiitbaoiae corruptions. Nothing spoiled the feast of .t pass* 
9ver, but leaven ; and nothing spoils the feast of conscieDue> 
" il bypocrisy, 

3. A godly life is God's own work "*: it is not we, but the 
Ifirit of God which worketh in us. {Matlh. x. '20. 1 Cor. 
TT, 10. Plii/. iv. hi) And as God reviewed his own works 
rith special delight, so may we review God's works in us, 
comfoit and delight. This the prophet lays as a fouit- 
tion of peace, that " God worketh our works for ua." (/loi. 
[ri. l*i) 

3. God hath commanded comfort, first or last, to wait 
ion a godly life, as a proper adjunct thereof. {Isau xxxii. 
'. Psaim cxix. 163, and xxxii. 12. Rom. xiv. 17) And it 
a wrong to God's owu appointment, when we have taken 
godliness, to shut out comfort. 

4. A godly life honours God, (John xv. 8) benefits men ; 
(Ttf. lii. 8) and therefore being not without fruit, it is not 
without a foundation of comfort. When a man can say, 
"I have finished oiy course, served my generation, adorned 
the gospel, these and these are the better for me: I have not 
lited like an empty vine, as a» unprofitable burden of the 

I taitb ; but God's end hath been my end, and his service uiy 
^^Mrk ;** — this will cause the face to shine, and the heart lo 

^B r Onu 


Every man would willingly live and die comfortably. No 
w^y so to do, but to lay up a foundation of comfort in a holy 
conversation. A wicked man would gladly forget himself, 
and run away from himself, " Hoc se quisque modo semper 
fugit." '' He cannot look backward cr inward upon himself, 
without guilt and horror. It was therefore good counsel of 
an old rabbi, " Ne sis impius coram teipso :^ be not wicked 
in thine own sight, learn to reverence thy conscience : ** cor 
bonum bonus socius.^' No such good company as good 
conscience. A man may then dare to be acquainted with 
himself, as some men have written the"* history of their own 
lives. A leper cares not much for a looking-glass, because 
be shall see by it nothing but his own deformity. A bank- 
rupt cannot abide to cast up his accounts, because he shall 
find hiniself so much worse than nothing. But he that hath 
led a holy life, is like a nian which hath travelled over a 
beautiful valley, and being on the top of the hill, turneth 
about with delight to take a view of it again. 

But may a man so look back on a godly life, as to put 
confidence in the good work thereof? For answer hereunto, 
we are to distinguish, 

1. 'Inter rationem condignitatis, et rationem ordinis:^ 
between the merit deserving a reward, which we deny ; and 
the order and consequence which God hath put between a 
good work and the reward, making this mercifully, but yet 
certainly, to follow the other. {Psalm xix. 11. Prov. xi. 18) 

2. ^* Inter causam essendi et cognoscendi :^' between the 
cause of confidence ^k priori,^ and the arguments whereby 
to know it ' fil posteriori.' 

Our good works are not either the merits or cause of our 
confidence or comfort, but only the free grace of God, and 
perfect righteousness of Christ bestowed upon us : yet from 
a good conscience and a holy conversation, as from fruits 
and effects of divine love and grace, we may draw arguments 
of comfort : for '* in the fear of the Lord, is strong confi- 
dence.'" {Prov. xiv. 26) 

2. These words, as they bear a retrospect unto Nehemiah^s 
former actions, are likewise considerable as a ** prayer upon 
me for good.'^ And so good men that have done much ser- 

c Lucretius. 


vice unto the church of God, shall pray to be remembered 
by God in favour and mercy : and this prayer is 

First; For acceptation, both with God.and with his people. 

1. That the Lord will be pleased to approve of our poor 
endeavours to serve him, and smell a savour of rest in our 
oblations, that be will let us know that he is well pleased 
with what we have done, that we may eat and drink with 
joy, when God *' accepteth of our works,^* as the Wise man 
speaks. {Eccles, ix. 7) 

2. That the Lord will make our words acceptable to his 
people ; as it is said of David, ^' That whatsoever he did, 
pleased all the people.^ (2 Sam. iii. 36) And of Mordecai, 
" that be was accepted of the multitude of his brethren.'*' 
(£slA. X. 3) And so Paul prayed, ^* That his service towards 
Jerusalem might be accepted of the saints.^' {Rom. xv. 31) 

Secondly, For condonation ; for since no good works of 
oon do bear proportion to the rigour and exactness of the 
law of God, but that ^' all our righteousness is as a menstru- 
oos cioth,^' hai. Ixiv. 6 ; (" Omnis nostra humilis justitia, 
recta forsan, sed non pura," saith Bernard *) : and since the 
Lord appointed Aaron as a type of Christ, *' to bear the ini- 
quity of the holy things of his people ;^' {Exod. xxviii. 38) 
we must therefore confess with St. Austin ^ that our righte- 
ousness here consisteth, '' potius in remissione peccatorum 
qoim in perfectione virtutum.^ As therefore Job professeth^ 
** If I say I am perfect, mine own mouth shall prove rtie per-, 
verse ;^ {Job ix. 20) and David, ^^ Enter not into judgement 
with thy servant, for in thy sight no flesh living shall be jus- 
tified ; {Psalm clxiii. 2) and Paul, '^ Though I know nothing 
by myself, yet am I not thereby justified;**' (I Car. iv. 4) 
•o this holy man Nehemiah prays to be spared ", as well as 
to be remembered, as knowing that the reward is of mercy, 
tod not pf debt. It was . a sweet an<j[ golden . confession 
which Bernard made '', when he thought himself to be at the 

» Ve verbis Isais. Serin. 5. ^ jivg. de Civit. Dei, lib. 19. cap. 27. Et 

eoacn Cretoon. Gram. lib. 3. c. 80. » Chap. ziii. 22. > Affuic 

improbis euro accusattonibus pulsans. — Ule territus et lurbatus ait, * Fa- 

Doo tarn dignus ego, nee propriis possum mentis regnum obtinere Ccelo- 

noB: catenim daplicijure illud obtinens Dominus meus, hareditate Patris, et 

tatnto Fisaionis, altero ipse contentus, alterum mihi donat ; ex cujus dono jure 

ilod mihi vendicans non confundor ;* GuliH. Abbai in Vita Bern. lib. 1. cap. 12. 



point of death : " I confess," said be, '* I am not worthy, I 
have no ments of mine own to obtain heaven by : but my 
Lord had a double right therejto, an hereditary right as a son, 
a meritorious right as a sacrifice : he was contented with the 
one right himself : the other right he hath given unto me: 
by the virtue of which gift I do rightfully lay claim unto it, 
and am not confounded.*^ 

Thirdly ; For vindication against the misconstruction of 
perverse men. Nehemiah had many and great adversaries, 
who raised fitlse rumours upon him, and were likely to mis- 
represent all that he did, as the Psalmist complained of his 
enemies, that '^they wrested his words/' {Psalm Ivi. 5) So 
did the enemies of Nehemiah put perverse constructions upon 
his worthy actions; (Neh. vi. 6, 14) and therefore he prays 
unto Ood to ** remember him,*^ and to strengthen him ; to 
remember them, and to rebuke them. (Ver. 9, 14) 

In great services, we have all reason to mind these three 
things ; to beg of God pardon for olir failings ; acceptance of 
our services ; vindication of our innocency, and rebuke of 
our adversaries. 

Now because Nehemiah, as a governor, had work still to 
do ; therefore we may allow this prayer a prospect forward, 
in relation to actions which he was to do : and they serve for 
special instruction unto us, upon that account. For be- 
sides that the prayer as to these actions, may take in the 
three former particulars, of acceptance, pardon, and vindica- 
tion ; — there are three things more which may be comprised 
in it under that aspect : it is prayer, 

1. For counsel and direction; ''Remember me to teach 
me.** I have great and weighty businesses ^ to go through 
my hand and care ; 1 am subject to errors and mistakes; one 
miscarriage of mine might open the mouths of many to re- 
proach me ; might sadden the hearts of many who*love and 
honour me ; might be of dangerous consequence to all thy 
people : remember me therefore to teach me ; shew me the 
way wherein thou wouldst have me to go ; let not mine ig- 
norance betray me to dishonour thee, or to inconvenience 
thy people So David prayed ; '' Make thy way straight be- 

f Bene ac sapienter nu^oret inttitueront, at rerum agendutiin, ita dioendi mi* 
tium k pitcatioaibus caperc : P/tn. Panegyr. 


B my face ; (Pia/m v. 8) teach me to know llie way where- 
ft I should walk," (Pia/m cxiiii. 8) So Solomon ; ' " I am 
hit a child ; I know not liow to go out or come in : give me 
fterefore an understanding heart, that I miiy discern betweeH 
K)d «nd bad : for who is able to judge this thy ao great a 
!ople?^ (1 Kings iii. 8, 9) The greater the actions are 
liich we undertake, the greater need we have to implore 
psdom, for the direction of them. Even wisdom to plough 
1 sow *. is ascribed unto God ; {Iiai. xxviii. 24, 29) how 
ich more necessary is it, in profound and abstruse actions, 
i implore his guidance ! 

I 2, For assistance. For when we know what to do, we 
> weak hearts and weak hands, apt to be discotiraged, 
Itot to Sac and hang down, except he he pleased to iinimate 
1 fttteogthen them,'' And as he hath promised, that he 
■ill hold oar hand, that it may not miscarry, (hui. xlii, 6) 
We must all say as Nehemiah did, " Strengthen thou our 
■ (Chap. vi. 9) as Jehoshaphat did, " We have no 
night, we know not what to do." (2 Chron. xx. 12) And 
therefore our eyes are upon God : lie it is that girdeth with 
■tnngth. (Pi'ilm xviii. 39) It is not we that do any thing, 
bat the grace of God which is with us. (1 Cor. xv. 10. 12, 13. /ja». xsvi. 12) 

3. For success. For when we are taught, and when we 
tie Btrengthened. yet still we must wait upon God for hJa 
blessing. We by his help may do our works ; but he re- 
lerreth it to himself as his peculiar work, to impart the blesa- 
)Dg. We may diaw the patent; but the prince only can 
cocDinand the seal, and make it thereby valid and eftectual. 
iPialm cxxvii. 1, 2) Paul and Apollos can only plant and 
water; but the increase is from God alone. (I Cor, iii. 6) 
•' The race is not to the swift, nor the battle to tiie strong'," 
Sic but the power and providence of God over-ruleth all. 
{Eetla. ix. II) And when he pleaselh, a handful of men 
tliall discomfit a mighty host ; as Gideon did the Midianites. 

< Vidi: PHMbm it rcbiu Solomonri. lib. 3. cap. C<. ■ t\{yi t in 

tiKt JifjTii Bwrl n Hal luudk^ar Ktyti S* In (((iiil Spai Kol <pirtd iyiKtaiu, 
•a w^yiora w^rra 0aAfa0ai. Aral. b Cerium est nm velle cum volu- 

-■b; «d aie fiidl ui TClimos, Sic, Miif. AfGni.ttUh. Aib.c.16. ' Otrt 

•atHi trra, »*n laxit -i iy rf wat.iii^ tAi vdai trwoMrm dAAi), &c. JTine. 
, fb..fcK»petfn.Cyri,lib.3. 


with three hundred men. And fewer than ten thousand 
Grecians did vanquish an army of three hundred thousand 
Persians, in the famous battle at Marathon ; as Pausanias and 
Valerius Maximus give the numbers.** 

Now lastly, With relation unto all performances which he 
had, or should despatch ; — so this prayer is a petition for that 
gracious reward, which the Lord is mercifully pleased to en- 
courage his servants by, in those great and difficult works 
whereunto he calleth them ; — whereby not his servants only, 
but his own Son, have been animated to endure sufferings, 
and to despise shame : (Heb. xi. 26, and xii. 2) for the ex- 
pected promises do awaken our patience in the Lord's work. 
{Heb. X. 36. 2 Cor. vii. 1) The apostle pressed ^ forward to 
the price ;^ {PhiL iii. 14) fought his fight, finished his course, 
kept the faith, in pursuance of that crown of righteousness 
which was set before him ; (2 Tim, iv. 8) for in keeping the 
commandments there is a great reward. {Psalm x\x. 11) 

And this indeed is matter of comfort and encouragement 
to us, that though the works which we are to do, are difficult, 
and we have withdrawing hearts, and weak hands, and 
fainting spirits, and potent enemies, and strong temptations; 
and having conflicted with all these, may haply lose our 
thanks with men, and possibly be rewarded with hatred and 
ill-will ; yet we work for a master who remembers all, who 
keeps an account of but a 'cup of cold water % which is given 
to him in any of his poor servants. If a raven ^ feed his 
prophet ; if dogs < lick the sores of Lazarus : if rotten rags ^ 
draw Jeremiah from a dungeon ; if a broken potsherd ' stand 
Job in any stead in his affiictions ; if a basket '^ be a means 
to deliver Paul, or stalks of flax * to hide the spies of Israel ; 
if the cover of a well "^ do protect David's intelligencers; if 
spread garments and broken boughs ° contribute any thing 
towards the honour of Christ, there shall be a record kept, 
and an honourable mention made of the services, even of 
these inanimate creatures. O what a good Lord do we serve, 
who keeps a book for our sighs ^, a bottle for our tears p, a 
register "1 for but two mites cast into his treasury ! Who 

* Filler, Maxim, lib. 5. c. 3.—Pausan, 1. 4. • Matth. x. 24. '1 Kings 

xvii. 6. CLukexvi. 21. ^Jobii. 8. 

k 2 Cor. zi. 33. ' Josh. ii. 6. » 2 Sam. xvii. 18, 19 » Matth. 

xxi. 8. • Mai. lit. 16. P Psalm Iri. 8. « Mark xii. 42. 


keeps a record of gleaning of barley % dipping in vinegar, of 
a cake of meal % of a table, a stool S and a candlestick ; and 
esteemeth himself a debtor for such poor things, as men 
scarce value for ordinary courtesies ; — who would not put 
forth all his strength in the service of such a Lord, who 
takes notice of the least that can be done, who rendered 
robes for rags, crowns for crumbs, turns out water into wine, 
gives a weight of glory for light afflictions, and eternal wages 
for a little momentary service ? 

Now in that this good man doth, as often as he makes this 
prayer, make mention of God as his God ; ^* Remember me, 
my God ;" we may from thence certainly infer, that, by 
this consideration, he had been greatly animated in his un- 
dertakings, by which he was so much comforted in the 
review of them, and encouraged to pray for a merciful reward 
unto them. And this leadeth us unto three observations, 
which I shall but name. 

I. Th%i a sound faith and particular interest in God as our 
God, is a special principle to quicken us in great and ho« 
nounible undertakings. It set Nehemiah at first to improve 
his relations unto the King of Persia, for the good of his 
people, and the city Jerusalem; {Nekem. i. 11, and ii. 4, 8) 
sod by the same argument, he encouraged the people to 
nloor and resolution. (^Nehem. iv. 20) The church profes- 
aeth, *' That in the name of their God, they would set up 
their banners." (Psalm xx. 5) David went unarmed, in the 
confidence of that name, against Goliath, because God was the 
God of the hoi^ts of Israel. (1 Sam. xvii. 46) In all their 
narches and motions in the wilderness, this was their com- 
fort, — That they had a God, which went before them as their 
captain, who was able to scatter all their enemies. {Numb. 
X. 35, 36. Psalm Ixviii. 7, 8) In this confidence Asa and 
Jehoshaphat applied themselves to God as their God, and 
went on with courage and comfort against huge armies of 
tnemies. (2 Chron. xiv. 11, and xx. 6, 7, 11, 12) By this 
bith, "Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, David, subdued 
kingdoms, obtained promises, stopped the mouths of lions, 
quenched the violence of the fire, escaped the edge of the 

' lath zxviii. 9, 14. • 1 Kings xvii. 13, IS. < 2 Kings 


VOL, V. V 


sword, out of weakness were made strong, waxed valiant in 
fight.^&c. (He*, xi. 32.34) 

1. Faith is an active and working grace:" •* remembering 
your tcork of faith,^ saith the apostle. (1 Thess. i. 3) It will 
not let men be idle or unfruitful. (2 Pet. i. 8) It knows 
what a back and strength it hath in the truth and power of 
God, through whom * it can do all things;' {Phil. iv. 13) 
and thereupon what it iindeth to do, it doth with its might. 

2. It is an * heroical' grace: as the philosopher saith of 
wisdom ;' that it is hrnrrrifiri rov rijcuarroTwy, ' the knowledge of 
the most honourable things;' so We may say of faith, that it 
utvdertaketh the most honourable things, eyeth great objects, 
pursueth great ends, looketh upon all things as possible; 
{Mark \^. 23) and therefore is not dismayed at any. What 
ah heroic faith ^ was tliat of Joshua, whereby he prevailed 
with God in prayer, to stop the course of the sun and moon^ 
while Israel was avenged on their enemies! (Josh, x. 12) 
And though, ordinarily, faith be not a faith of miracles, yet 
it hath a nobleness and a greatness in it, whereby it can, in 
the assurance of its interest in God, set upon great actions 
which are conformable unto his will. 

3. It is a valiant and victorious gra<;e ; is not afraid of 
men or devils, when it bath made sure of God: It quench^ 
eth the fiery darts of Satan ; — ^it overcomes the world. One 
David, having God for his God, was not afraid of ten thon*^ 
sand of armies of men; {Psal. iii. 6, and xxvii. 3) by his 
God '' he can run through a troop, and leap over a wall, and 
break a bow of steel." (Psal. xviii. 29) Nothing is invinci- 
ble to faith : ' it can level mountains : {Zech. iv. 7) it can 
more than conquer greatest difiiculties. {Rom. viii. 35, 37) 
As one man by an engine may move bodies, which an hun* 
dred, without it, could not stir ; so, by the engine of faiths 
things are many times effected, which, to sense and reason, 
do seem impossible. 

» tlUnis iffy^rit dyodcSr Clem, Alex, Strom, lib. 5. — Per fidem Cbristi non tu- 
mus liberi ab operibus : sed ab opinionibus operum. Lutk. — Esc res vivi, p^ 
tens, operosB, &c. Luther, in Gen. 12. fol. 153. * Metaphyt* U I. 

J Fides maxima et beroica operator, Luth. in Gen. 29. ' Credenda ou^ 

nia sunt possibilia ; fides facit ex eo quod nihil est ut sit, et ex impossibilibot 
factt omnia possibilia. — Figit cor in illud quod omnino eis abtucdum et impo»> 
sibile, oontsotum verbo, Luth. in Gen. 27. fol. 405. 


4. It is a patient grace. It is not discouraged with every 
obstacle^ nor dismayed with every terriculament, nor wearied 
with every encounter : but like box, or holly, and such other 
trees, retfiins its verdure in the winter, and holds out amidst 
all difficulties unto the end ; knows how near the promised 
merciee are^ and doth cheerfully press forwards towards 
them; says with those in the prophet, {Isa. xxv. 9) *' This is 
our God ; we have waited for him, and he will save us.^ 
Faith doth not suffer a man to draw back, but patiently to 
continue in well doing, that he may, after a little while, re- 
ceive the promises. {Heh. x. 36, 39. Rom, ii. 7) 

5. It is a praying grace : can, in every exigent and dis- 
tress, call down invisible help from God. And none go with 
more vigour about any enterprise than they, who being back- 
ed with potent friends, and having free access unto great 
treasures are able, in any extremity, to attain the concurrent 
counsels and succours of others, to further their designs. 
He apostle bids us, by faith, to ask wisdom of God, that 
thereby patience may go through, and have her perfect work. 
(JameM i. 4, 5, 6) God hath honoured faith and repentance, 
in the gospel, above other graces, because they have a pecu- 
liar virtue to carry us out of ourselves in prayer unto God. 
And no graces do more promote great actions than self-de- 
Djiog graces, when men have ends and aids above themselves. 
Garoal ends, domestic interests, and private affections, do 
nSQftUy obstruct noble undertakings ; because such men, as 
soon as storms arise, and difficulties shake them, forsake the 
prc^r and eternal merits of the business, and hold or alter 
their resolutions, according as their own personal hopes, or 
fears do dictate unto them. And therefore the best way to 
Bake strong and steady progress in any serious employment, 
ii, to have God for our God, that, in every difficulty, we may 
be able to have recourse unto him for counsel, wisdom, sue* 
Gour, support ; and may be strong in the Lord, and in the? 
power of bis might. 

II. As faith is a special principle of action in great under- 
tdungs ; so it is a special ground of comfort in the reviewing 
of them. When we can say, ** In this action, though full of 
Bsny difficulties, yet faith in God as my God, hath upheld 
■e, and carried me through it to the end : I have under- 
taken it, not in mine own strength, nor in the confidence of 

F 2 


mine own wisdom ; but in a holy fear, and comfortable de« 
pendance upon God ; I have aimed at his glory, and at pub- 
lie interest; I have not immixed nor interwoven in it, any 
carnal counsels, or sinful projects of mine own ; I have la- 
boured to keep a good conscience in doing of mine own duty, 
and have cast myself upon his holy providence for the event;" 
— in this case the Lord doth ordinarilv return such an an- 
swer of peace, to works that are done in the fear of his name, 
by the rule of his word, in the comfort of his promises^ and 
with submission to his providence, as that, one way or other, 
the heart shall be able to take comfort in it : for faith is a 
successful grace, and hath a promise of prospering. *' Be- 
lieve in the Lord your God, so shall you be established ; be- 
lieve his prophets, so shall you prosper.*" (2 Chron. xx. 20) 
By faith, Israel passed through the Red Sea, and saw the 
victory of their faith in the ruin of their proud enemies. 
{Exod. xiv. 30, 31) 

If the Lord bless the undertaking itself, with the desired 
success, faith hath this comfort, — that it is a blessing re- 
ceived from the hand of a father, an evidence of his love, an 
accession unto the gift of his son, with whom he freely giveth 
all other things. It is the portion which God hath graciously 
given unto his servant ; — and though the thing given be good 
itself, yet the favour and blessing of God which comes along 
with it, is much more excellent : as the money in the mouth 
of the fish, or the pearl in the body of the oyster, is more 
precious than that which was the vehiculum of it 

And, on the other hand, if the Lord suffer not our labours 
to succeed, yet he is our God himself still, and all desirable 
good is eminently comprised in him, who is a God all-suffi- 
cient to those that walk before him, and are upright. Though 
he answer me not in the particular wherein I waited upon 
him,* he ever answers ' secundum cardinem desiderii,' in 
such a way as is better for me : though the issue be not * se- 
cundum voluntateni,"* according to my will, yet it is ever 'ad 
utilitatem,** according to my profit and good. Paul had not 
the thing he expressly prayed for, to have the messenger of 
Satan depart from him ; but he had a sufficiency of grace to 

» Ave:. Confer, lib. 5. c.8. — Bonus Deus qui non tribuit 8«pe quod volumus, 
ut trihudt quod malimus. j^us. epist. 34. ct Tract. 73. in Johan* et Tom. 7. lib. dc 

unitri'. b.rclrs. r. 19. ct rontr. Jul'.an. lib. f). cap 1. tt cpi'Jt. 1*21 rnp. 1 1. 


uphold him, which was much better. And as a aieichant is 
not angry with his factor, though he send him not the com- 
modities he wrote for^ if he send him those that are ten times 
more beneficial ; no more is a believer displeased with the 
good providence of God« when he receives in answer to his 
labours and prayers, not what himself expected, but what 
God knew much better for him. 

III. A special interest in God as our God, is a notable 
argument in prayer, for the obtaining of a gracious reward 
unto our sincere services : for, upon this ground, doth this 
boly man thrice desire to be remembered of God : and, upon 
this ground, did our Saviour teach his disciples to build «ll 
their petitions, by calling God ' our Father.** It is the prayer 
of faith, the prayer of a righteous man that is effectual ; 
{James v. 15, 16) for the Lord will not hear those that regard 
iniquity ID their heart ; their prayer is an abomination. (PsaL 
Ixvi. 18) The Lord is far from the wicked ; but he heareth 
the prayer of the righteous. (Prov, xv. 19) 

It is true, he is pleased sometimes to take notice of the 
cries end prayers of nature, and to return some answer unto 
tbem, that even wicked men may know that it is not in vain 
even for' them to seek the Lord ; and therefore such as their 
prayers are, such returns he is pleased many times to make 
Boto them. So God heard the voice of Ishmael crying for 
water, and shewed Hagar a well. {Gen. xxi. 17, 19) He took 
notice of the humiliation of Ahab ; and thereupon respited 
the judgement which he had threatened. (1 Kir^s xxi. 29) 
As Abraham, though he gave the blessing and the inheritance 
unto Isaac, yet he gave gifts to the rest of his children ; (Gen. 
ixT. 5, 6) so the Lord, though he reserve his great reward 
for the heirs of promise, yet he leaveth not himself without 
witness eren amongst others, giving such benefits unto them 
ulhey tender services unto him. They that give none but 
outward services, desire none but outward benefits ; and ac- 
cording to the nature of their services and desires, the Lord 
mswereth them with mere outward good things. 

But the prayer of faith, pleading the great aud precious 
promises of the new covenant, and calling upon God as a fa- 
ther, i)v the spirit of his Son shed abroad into the hearts of 
tboie who are heirs of promise, hath two great advantages 
above any other mere natural prayer : — 


1. It is sure to obtain pardon for what failings and mis- 
carriages proceed from human infirmity : the Lord sparing 
his children, as a man spareth his owii son that serveth 
him; {MaL iii. 17) and Christ bearing the iniquity of our 
holy things. 

2. It is sure to obtain spiritual rewards for those holy and 
sincere performances, which proceed from the grace and aa- 
sistance of the spirit of Christ ; the Lord being pleased, first, 
by his grace to work all our works for ua; (/5a. zxyi* 12) 
and then, by a second grace, to reward them, and to crown 
his own mercies in us : For " verily there is a reward for 
the righteous.*^ (Pja/. Iviii. 11. Mat. x. 41) And thus we 
receive grace for grace ; the grace of remuneration, for the 
grace of obedience ; the grace of God enabling us to work, 
and the grace of Ood rewarding us for working. For though 
it be the work which is revealed, yet the reward is not of 
man'^s work, but of God's grace. {Rom. iv. 4, and xi. 6) Both 
these graces did this holy Nehemiah beg, in the confidence 
of his interest in God as his God. ^^ Remember me, O my 
God, concerning this also ; and spare me, according to the 
greatness of thy mercy T' (Nehem. xiii. 22) remember me, to 
spare me for my sinful infirmities; remember me, to reward 
me for my sincere performances ; and both these, only upon 
the account of thy great mercy. — Nothing but great mercy 
passeth by many sins ; nothing but great mercy rewardeth 
weak services. 

I have done wi^h the words, and have, from all, but a word 
more to say unto you. What the nature of that great under- 
taking is, which God hath thus graciously moved your hearts 
to begin at the doors of his sanctuary, and to consecrate your- 
selves unto, by enquiring of him, and seeking of him a right 
way, is much better known to you than to me, who have lit- 
tle inspection into such things : but being a very weighty 
business, and possibly full of variety and difficulty, and all 
men being subject to errors and mistakes, to impotency and 
infirmity, to sinful failings and defects, to difference of 
judgements, and divided affections, and all human actions 
being obnoxious to misconstructions and various miscar- 
riages ; — and God having reserved events and successes in 
his proper power, — it is therefore your duty, in all your ad- 
dresses unto action, to make your first applications unto God, 


that he would lead you by his spirit, and cause you to make 
his word your counsellor ; that he would work all your works 
for you, and shine upon your counsels and undertakings, by 
his special blessing; that he would preserve you from all 
mistakes and misunderstandings, and pour out upon you a 
spirit of unity and agreement ; that he would forgive all your 
fiuling)!, and teach you to approve your hearts and conscien. 
ces unto him in well-doing ; that your labours may so be 
conversant about treasures here below, as that your hearts 
and affections may be upon things above ; and you may, with 
such sincerity, courage, zeal, and holy affections, go through 
the duties of your places and callings here, as that you may 
be able to look backward with comfort upon a fruitful life, 
and forward with faith and hope upon a glorious reward ; 
and conclude your lives and your labours, as Nehemiah doth 
his book, with a '* remember me, O my God, for good.*^ 
And we should all learn so to lead our lives, with such an 
eye to 6od*8 word and rule, to his glory apd houoiiri to the 
service of bis church, and our generation ; to be so diligent, 
careful, prudent, sincere, trusty, faithful, in \&very service 
which lieth upon us, — as that when we come to die, and give 
up our accompts to him, we may be able to say, '' Lord, I 
have been faithful in that little service wherein thou hast 
employed me ; let me now enter into my master's joy : I have 
remembered thy name, to glorify thee : I have remembered 
tby people, to serve them: I have remembered thy house, 
sod the offices thereof: I have remembered the widow, the 
fidherless, the poor and helpless, to provide for them : I have 
lemembered every trust imposed upon me ; and have not, by 
toy wilful indiligence, imprudence, or unfaithfulness, betray- 
ed it, but have laboured to adorn, my general calling, by sin- 
cerity and fidelity in my particular . calling. And now, be 
thou graciously pleased to remember me for good, and to 
spare me according to the multitude of thy mercies.*^ 



DcCrered in » S£RMON at the Spittle, upon Monday in Easter M'eek, 
April 12th, \66S; before the Lord Mayor, Ac. 

1 TIM. VI. 17, 18, 19. 

Charge them that are rich in this world, that they be not high- 
minded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the livit^ God, 
who giveth us richty all things to enjoy : That they do good, 
that they be rich in good works, ready to distribute, willing 
to communicate ; laying up in store for themselves a good 
foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold 
on eternal life. 

The Wise roan telleth us, that '^ a word, fitly spoken, is 
like apples of gold in pictures of silver.^' (Prot?. xxr. 1 1) 
And our Lord in the prophet telleth us, that he had '* the 
tongue of the learned, to speak a word in season.^ {Isa. U 4) 
Paul at Athens disproved the superstition of that learned 
city, out of the inscription of their own altar, and the testi- 
mony of their own poets ; {Acts xvii. 23, 28) and before Fe- 
lix, * a corrupt and intemperate judge, he preached of righte* 
ousness and temperance. (Acts 24, 25) In solemn and public 
meetings, the most needful doctrines to be pressed, are those 
which are most suitable to the auditory. When Timothy is 
to preach before rich men, the apostle here furnisheth him 
with the materials of his sermon, to warn them against the 
sins incident to that condition, and of the duties incumbent 
upon it : and because hard duties are both to be urged with 

» Cuncta malcfocta sibi iropunc ratus. Taiit, Annal.l. 12. Peromnem asvidam 
ct libidinem jus regium scrvili ingenio excrcuit : Hist. 1. 5. — Sutton, in Claudio. 
lip. 28. 


cogent argunienlB, and sweetened with special comforts, here 
are motives of both kinds used, that by the necessity and the 
utility, they may be persuaded unto the duty: — so that my 
text is a very fit present for an assembly of rich citizens, a 
present of gold and silver ; apples of gold in tables of silver, 
a present of treasures, stable and abiding treasures, a good 
foundation, an everlasting: life, »nd all to be had, not h rep yw, 
in this present now : h &eoo ^ajyri, in that living God^ who is 
yesterday and to day the same, and for ever ; and who never 
faileth or forsaketh those that trust in him. 

The apostle, having before shewed the great mischief of 
covetousness, that godly contentment is true gain ; that re- 
solutions to be rich, do cast men upon desperate and fre- 
quent temptations ; that worldly love is a seminary of unbe-, 
lief, apostasy, and all mischief; and having warned Timothy 
in his own conversation, to avoid such dangerous lusts, — 
doth fbrtber diiect him in his ministerial function, to lay the 
same charge upon worldly rich men, in the words which I 
bam read unto you. 

Wherein we have; First, Timothy's duty; tropay/eAAwv, 
• charge.^ Secondly, The subject of that charge, ' rich men.' 
Thirdly, The limitation of that subject, igrXowrlot^ iv rtf wv aM»n, 
' rich men in this world.' Fourthly, The particulars and 
naterials of the charge, set down negatively and affirmatively, 
and both two-fold. 

The negative ; not to be ^ high-minded, not to trust or 
hope in riches ;' with a reason which reacheth unto both, 
because of the * uncertainty' of them. 

The affirmative ; 1. ^ To trust in God ;' with a double rea- 
son of that ; * his life,' he is ' the living God ;' his ' bounty/ 
be gives, gives ' richly,' gives * all things ;' and, with the 
thinga, gives a heart to enjoy them. 

2. To imitate God in his divine work of bounty and libe- 
ttlity; expressed, 

First, By the matter of it, 'AyaJofjyflv, * To do good.' 

Secondly, by the manner of doing it; viz. 1. To do it 
copiously, to be ' rich in good works,' wXoureiv ev fjpyoi; xoXoI^. 
2. To do it * cheerfully, readily, easily,' with an aptitude add 
propension thereunto, eufMraJ^^ous elvai. 3. To do it ' dif- 
hsivelv, extensively,' unto community ; or to do it modestly, 
humanely, lovingly, gently, without morosity or exproba^ 


tion ; to be xoiMoyixoi rav Snow, as Lucian^s expressiou is. 
That others may be p.irtakers of our good things with us. 

And this duty is expressed by a very elegant reason, in a 
way of ayr/do-i;, and as a prolepsis or prevention of what 
might be objected. — ^' If I be so diffusive and communica- 
tive to others^ I shall leave nothing for myself, or those af 
mine own household :'" — This the apostle preventeth, tell- 
ing us, 

First, That thus to lay out, is to ' lay up/ and that as in 
^ a treasure,' eendi^avpl^enf. It is like scattering of seed, 
in order to an increase and harvest \ 

Secondly, That th as to lay out upon others, is to ' lay up 
for themselves,^ fhrofc^oup/^oyra; kanoigm 

Thirdly, That hereby the uncertainty. and instability <3f 
riches is ccmrected and fixed, o&iX^; turned into ^tfukttf 

Fourthly, Wheveas worldly riches are only hr^ w ctUm, 
for the present time, they will not descend after** a man^ 
when he dies; being put into good works, they are^^UXn^ 
tU TO fuA^oy, returnable into another country; a man's ^ 
works will follow him ; he shall find them again after many^ 
days. And wliereas ^hey, being of a muddy and slimy ori« 
ginal, are slippery, and cannot be held ; either we shall go 
from them, or they from us ; they have wings % and will fly 
away ; that which is thus laid up by them, may be held, 
Jpa hFtXaSmrcu, * that they may lay hold.' 

Fifthly, Whereas a man^s riches cannot lengthen his life one 
night' beyond the period which God hath fixed ; — being thus 
laid out, and laid up, to comfort the lives of others, they are 
graciously by God rewarded with eternal life. A house, 
thus founded, shall continue for ever. 

1. Timothy's duty; ** Charge those that are rich.'** He 
doth not say, ' Flatter them, nor please them, nor humour 
them, nor fawn upon them, or crouch to them ;' nay, he doth 
not say what he used to do himself; ' Beseecb them, entreat 
them, persuade them ;' but he giveth Timothy the same 
power towards them, as he used towards him, ver. 13. va- 
ptefSbJM 0^, mm^iyfnXKM rolg v^ocicioi;. And, 1 Tim. iv. 11, 

•Prov. (1.24. b Psalm zltx. 17. « Rev. xiv. 13. '^ Ecc\t%. 

xu 1. * Prov. xxiii. 5. ^ Lukt xii. 20. 


mmfiyf^XM rmra xtii Sl&ecrxf ; ^^ These things command 
and teach.'* It is true, the ministers of Christ are the ser- 
vants of his church. The Levites and priests were so; 
•• They served the Lord^ and his people Israel." (2 Chron. 
XXXV. 3) The apostles themselves were so; ^* Ourselves 
your servants for Jesus' sake." (2 Cor. iv. 6) Yea, the Lord 
of all, whom the angels worship, '* took upon him the form 
of a servant' ;" {Phil. ii. 7) came not to be ministe^red unto, 
but to minister. {Matth. xx. 28) And he was the Apostle, 
the High-Priest, ap^nro/jfti^y, the Great, the Chief Shepherd ; 
is pleased to be called by one of the lowest appellations, 
Attbtfipo^, ^ a Deacon, a Minister of the Circumcision.** (Rom. 
XV. 8) 

Servants then we are; and accordingly must, in humilia- 
tion, in meekness, in condescension, stoop to men of the 
lowest degree. The very angels of heaven do so ; they are 
Xmn&fymBi wnCfiara, ' ministering spirits.' {Heb. i. 14) 

Bat you must consider, we are servants to your souls, — 
not to your wills, much less to your lusts : so servants to 
yoo, as that we must give account pf our service to a greater 
liord, who gives us authority and power, as well as ministry 
and service. (Tit. ii. 16) And therefore, in the delivery of 
his message, we may not so be the servants of men, as to cap- 
tivate the truth of God, and make his spirit bend and com- 
ply with their lusts. (1 Cor. vii. 23. Gal. i. 10) 

There is a majesty and power in the word of Christ, when 
set on with his spirit, who spake ds eiouc^lav l^cov, as one 
bltving authority, {Matth vii. 29) and regarded uoi the per- 
sons of men ; which no power, wealth, or greatness, caq be 
a fortification against It is a •^ two-edged sword ; sharp ^ in 
the hearts of Christ'^s enemies ; able "^ to break rocks, to tear ^ 
cedars, to pull down " strongholds, to smite the hes^rt, to stop 
the mouth, to humble^ an Ahab, to shake a^ Felix, to awe 
an** Herod. It is the*" arm of the Lord, which can sling a 
itone into the conscience of the stoutest sinner, and make it 

• Servili pictio venditus. Math. zzvi. 15. Exod. xxi. 32. Zech. xi. 12, 13. Cod. 
1.7. Tit. 2.^Vide Ccusab. Exercit. in Baron. Anno. 34. num. ]5. — Servilis sup* 
plido affectus. L%p%. dc Cruce. I.e. 12. » Hcb. iv. 12. b Psalm 

ih. 5, « Isai. xlix. 2. ^ Psalm xxix. 4, 5. •2 Cor. 

X.4, 5. '1 Kings xi. 27. « Acts xxiv. 25. »» Mark vi. 20. 

■ uai. ui. 1. 

76 THE lilCH man's CUARGC. [s£liM. XII. 

Binki like Goliath, to the ground. It can so shake a man 
with conviction of guilt, and prepossession of wrath, that 
he shall go in sackcloth and ashes, weeping and mourning, 
roaring and rending of himself, till his soul draw nigh to the 
grave, and his life to the destroyers. 

And there is an authority in the office, which dispenseth 
the power of God ; being the ambassadors* of Christ, there 
is a 'Gra/}|^(r/a, a liberty^ and boldness belonging to our 
charge. So that albeit we must manage the same decently 
and prudently with due regard to men^s stations and degrees, 
shewing all meekness to all men ; yet we must do it. First, 
Impartially, without respect of persons : Secondly, Zealously, 
against the daring presumptions of the greatest sinners. 
^* Say to the king and to the qneen, Humble yourselves.^' 
{Jer. xiii. 18) ** I have made thee a defenced city, and an 
iron pillar, and brazen walls, against the whole land, against 
the kings of Judah, against the princes thereof, against the 
priests thereof, and against the people of the land.*^ {Jer. i. 
18) A minister of Christy though he must be meek and 
lowly, gentle and patient, of a dove-like innocency, and of a 
winning compliance ; yet he must not be a low-spirited man, 
to fear the faces or the frowns of men ; he must magnify his 
office**, as Paul did ; and dare to be as bold for Christ, as the 
proudest sinners can be against him. The file is as impartial 
to silver and gold, as it is to brass and iron. The honey, 
though it be sweet, yet it cleanseth. Oil, though soft and 
smooth, yet fetcheth out the poison which lies in the sto- 
roach. Ministers must be bold to speak the gospel h woXXif 
itywvi, with much contention;^ (1 Thess. ii. 2) to cause the 
truth of Christ to enter into a combat with the lusts of men; 
to deliver it in the spirit* and power of Elias, to^iever the 
precious^ from the vile ; not to please ^ men, except in case 
when they may be edified and profited (then we may please 
them, 1 Cor. x. ult.) ; not to please them by strengthening 
their hands in wickedness, but to please God that trieth the 
heart. They must speak nothing but as the word and oracle 
of God. (1 Pet. iv. 11) And when they do so, the richest 
and greatest amongst men owe a^ much reverence, fear, 

• 2CoT. V. 20. •» Acts ii. PJ, ct iv. 13. tphcs. >i. ID. Til. ii. 15. 

^ Vid. Aug. Epist. 64. ** Rom. xi. 13. * Luke i. 17. 'Jer. 

XV. 19. t I Thc»b. ii. 4. • 


trembling, and obedience to the word, as the meanest. Nay, 
many times, as a cannon-bullet makes more battery upon a 
stately pile of building, than upon a wall of mud ; and a tem- 
pest doth more easily break an oak or cedar, than a low 
shrub; — so the majesty of the word delighteth to shew itself 
more in taming the pride of an Ahab, or a Pharaoh, or a 
Doeg, than of other mean or inferior persons **. 

Besides, great men stand so much the more in need of 
plain-dealing from ministers, by how much the less they meet 
^ith it from other men. Some flatter them ; others fear them ; 
some are bewitched with their favours ; and others are af- 
frighted by their frowns. But the word of the Lord is not 
bound; the spirit of the Lord is not straitened; his ministers 
are or should be full of judgement, power, and might, to 
declare their transgressions to the heads of the house of 
Jacob, and to the princes of the house of Israel. (Mic. iii. 
8, 9) 

Besides, they are in more danger. The richest land is 
more subject to be overgrown with weeds and thistles; great 
men are apt to be hardened, ensnared, tempted unto more 
pride and stubbornness. And as they are under greater dan- 
ger, so they are under a greater trust, and are responsible to 
the Lord for more talents : their conversion is of a more 
general influence and concernment, than that of mean and 
private persons ; their meekness and professed subjection to 
the gospel of Christ, doth give much glory and abundant 
thanksgiving unto God ; and therefore nowli^re is the charge 
more seasonable, *' Charge those that are rich in this world.*" 
They say, the crowing of a cock will cause the trembling of 
a lion. What is a bee to a bear, or a mouse to an elephant ? 
Yet if a|tt^ get his sting into the nose of a bear, or a mouse 
creep^nfiD th^ trunk of an elephant, how do so little crea- 
tures, upon that advantage, torment the greatest ! Now the 
richest men have a tender point, into which a sting will enter. 
The conscience is as sensible in a prince, as in a beggar; 
and therefore the one, as well as the other, equally exposed 
to the charge of God. And therefore the apostle, as he doth, 
ID humility, beseech and exhort,— so he doth, in authority, 
give commandments, by the Lord Jesus, unto the church : 

k 2 Tim. i. 9. Mic. ii. 7. 


(1 Thess. iv. 1, 2, 11) and four times in one chapter speak- 
eth in that language of "^authority. (2 Thess. iii. 4, 6, 10, 12) 
A physician sometimes gives a cordial to a poor man, and a 
vomit to a prince ; tempers his physic not to the dignity of 
the person, but to the quality of the disease :-^And-60 must 
the ministers of the gospel : *' Eadem omnibus debetur cari- 
tas, non eadem omnibus adhibenda medicina; aliis blanda 
est, aliis severa, nulli inimica"".^ 

Let us now consider the subject of this charge : ^' Charge 
those that are rich in this world.^ He doth not forbid men 
to be rich, as if Christian perfection consisted in voluntary 
poverty, as some would persuade us. When Christ pro- 
nounceth a woe unto those that are rich, he shews us whom 
he means, even such as receive all their consolation in this 
world, and are wholly forgetful of another. {Luke vi. 24) 
When he said to the young man, " If thou wilt be perfect, 
sell that thou hast, and give to the poor,'^ {Matth. xix. 12) 
he speaks not of evangelical counsels, or a state of perfec- 
tion and supererogation, beyond the fulfilling of the law ; but 
he speaketh mnpeuxag by way of trial, and to convince him of 
that worldly love, which obstructed his salvation; of his 
self-deceit, in conceiving that he had done all that the law 
required; of his unsoundness and insincerity of heart, which 
could not forego all, when Christ required it, to be his dis- 
ciple ; {Luke xiv. 26) which could not suffer the loss of all 
things, and count all dung for the excellency of the know^ 
ledge of Christ ; {Phil. iii. 8) which could not, with Abra- 
ham, leave his country, and kindred, and father'^s house, to 
follow the command of God ; {Gen. xii. 1, 4) and with Peter 
and the other disciples, leave nets, and boats, and fathers, 
and all, to follow Christ; {Matth. xix. 26) and, with Barna- 
bas, sell all, and lay down all at his feet". {Acts iv. 36, 37) 

k Vosmi Hist. Pelag. lib. 5. Theu. 2. n ^t^.de Catmchunienis Rudibiis.c. 15. 
n HiXiM re aS, ^ iv ilhnf Et BiX^it W\«iot ytvMai^ trtttAi^af rA vwdif* 
ywr^ M' v7«ifx<>*'> ^^^7X*( '''^^ Kavx4iui^w lw\ r^ wdtras krroXAs ix v^ti^ 
rot rwrngnicivwr oi yckp wttrAif^icc rd, *A7(itn(0'ci5 rdv vAiicrtoy aov tis iwn6v^ 
ftc. Clem, Alex. Strom. 1. 3. p. 327. E. 328. A. Edit. Heinsiinae. — Volens irguere 
Divitem tliomDominus nostcr, qimsi non vera dioentcm, diiit ad eum, Si tis per- 
fectus esse, vade, vende omnia qoae possides, et da pauperibus : sic enim appa- 
lebis dicere verum, si dilexisti aut diligis proximum tuum sicut teipsum.' Orig. 
Tract. 8. in Matth. — ^Tircf tis Kdfiitov icol ika{6ya itafidWowrip rovrw, Thettpk, 
Hunc ex lege intolentem, solicitum de salute remittit ad kgem, ut in ea ipsa, in 


And 80 Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Hilary, Austin, and 
others, understand that answer of Christ. 

He doth not then forbid to be rich: riches are the good gifts 
of God. {Prov. X. 22) The Lord had in his church, as well 
a rich Abraham, Job, David, Solomon, as a poor Lazarus. 
Yea. in those times of danger and persecution, the spirit of 
the Lord, which bloweth where it listetb, did find out a Jo- 
seph of Arimathea, a Sergius Paulus, a Pudens, (who was a 
man of senatorian order, as Baronius telleth us, married 
unto Claudia, a lady of this island, of which marriage we 
read in Martial's epigrams. **) Yea, we read of saints in the 
family of Narcissus, who was that vast rich man, worth ten 
millions of pounds in the days of Claudius the Emperor; for 
of him do Calvin, P. Martyr, Parseus, Grotius, and other 
learned men understand that place, Rom. xvi. 11: though 
Baronius thinks that he was dead ^, when that epistle was 
written. We find mention likewise of saints that were of 
Csesar's household. {Phil, iv. 22) If any place in the world 
were like hell, certainly Nero's court was the place ; yet 
even there we meet with some that belonged unto heaven. 
Rich, then, he forbids them not to be. 

Neither doth he forl^id the use of such lawful means, by 
which, through God's blessing thereupon, they may be rich. 
We ooust maintain honest trades for necessary uses ; {Tit. 
iii. 14) we must be industrious in them, that we have lack of 
nothing. (I Thess. iv. 11, 12) It is true, in every estate, as 
well of want as plenty, we must be content ; {Phil. iv. 1 1) 
for there is a rich discontent as well as a poor : we may not 
will, resolve, conclude upon it, that whatever come of it, by 
any ooeans by which it may be effected, we will be rich. 
(] Tim. vi. 9) We may say so of grace and glory, *• What- 
ever pains or danger it cost me, I will venture aH for grace f 
bat not so for riches ; they are not absolutely and * per se' 
good ; and therefore not simply to be desired. We may not 
seek great things to ourselves : they who have most need of 

qoi gloriaiciar, inteUigeret nihil exitide recti operis fecisse, &c. Hilar, in Matth. 
r-i 19.— >Vlde Orat. Basilii in Ditesoentes. Tom. 1. p. 403, 407. — ^Putoquid ario- 
gjHitios quam yerius ' fcnrasse se mandata* respondent. Avg. Ep. 29. — Adolescens 
dives ct taperbos mentitur dicendo < Omnia haec aerravi t* Hieron, — Vid. Mende, 
Dbtrib. 4. page 142, 143. — DavtnanL de Justic. Actoali, cap. 44 ^ Martial, 

lib. 4. epw 13. « Baron. An. 58. sect 56. 

80 THK lllCH man's charge. [sERM. XII. 

them, may not greatly multiply them to themselves. {Deut* 
xvii. 17) Cyrus esteemed himself more rich in the hearts 
and love of his people "^^ than in his exchequer, as he told 
Croesus. We may be more rich in a narrow estate, with 
God^s blessing, than many wicked men are in the midst of 
their abundance. {Psalm xxxvii. 16) As a man may be 
rich in bonds, who hath but little money in hand ; so may 
a good man be rich in promises, who is but narrow in 
possessions. He forbids treasures of unrighteousness; 
(Micah vi. 10. Hob. ii. 6, 2. Jier. xxii. 13) he forbids mis- 
placing of treasures, making our hearts the repositories of 
them. {Psalm Ixii. 12) But when God is pleased, without 
the concurrence of our sinful actions and afflictions, to give 
in abundance, — we may, with a good conscience, enjoy 
it, so long as it doth not draw away our delight from God, 
but enlarge our hearts to honour him therewith, and humble 
them the more to listen to his charge, and to be inquisitive 
after his counsel. 

I shall not stand to enquire what measure of wealth it is 
which makes a man a rich man : we read of the vast riches 
of Croesus, Pallas, Narcissus, Lentulus, Seneca, and others * ; 
and of the monstrous and portentous expenses, almost be- 
yond arithmetical computation, in the luxury of garner, 
feasts, apparel, and buildings, amongst the Romans, and 
others. Cleopatra dissolved and drank in one draught of 
wine, a pearl of above seventy-eight thousand pounds in 
value. The ornaments of Lollia Paulina amounted to 
above three hundred thousand pounds; and P. Clodius 
dwelt in a house which cost him above one hundred and 
fourteen thousand pounds. There is no standing quantity, 
which makes the denomination of a rich man. In the apos- 
tle^s account, he certainly is a rich man who hath plenty sufl 
ficient for his calling, his occasions, his train, family, pos- 
terity, for necessary, decent, and liberal expenses : in one 
word, whose estate is amply proportionable both to his con* 
dition and to his mind ; for ' copiosum viaticum,'* ovrapxfMi, ' 
and penury doth not consist fv ^Xiyop^gij/xar/a, but ev atjAijo-r/^ 
not in narrowness of wealth, but in vastnc^fs uf desire. So 

* Xcnophon. Cyropad. 1. 8.— Vide Greg. Tholos. dc Rep. I. 3. c. 9. • VId. 

Budstum de Asse, 1. 2. fol. 50. lib. 3. fol. 83. 1. 4. fol. 98, 99, 100.— Liptt. dc 
Magnitud. Rom. I. 2. c. 15.— flnVnroorf dc Nummis, c. 9. /llhenttuSf I. 12. 



and to liiB train or 
«i» siuut, it enrich- 

r^imt irhich is suitable to a. man's min 
Mate, makes him a rich man. 
But yet still all this wealth is but h 
r*th a man but between ibis and his grave ; " His glory will 
not descend after him."^ In all points, as he came into the 
world, so he must go out ; ^ naked in and naked out ; he 
brought nothing " in, he can carry nothing out ; he passeth ', 
but the earth abides, and his house will know him no more. ^ 
And this shows the baseness of worldly neakb. First, that 
it IS communicable to the men of this world, who have their 
|>Oftion only here ; * their bellies may be filled with these 
IreasureA ' :' they may have more than heart could wish ; they 
may be mighty in power; and spend their days in wealth '"; 
tbey may join house to house ", and lay field to Ueld. " No 
nut can know love or hatred by these things ;" a Nabul, 
and ft Doeg may have them as well as an Abraham, or a 
1 Daiid. Jacob's ladder which conveyeth to heaven, may 
I have its Coot in a smoking cottage ; and there may be a trap- 
Fdoor in a stately palace, which may let down to hell. — Se- 
condly, That it is of but a very narrow use ; like a candle, 
needful in the night, but absurd in the day ; like brass to- 
kens, fit to buy some small tritles with, but not to purchase 
aa inheritance. All the difference which riches make 
amongst men, are but, ev to/ vuy, in this little isthmus of mor- 
tality. As, in casting accounts, one counter stands for a 
tboasaod pounds, another for a penny; as, in setting letters, 
the same letter may one while be put into the name of a 
pfioce, and the next time into the name of a beggar; but 
when the counters are put into the bag, and the letters into 
their boxes, they are there all alike. No difference between 
the du9t of Dives and Lazarus. Come to Ahab and Jezebel 
■»hen Uie dogs have done with ihem ; and their vineyard and 
'heir paint is vanished unto all eternity. A living dog ia 
etler than a dead lion; a dead lion no better than a dead 

I Our wiadom, therefore, it is to labour for that which So- 

•l«»iU«.I7. <E<:cl«.v. i(. i.Johi.31, 
HT. » Eccl«. i. *. Job irii. 10. 'fjyJ> S h %ttp, oi 

^7. 1 PMlmivii. 14. «liiiii.7. ".Jobii 
>(,«. Bccl». III. " Ecc]es.ii,«. 

' ITim 

n<um, lib. IB- 
i. 13. Iu.i...8. 

Vflt. V. o 


lotnon calleth * durable riches ;^ which is current in another 
world, which will follow a man when he dies : '* his wealth 
will not^ his works will.'*' {Rev. xiv. 13) To make the fear 
of the Lord our treasure; {IsaLxxxVn. 6) to be rich towards 
God; (Luke xii. 21) to lay up treasure in heaven; {Luke 
xviii. 22) to buy of Christ gold tried in the fire, that we may 
be rich. {Rev.m. 18) As Abraham sent jewels of silver, 
and gold, and raiment unto Rebecca, the wife of Isaac, the 
son of promise ; (Gen. xxiv. 53) so doth the Lord give rich 
and precious ornaments unto the church his spouse. {Ezek. 
xvi. 10, 13) The graces of the spirit are compared unto 
chains and borders of gold, and studs of silver. {Cant. i. 10, 
11) These riches are returnable into heaven. To be rich in 
faith, in knowledge, in wisdom, will stand us in stead, when 
the world hath left us. Things which come from heaven lo 
us, while we are on the earth, — will go to heaven with ua, 
when we leave the earth. Graces are like the waggons, 
which Joseph sent to carry Jacob his father : {Gen. xlv. 21) 
they are the vehicula, like Elijah's chariot of fire, to trans* 
port the souls of believers unto Christ. Men naturally desire 
durable things, strong houses, clear titles, lasting garments^ 
jewels, and precious stones that will go every where. No 
riches are indeed durable, but those that are heavenly ; no 
rust, no moth, no thief can reach them. What the philoao* 
pher affirmeth of heavenly bodies, is certainly true of heaven- 
ly graces, they are * incorruptible.' 

There is a strange contradiction between men^s professions 
and their practice. Ask a man, which, in his conscience, he 
thinks the best, riches or grace ? and he will answer very 
truly, ' There is no comparison, no more than between God 
and mammon : riches not to be named the same day with 
grace.' — But observe it, and you will find no man sit still, 
and drowsily look when riches will drop into his mouth ; bnt 
he riseth early, and goeth late to bed His worldly heart 
shakes and awakeneth him ; ^ Surge,^ nquit Avar tia, * eja 
surge : negas ?' Instat, * surge,' inqu it; Non queo ;' ' surge.* 
He sweats, he toils, he spends his time, his studies, he ven- 
tures far and near. 

Per mare pauperiem fugieas, per laxa, per ignes. 


But for darable riches of grace and glory, which (oar Sa- 
TJotir saya) ^ mast be 'laboured for;' which (Solomon tells 
■s) must be *' searched and digged for, as for hidden 
treasares C* (Pror. ii. 4) how few are there, who evidence the 
troth of their profession, by the measure of their diligence ; 
who are not far more supine in their pursuance of holiness, 
than of wealth ! Surely, even in this sense, is that of St. 
James tme^ ''Your silver and your gold fihall rise up in 
jndgement against you ;^ and plead, ns, C-yprian tclU us. 
Satan will plead against wicked men by way of exprobratiun, 
' I Derer died for them, I never made promisrH of etrrmil lifo 
unto them i* so will your money say, *' ! wan never iihl»» to 
cleanse their consciences, — to remove their irnilt, or fi'arn, - 
to pacify their hearts, — to serure their salvation, to pn-Arnt 
them without spot or wrinkle to C»od ; yet me they woord 
mud worshipped, and hunted after; and M\ grace and mfrcy, 
righteousneas and peace, Christ and nulvution. unsulutcd, 
nndesired.** O learn we to build our house upon a rock, t(i 
get a kingdom that cannot be shaken, to have a city which 
hath foundations. Crowns mav fall', thrones may mis- 
carry ' : aucH may the storms be, as may subvert the cedars 
of Lebanon, and the oaks of Bashan, os miy overturn towers 
and palaces. ' Treasures of darkness % hidden riches of 
secret places % may be searched out and taken auay: but 
the righteous shall not be moved ; he shall not hi; afraid of 
evil tidings. ' The name of the Lonl is n strong tower ', in 
which be shall be kept in perfect peacf, because in the Lord 
Jehovah is everlasting strength."'' 

Let UB now proceed to the matter of th<- charge, which is 
first ne(rative, and that double : First. " That tliev be not 
hiffU-minded.^* This notes, that there is a secret malignity, 
which riches, meetint; with corruption, havt* in thrui, to lift 
Dp menu's minds above their due region. Tyrus edified ht-r- 
leif, becanae of her wealth : *^ Thine heart is lifted up, 
because of thy riches; and thou hast set thine heirt as the 
heart of God." (Ezek. \xviii. 5, fi) " According to their 

r John Ti. 27. « JiroetT. .). ' Jer. uii. 18. * Dan. 

a. 21, u>d ▼!!. 9. * I»i. ii. 13, IH. Zech. xi. 2. •* l«ai. xlv.3. 

> Ofaa?l. ver. ^. ' Ptalm cxii. 6. 7. * Prn%. xviii. lU. • l«ai. 


84 THE RICH man's CHARGE. [S£RM. XIT. 

pastures, so were they filled ; they were filled, and their 
heart was'texalted ; therefore have they forgotten me.^' (JEZbs. 
. xiii. o, 6) Whence that caution which Moses gives ante 
Israel, "Beware, lest when thou hast eaten and art full, and 
bast built goodTy houses, and dwelt therein ; and when thine 
herds and thy flocks multiply, and thy silver and thy gold is 
multiplied, and all that thou hast, is multiplied ; then thine 
heart be lifted up, and thou forget the Lord thy God," &c. 
(Dent. viii. 12, 13, 14) Men are like larks, very silent and 
modest when they are low and on the ground ; but, in a 
warm and glorious sunshine, they soar up, and are very 
clamorous. And though they be never a drachm the holier, 
the nearer to heaven, the safer from hell, by all their wealth ; 
yet they think highly of themselves, walk with more state, 
look with more disdain, breathe more scorn, keep more di^ 
tance, that you would not think such a one a richer only, 
but another man. Put money into a bag, and the bag re- 
mains leather or canvass still ; but if it once get into the 
heart of a man, he is presently changed; his thoughts of him- 
self greater, and of others meaner, Uian they were before. 

This, the apostle saith, should not be so ; for after all this, 
it is but man still, (Eccles. vi. 10) and the word is as much 
above him as before. A hill is proud, and overtops the 
valley ; but in comparison of the sun, they are equally dis- 
tant, and that haply scorcheth the one, when it reviveth the 
other ; as the same word, it may be, comforteth a poor be- 
liever, and ^courgeth a rich sinner. A rich man then should 
not be high-minded. For, 

1 . Riches are not noble enough to raise the mind, or to 
put any solid value upon a man more than he had before. 
Righteousness indeed, because it comes from heaven, can 
exalt and lift up thitherward^: but things, of a mere earthly 
extraction, do rather depress than heighten the soul ; they 
bear no proportion unto it. The heart is as improper a place 
for riches, as a man's purse or barn is for grace. The mind 
is the seat of wisdom, of knowledge, of divine impressions; 
whereas earthly things can, ' per se,^ and in their own nature 
operate only unto earthly effects. They may, indeed, be 
used by sensual lusts, as the 'fomes' and instruments of pride 

»» Pro?, xiv, 34. 



and loxuiy, — aud, by special wiadoni) »s the ' veliiciila' ol' 
charity and raercy ; but, of theinselveii, they add nolliitig of 
real value to a man, A poor man may be riciier by nne pro- 
mise of the gospel, by laying up but nne lioe of the scripture 
in bis heart, than a Doeg, or a Nabal, by the cattle on a 
thonsaDtl mountains. 

'2. Rich men are at beat but etewarda; for "the earth ia 
the Lord's :" we are but tenants, depositories, treasurers unto 
hjm. Now a steward, or prince's treasurer, is the self-same I 
man ; no change of state, no ebb, or flux of greatness, when ' 
li« batb the custody of ihousands, or of tens. And sure God 
gives us our riches to honour hiui, and not ourselves withal. 
3. Rich men walk amongst more snares and temptations : 
Cor riches are the materials which provoke, excite, foment 
call forth sinful pleasures, worldly love, self-confidence, 
intempt of the world; endanger our apostasy in times of 
!r»eeiitioii, and our security in times of peace. And this 
certain, that a full estate is like a full diet: as this-requires 
■re atrertgth of nature, — so that more wisdom and grace, to 
ler and tu digest it. Therefore a rich man ought to look 
downward the oftener, to take care of his feet ; and the higher 
tlte wind is, to hoist up the fewer sails, because there are 
^ncks and shelves round about him. 

Hv4. Id making men rich, and setting them in great places, 
^Hkid hath exalted theai enough already, and they ought the 
Pother to be more low in their own eyes. The highest boughs 
in a tree are the slenderest ; the more nature hath raised 
llicn), the smaller they are in themselves, and by that means 
the leas endangered by the tempests, which they so easily 
vieJd unto. And so it should be with us; the more we are 
fxalled by God, the less we should be in our own esteem ; 
■nd the less we are in our own e&teem, tlie safer we shxU be 
t^iti»t any temptations. Humility is not only an uruament, 
i>ut a protection. We see, the fruit grows upon the twigs 
led smaller bmnchesof a tree, not upon a stock. Humility 
makes way to fruitl'ulness, and fruitfuloess back again to 
liumilitv. The more weighty the ears of corn, the more 
ihey hang downward towards the ground. The richer thmgs 
ur, the more humble they are. Ambition was the sin of the 
Hramble; the vine, olive, fig-lree, were contented with their 
fanner dignity. Clouds, the fuller they are, are the mors 

86 THE RICH man's CHARGE. [S£RM. XII. 

heayy ; the earth is the richest, and yet the lowest element* 
Christ had in him the treasures of wisdom and grace, and 
yet, in nothing, more proposed himself unto us as an ex* 
ample, than in meekness and humility. {Matih. xi. 29. John 
x\\u 13, 14. Phil. ii. 5, 6, 7) And what comparison is there 
betwixt Christ the heir of alt things, and the richest man on 
earth ? When ** the Lord of glory, who thought it no rob- 
bery to be equal with God, humbled and emptied himself^ 
and made himself of no reputation ;^ what is there in sinful 
dust and ashes, that he should be proud ? We see, in the 
body, one member hath more magnitude, nutriment, dignity^ 
employment, than another; but none hath more humility 
than another. The head will be as ready to study for the 
hand, as the hand to work for the head ; the tongue as for* 
ward to speak for the foot, as the foot to move for the tongue. 
And all Christians profess to be members of the same body ; 
and therefore none should be proud or disdainful towards 

5. Why should a man's work and service make him proud ? 
Commonly pride and idleness go together. {Ezek. xvi. 49) 
Now the more riches God gives a man, the more work he 
sets him about. If we see a man'^s shop full of wares, of in« 
struments, of servants, commodities continually imported,— 
we conclude such a man is full of business. When the Lord 
doth multiply men's estates, he doth multiply their employ- 
ments. And we see tradesmen, though upon festival times 
they will put on rich apparel; yet, upon working-days, they 
go in a more plain and careless fashion. Now, of all other 
work, a Christian's work will not let him be proud. 

Lastly, Why should I, for a little difference in this one 
particular of worldly wealth, despise or disdainfully overlook 
my poor brother ? Doth a lawyer despise a physician, be- 
cause he hath not read the Code or the Pandect f Doth a 
physician despise a lawyer, because he hath not read Galen 
or Hippocrates ? Doth the eye despise the ear, because it 
cannot see ; or the tongue the hand, because it cannot speak ? 
Have we not all '* one Lord, one faith, one hope, one spirit, 
one gospel, one common salvation?" When so many and 
great things unite us, shall our wealth only disunite us? 
One sun shines on both, one air refresheth both, one blood 


booglit both, one heayen shall receiye both ; only he hath 
not so much of the earth as I, and possibly much more of 
Christ. And why should I disdain him on earth, whom hap- 
pily the Lord will advance above me in heaven ? Why 
should I browbeat, and proudly overlook him, whom Christ 
hath adorned with his grace, and honoured with his pre- 

We see, a rich man hath no reason to be high-minded ; 
but he that is so, will not stop there. He that makes an 
idol of his riches, will worship and trust in it, when he hath 
done ; and therefore Timothy must give rich men a second 
charge: — 

^ That they trust not in uncertain riches.**] By which. 
First, he giveth us a plain intimation, That rich men are na- 
turally apt and prone to trust in their riches : as it is said of 
Doeg, that he did not make God his strength, but '^ trusted in 
the multitude of his riches." (Psalm lii. 7) And Solomon tel- 
leth us, ^* That the rich man^s wealth is his strong tower, and 
a high wall in his own conceit.*^ (Prov. xviii. 11) As Thra- 
sybus\ by a melancholy fancy, judged all the ships in the 
Inrboar at Athens to be his; so a rich man judgeth all the 
safety and security that the world can afford, to be his own, 
because he hath that^unum magnum/ which will help it in the 
sorest extremities. Every man is conscious to himself, both 
of hi« wants, and of his dangers ; what good he is defective 
in, what evil he is exposed to : and therefore doth what he 
can for assistance to procure the good he wants, and to re- 
pel the evil he fears ; and of all assistances, he looketh upon 
this as the surest, because *' money answers unto all.*^ The 
fool in the gospel promised himself ease, long life, many 
years to eat, to drink, to be merry, and all in the confidence 
of bis riches. {Luke xii. 19) How many men trust their 
wealth to uphold their wickedness, and lean upon it while 
they fall from Ood ! How many take a liberty of violence, 
rapine, cruelty, oppression, luxury, profaneness; because 
they think their wealth will be an advocate, and a varnish 
unto all ! How many, if Christ and Mammon should come 
into competition, would say as Amaziah did, ^* What shall 

^ Athtmnut lib. zi .c. ult. 

88 THE RICH man's CHAaOE. [8£RM. XII* 

I do for the hundred talents T Ardua res hsc est opibus non 
tradere mores. So hard a thing it is not to give up our souls 
into captivity to our wealth. But, 

Secondly, This ought not to be neither. For, First, The 
object must be commensurate and suitable to the affection^ 
or else it is altogether unnatural and improper. But there is 
no suitableness between hope and riches : for hope and trust 
is ever ' de future possibili ^ ; whereas riches are only pre- 
sent, fv re^ wv. No man can know vicissitudes of worldly 
things, what a day may bring forth. Belisarius, a great 
commander one day, and a poor beggar another. There 
must be permanency, stability, and fixedness in that which 
a man casts his anchor upon: but riches take to them 
wings, and fly away. 

Secondly, The true object of hope and trust, is ' bonum 
arduum.^ I trust in that, which can help me in such ardu- 
ous and grand matters, wherein I cannot help myself; in 
that which is adequate to all mine extremities ; which hath 
more good in it, than any. of mine evils can embitter, — and 
more strength in it, than the weight of any of my extremi- 
ties can overbear. But, now, riches are not all suitable to a 
man's greatest extremitie&»» When my lungs are wasted, my 
liver dried up, stones in my kidneys too big for the pas* 
sages ; if all the stones in mine house were diamonds, and I 
would give them all for the removal of these distempers, it 
could not be done. When death comes, what crowns, or 
empires, can ransom out of the hands of the king of terrors? 
When my conscience stings me*', and the arrows of God 
stick fast in me, and I am summoned to his tribunal, to be 
there doomed ; in such cases, ^^ neither treasures, nor multi- 
tude of riches, can deliver in the day of wrath.^ (Prov. x. 2, 
and xi. 4) Riches are but like the leaves of a tree, beauti- 
ful for a season ; but when winter and storms arise, they fall 
off, and are blown away. 

3. The apostle^s reason in the text, They are *' uncertain 

riches •.'" 

' Uncertain.'* 1. In their abode, subject to a moth, a rust, 
a thief. Some things are precious, but so thin, that a moth 

« Aquin, 1. 2, qu. 40. art. 1. <* Vide Gatak, Cinnum. lib. I. c. 8. 

Xf^vov, Eurip. Elcctra, 949. 


caD eat them up. If more massy and solid, as gold and sil- 
weTf — roat and canker, some slow and lingering lust, can in- 
sensibly eat them out : but both the one and the other sub- 
ject to a thief, to some outward accident and miscarriage, 
which may spoil us of them. 

2. In their promises and pretences: the fool promiseth 
himself long life, but was answered with a ' h&c nocte.^ 
Many men^a riches are like Israel's quails, promise meat, 
hot bring a corse; like EzekiePs book, (Chap. ii. 10, and iii. 
3) taatea like honey, but is written with woes : like John's 
roll, *' sweet in the mouth, but. bitter in the belly ;^' like Bel- 
thaizar's feast, wine on the table, and a handwriting on 
the wall. Achan^s wedge of gold^; Gehazi's talents'; 
Ahab^s vineyard ** ; Jehoiakim^s wide house ', and large cham- 
ben ; were all but like the queen^s feast unto Haman, as poi- 
soned dainties, sweet to the taste, but attended with death. 
Beds of ivory, Jambs of the flock, calves of the stall, instru- 
ments of music, wine in bowls, precious ointments, all comi- 
cal harbingers of a tragical catastrophe. ^' They shall go 
captive, with the first that go captive.^ (Amos vi. 4, 7) Little 
reason to put trust in such false and uncertain things, which 
do not only lie and disappoint, bul^ like a broken reed, run 
into the arm of those that lean upon them ; '' kept to the 
hort of the owners of them ,^' as the Wise man speaks, Eccles^ 

f. 13. 

But great reason for rich and poor to trust in God, who is 
i God able to replenish the soul, to help it in greatest extre- 
mitiesy true and faithful in all his promises ; and truth is the 
ground of trust. No attribute of God, which the soul may 
sot rest upon. His * eternity :^ He will never fail me, in 
him there is everlasting strength : — His ^ immensity ;^ I have 
him ever with me : — His ^ omniscience ;"* I want nothing but 
he knows it : — His ' omnipotence ;' I suffer nothing but he 
can rebuke it: — His ^ wisdom;^ he can order every condition 
to my good. If I do my duty in the use of means, I may 
comfortably venture on his blessing for a happy issue. He 
ii a living God ^y he ever abides ; is a fountain of life to his 
poor servants ; all that is desirable, is comprised in this one 

* Josh. YU. 21. < 2 Kings v. 23. *> 1 Kings \iu 15. 

* 3a. uii. U. ^ Psalm zxivi. U. 

90 TUK RICH man's CUARG£. [sERM. Xll. 

word, life: Whatever we delight in as good, is in order to 
the support, or to the comfort of life. Now riches can 
neither give life, nor preserve it, nor restore it : A *' man^a 
life stands not in his abundance*;"' — then there would be no 
poor man alive. It is not our bread, but God's word of 
blessing*", which feeds us; and that blessing he can give to 
pulse °, and withdraw from quails^. Riches perish, but God 
lives; riches sometimes make us perish, but God makes oa 
live. A thief can take away my gold ; but who can take 
away my God ? What hath a rich man, if he hath not (}od ? 
And what wants a poor man, if he hath God ? An acre of 
land, and a shepherd's cottage in the south, with the warmth 
and benignity of the sun, — is better than twenty thousand 
acres, and a stately palace, under the north pole. Better be 
in a wilderness with God, than in a Canaan without him. 
*^ If thy presence go not with us,^ said Moses, ** carry um 
not up hence."' {Exod, xxxiii. 15) 

He is a bountiful God : he is good, and he doth good : be 
is life, and he gives life. To him alone it belongeth to sup- 
ply all necessaries, all comforts of life, unto us. We place 
riches in his throne, — we transfer his work and office upon 
them^ — when we make them the objects of our trust. 

He '' gives :*" so do not riches ; they buy, they do not give. 
I must part with so much of them, as I will proportionaUy 
have of other things. But when I have God, I need not ex^ 
change him away for other things; he brings them eminently 
in himself ; he gives them bountifully with himself. The 
earth is his^; the silver and the gold his^; the power, the 
strength, the wisdom, whereby we get riches \ his ; the bleeSp- 
ing upon that strength and wisdom % his. We are not the 
getters, but he is the giver, of them. And if we boast of 
them, and trust in them, he that gives, can take them aweyi 
they that receive, must not glory as if they had not received *« 
And if he give first, he may well charge us to give too, sioce i 
he requireth of us but his own. 

He gives ^* all things:" All the wealth in the world couU(.j 
not buy a mouthful of air, or a drop of light, if God subducfi 

1 Lukexii. 15. m Matth. iv. 4. ti Dan. i. 15. o PaloBiJ 

lxxviii.27, 31. P Psalm ex v. 16. q Hag. ii. S. r Deut./ 

vVii. 16. Prov. X. 22. » Ecclcs. ix. 11. * 1 Cor. iv. 7. 1 Chr« 

xxix. 14. 


Ricli men ^ive notlung for sun, and moon, and stars, 
I breath, and health, and strength : God ie the free giver 
r all : " The earth he gives to the children of men." All 
ings that pertain " to life and godliness," 2 Pet. i. 3. two 
Irings, which all the riches in the world cannot reach. All 
things in the promises, all are yours. (1 Cor. iii. '■2'6) I have 
all, I abound, 1 am full; (Phil. iv. 18) as having nothing, 
tnd yet possessing all things. (2 Cor. vi. 10) All things in 
measure, in proportion to our capacity, to our ability, to our 
exigencies, to our occasions. All things necessary, all thinga 
suitable; withholds no good thing, nothing but that which 
would be a snare and temptation unto us. We arc not 
(Iraitened in him, but in the howeU of one another. Our 
wvctouantfss may delraud our brethren ; God's bounty dotb 

L Ait things " richly." There is not the poorest man living, 
I is able to number up all the mercies which he dotb eiu 
ly. The light which he sees, is luercy ; the air he breathcsj 
tcy; tlie ground he walks on, mercy; the bread he eats, 
e water he drinks, the rags he wears, mercy ; the bowels of ' 
B that pity him, mercy ; the bounty of those that relieve 
, mercy:— if doga tick his sores, mercy; if a potsherd to 
rape him. mercy; rotten rags to Jeremiah in a dungeon, 
Key i a basket to Paul in a garrison, mercy. But for tho 
r in tliia world to be rich in fallb, heirs of a kingdom, to 
ine the same common Christ, the same hope, and spirit, 
d salvation ; for a poor Lazarus to have the bosom of a rich 
1 to rest in at the last; how can the poorest saint in 
B world deny unto God the praise of being rich in mercy 1 
ft is not barely want, but ignorance of our deservings, ignor- 
i of our enjoyments, un thankfulness to God, envy againat 
rs, our murmuring, discontent, idleness, imprudence, 
hprovidence, which makes men poor. Were their heart* J 
1 mouUis more enlarged towards God in praises, other I 
1 bowels would be mure enlarged to them in bounty and \ 

' lastly: He givesall things *' richly to enjoy:" and that m1 
e than all the world can do. If it give the possession, it ' 
mvt give the fruition ; it cannot give an healthy body; Jt 
t give a cheerful and contented mind ; it cannot free a 
IB bom disquieting thuughts, from anxious fears, from dis- 

92 THE UlCll man's CHARGE. [SERM. XII. 

cnicitttiiig carei, from wearisome labours, from a continual 
solicitude; it cannot give either a free, or a cheerful, or a 
pure use of the things which a man hath. As it is God that 
gives ' the power to get riches/ {Deut. viii. 18) so it is he 
who giveth knowledge, skill, wisdom, a heart seasoned with 
his jfear, and cheeredl with his favour, — whereby we may, 
with quiet contentment and sweet tranquillity, make use of 
those blessings which are reached unto us by the hand, and* 
sanctified by the word, and sweetened by the sense and com- 
fort of [the love of God. It is God's blessing alone which 
maketir rich without sorrow ; {Prov. x. 22) which, by hit 
fear, taketh away the trouble of great treasures ; (Prov. xr. 
Ui) which maketh us enjoy the fruit of our labours; {Psalm 
oxxviii. 2) which makes us eat and drink before him with 
cheerfulness ; eat the fat, and drink the sweet, because '* the 
joy of the Lord is our strength.^ (I Chron, xxix. 22. Nehewu 
viii. 10, 11, 12) This is the frequent doctrine of Solom<ML 
(Ecctet. ii. 24, 36, and iii. 13, and v. 18, 19, and vi. 2) So. 
much for the first afiirmative duty, "To trust in God,* who 
alone is the fountain of our life, the author of our comforts. 

We proceed now unto the second ; which is, to imitate 
God in these his works of bounty, otymto^Yih, " to do goody 
to be rich in good works f * for God hath not given them to 
us only to enjoy, but to do good with them too. He hatk 
not given them (or the fuel of our pride and luxury ; bat fcr 
the good of our souls, and the comfort of our poor brethren. 
We have our waters not only to drink ourselves, but also to 
disperse abrc^d. {Prxn\ v. 15, 16) 

Good works are taken, either in a more larsce sense for eD 
Mich actions of regenerate men, as they do by the help of tbe 
Holy Spirit, in conformity to the law of God ; as he that dotk 
cood, a iy«aovM^, i* said to be • of God;' (3 Jokn t. II) 
and govemons are ssid to be *• for the praise of those that 
do wieU :"' — (1 Prt. ii. 14) or elj»e, more strict! v, for woHls of 
honnty^ charity, and beneficence : as Tabitha is said to have 
been foil of ** good workfi and alms-deeds T where the latter 
clause is exejretiral of the former. (AcU i\, 36> As 
where, •* T>o cood. «nd lend, hopinc for nothinc: agaii 
< l.ukr vi . :^5) 

\oH ii beinc here rostniined !»» siu.h coofl works, as it it 
proper k»i rich num. «> ruth mm, ic rxc^rcj^e ; uiid bein^a'^ 


ter explained by the words tuiuraUrovs imt^ and koimdvixov^, I 
shall take it here in the more contracted sense for a direction 
tOQchiDg the right use of riches ; which is^ to make them the 
naterials of good works, that we may be profitable unto men. 
As God hath made us not only for ourselves, but to glorify 
him, and to serve our generation ; so when he supplieth us 
with proTisions, wherewith we may act towards thone public 
ends, he requireth tliat his gifts should be used ; not only 
for our own domestical interests, but for his honour, and the 
good of others. Rich men have their wealth, as the sun hath 
ligfaty or the fire heat, to communicate unto others. And, of 
ail things, riches should be so employed, because their whole 
use is in motion. Some things put forth their virtue most, 
when they rest and stand still. The earth keeps its place, 
mud yet is fruitful. Motion debilitates the virtue of some 
agents, and hindereth the fixing of their impressions : but 
the whole good that money duth, all the efficacy tliat it hath, 
is while it is in motion, and passing from hand to hand. It 
is as insignificant in a worldling's chest, as when it lies in the 
bowels of the earth : we call it " current money/' to note, that 
the use of it is, while it is ' in cuniu.' 

The duty then it is of rich men, to make their wealth the 
materials of *^ good works." Money useth to have an image 
sod aoperscription upon it ; (Matih. xxii. 20) and the pro- 
phet hath given us an inscription fur ours; (/m. xxiii. 18) 
** Her merchandise, and her hire, shall bo holiness to the 
Lord '7* and so {Zech, xiv. 20, 21) hereby we stamp the image 
of Ood upon them. ^ Homo homini Deua f by doing good a 
is, as it were, a God to his brother. " Be ye merciful, 
your father also is merciful.*^ (Luke vi. 36) 
The Lord could have enriched all men ; but he hath said 
^ that we shall have the poor always with us ;" that so the 
rich may have matter to imitate God, and the poor to praise 
him ; that the poor may have Christ for an example of pa- 
tience, and the rich for an example of goodness ; that the 
lich man^s supplying the poor man's wants, may be a pledge 
ind an assurance of God's supplying his wants. For rich 
ind poor are relations amongst men : but as we stand in re- 
btioD to God, every man is poor, and must be always in a 
begging posture. (Luke xviii. 1) And as Christ hath taught 
w to pray, '* Lord, I forgive others, do thou forgive me ;** in 

94 THE RICH man's CHARGE. [aEHM. XIT. 

like manner, we may pniy» ** Lord, my heart and hand is 
open to othergy let thine be so to me : I that am evil, am ena- 
bled by thee to give good things to others ; and thou hast 
given me assurance, that thou wilt much more give good 
things to those that ask them.^ 

The matter out of which these good works are to be done, 
must be, 

1. ' Bona propria/ Ix roS ^siy ivorra^ vwip^orra, our own 
things. {Luke xi. 41, and xxi. 33. 2 Cor. viii. 11) We must 
not enable ourselves to do good, by doing evil first. God 
hateth robbery for burnt-ofFering. We must warm the poor 
with the fleece of our own sheep. {Job xxxi. 20) Ill-gotten 
goods are matter of restitution, rather than of distribution. 

2. * Bona superflua f We are to give out of our overplus 
and abundance ; ^^ That your abundance may be a supply 
for their want;^ (2 Cor, viii. 14) to mepla-a-eufieiy that which 
remains and is to spare, after other necessary uses ; (as Mark 
viii. 8. Luke xv. 17) though ardent charity will sometimes 
go beyond its power. {Mark xii. 44. 2 Cor. viii. 3) To 
know what these remains and overplus are, we must con- 
sider what things are necessary : Things are necessary upon 
a double ground : 

1. * Necessaria simpliciter;' without which, a man cannot 
maintain himself and his charge at all. 

2. ' Necessaria ad decentiam status f necessary to the de- 
cency and quality of a man's condition : that which is abun- 
dant for a tradesman, may be too little for a nobleman. 

Now in case of extreme necessity of our brother, we ought 
to relieve him out of that which is necessary to our own de- 
cent condition : — he that hath two coats, to give to him that 
hath none, rather than to see him perish. {Luke in. 11) In 
cases of ordinary necessity, we are to give out of our over- 
plus and abundance, providing for the decency of our own 
condition, which is to give, as we are able ", according to 
the blessing of God upon honest labours ; so much the word 
fA>Sbor«i importeth, 1 Cor. xvi. 2 ; which doth not hinder out 
endeavours to lay up and provide for our families and poste- 
rity ; which the apostle requires, 1 Tim, v. 8. 2 Cor. xii. 14. 

The object or matter, * circa quam,' of our good works^ 

» Erraii.^9. Acts zi. 29. 


Fint, The worship of God, and things subservient and 
condacent thereunto ; as maintaining poor scholars in the 
nurseries of the ministry, and schools of the prophets ; com- 
fbrting and encouraging the able and faithful ministers of the 
gospel. For which, Hesekiah and Nehemiah are by God 
bononred in the records of scripture. (2 Chron, xxx. 22, and 
xxxi. 4, 11. ^ehem^xm. 10, 14) <* Let him that is tauuht 
in the word, communicate unto him that tearhelh, in all good 
things.'* {GaL vi. 6) '* Honour the Loni with thy substtHice.** 
(Pror. iii. 9) They who sow unto you spiritual things, it is 
equml that you minister unto them carnal things. (I Cor, ix. 
11) David would not, when he might, offer unto the Lord 
of that ** which should cost him nothing."^ (2 Sam. xxiv. 24) 
Ministers, that are faithful, dare not oHer unto you that u hich 
ooata them nothing. It costs them their time, their studies, 
their strength, their prayers, possibly their tears and sorrows, 
to see their work fall as fast as they set it up ; as Chrysos- 
tcm sometimes complained. Nay, if you will have a learned 
ministry, it must cost their purses too. The utensils of a 
minister are chargeable things ; and therefore it is a worthy, 
honourable, and most beneficial work, to contribute unto 
pablic libraries for the service of the ministry, in universi- 
ties, cities, and public places. 

Secondly, The necesnities of men ; and here, 

1. Kindred, friends, acquaintance, ^ Those of our own 
house/ (1 Tim. v. 8. Ja$ x. 24) 

2. Tliose of the household of faith, who dwell before the 
Lord. (GaL vi. 10. Isa. xxiii. 18) Pour your ointment above 
all, opon the feet of Christ. 

3. Strangers. (1 Tint. v. 10) 

4. Unemies themselves : '^ If thine enemy hunger, feed 
him.*' (iZoifi. xii. 20, 21) 

In one word. All that are in misery and distress amongst 

First, The most helpless, widows, fatherless, sick, maim- 
ed, aged, exiles, captives. 

Secondly, The most hopeful, useful, and painful ; as preg. 
■ant wits for learned education, or other necessary employ- 

For the manner how, the apostle directeth us. 

First, To do good works richly : They who sre ' divitts 

96 THE RICH man's CHARGE. [SERM. Xll. 

opibus,' must be ' divites operibu's'* too : their fruit must be 
plentiful us well as their estate. There may be a narrow 
heart, a starved charity, where there is a large estate, as in 
Nabal. And there may be a large and bountiful heart, whene 
there is but a poor and narrow estate, as in the poor widoWf 
who, as our Saviour tells us, ^* cast in more than all others/* 
into the treasury ; more in proportion, ^ quia nemo sibi 
minus reliquit;"* — more in affection; she cast in her bowels; 
she cast in her prayers with her two mites. (Mark xii. 43) 
So the apostle testifieth of the Macedonians, that their 
poverty was deep, and yet their liberality was rich and abun- 
dant : (2 Cor. viii. 2) though they could not draw much oat 
of their purse, yet they drew out their very soul to their bre- 
thren; (/so. Iviii. 10) as the apostle saith. That he '* imparted 
his own sour' to the Thessalonians. (1 The$$. ii. 1) But 
you that are rich in estate, may be rich in good works, siS 
well as in good affections; may be exercised to all bouo- 
tifulness. (2 Cor, ix. 11) As there is a ' decentia status* for 
a man^s expenses on himself; so is there for his bounty to 
the poor. The widow's two mites had been a mock, and not 
an alms, if a rich man had cast them in. r 

Secondly, To do them readily, fuftfTMSorou^ iivouy To be 
easy, prompt, prone unto good works, not out of necessity, 
importunity, constraint, but willingly. This, is a great 
mercy, when men are able to offer these sacrifices willingly. 
(1 Chron, xxix. 14) And hereunto are necessary such habits 
and principles, as do facilitate good works : As, 

1. Piety to God ; a desire to honour him with his own 
gifts, and to give him back again of his own, and thereby M 
to testify our professed subjection to the gospel, so to pro* 
cure abundant thanksgiving unto God. (2 Cor, ix. 11, 12, 13) 

2. Love to Christ, whose doctrine hereby we obey; (Litkt 
xi, 41) whose example herein we imitate ; {John xiii. 29) 
whose members hereby we refresh ; and so, in his acconnt^ 
do it unto himself, {Matth. xxv. 40) and become his credU 
tors : for " he that giveth to the poor, lendeth to the Lord.'* 
(Prcw. xix. 17) 

3. Love to our neighbour, which worketh tender-hearted* 
ness towards him in his affliction, and large-heartedness loir 
his relief. {Prov. xxxi. 30) God requireth the doing of 
judgement, which, in some cases, may be done with sorrow^ 


M io the punishment of malefactors; but he require! h the 
loTUig of mercy. We must never go unwillintrly about that ; 
(jViV. vi. 8) our bounty must be in our eye, and so affect our 
hearts. iProv. xxii. 9) 

4. Wisdom and skilly with prudent consideration to do a 
good work to the best advantage. A man is never ready 
sod dexterous in a business, which he is unskilful in : there* 
fete the Psalmist saith, ** Blessed is he that considereth the 
poor.** (Pm/im zli. 1) We read (as I take it) in Seneca, ur 
Ftutweh, of one, who knowing the poverty and modesty of 
his friend, was fain to steal a gift under his pillow for hini, 
wh« otherwise might have refused it. 

5. Cheerfulness and speed, to do a good work without 
gmdging or delay. " Say not to thy brother, go and come 
to-morrow." {Prov, iii. 28) Job did not withhold the pour 
from llieir desire. (Job xxx'u IG) He that sheweth mercy, 
must do it with cheerfulnesH ; (Rom. xii. 8) lor the I«ord 
lowHb a cheerful giver. (2 Cor. ix. 7) In many cases, de- 
lays are denials. A duty, done in season, is twice dom*. 

Thirdly, To do themdiftusively, Kojvoiyixov; fivau. We are not 
only to do good, to do it copiously, to do it readily and 
cheerfully, but to do it to ' many,^ to ' community ;* so to 
have the propeity in ourselves, as that the comfort may be 
diffusive, and redound to aiany others. And as here ayah- 
ifywrand xoinpvixoi are put togetlier, so elsewhere (Heb, xiii. 
16) tvnlia and xoiwwta, doing good and communicating, are 
put together; and so it is used, Phil. iv. 16. 

The word seemeth to import. First, To do good, so as that 
many may be better for it, that it may be a common and a 
public good. Such are the works of God ; his sun shines, 
his rain falls, on good and bad, upon the barren rocks, as 
well as the fruitful valleys. Such are puljjic works, buildint; 
and endowing of schools, of churche.s, of U-ctureH, uf work- 
Wmses, of hospitals, of manufactories ; furnishing uf libraries, 
maintaining of public professors, lej^^acies to the poor, re- 
pairing ways and bridges, loans to set up poor tradesmen; 
and other the like benefactions which have a common and 
p«Uic influence. 

Secondly, To do it as in communion, as members one of 
another ; communion natural, upon principles of humanity ; 
aad communion spiritual, upon principles of Christianity. 


98 THE KICH man's GHAKOE. [sERM. Xlf • 

To remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them, 
and them which suffer adversity, as being ourselves in the 
body. {Heb. xiii. 3) 

Thirdly, To do it sociably, modestly, humanely; to be not 
only bountiful, but to adorn both our wealth, and our good 
works, with suavity of conversation, with meekness, placid- 
ness, and facility of manners, with an amiable and commv- 
nicative deportment towards all men. For a mfan^s very 
charity knay be so morose and austere, that tender stomachs 
may nauseate it ; as physic that is wholesome, but bitter. 

Give me leave to press this duty upon you, which the 
apostle doth by so many and emphatical expressions, with 
such considerations as these : 

1. From the example of Ood himself, who requireth us to 
imitate him in works of mercy. (Luke vi. 36) *' His mercy 
is in the heavens ;'^ {Psalm xxxvi. 6) '* The earth is full of 
his goodness ;^ {Psalm xxxv. 5) " His bounty is oyer all his 
works ;^' {Psalm cxiv. 9) ^^ He punisheth unwillingly ;^' (Lout* 
iii. 33) *^ He watcheth to be gracious.** (/jm. xxxviii. 18) He 
chose mercy and grace as the choicest things, to make his 
name known unto his people by. {Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7) 

He gave his Son, his spirit, his love, his grace, his glocy« 
himself unto us ; and yet his mercy is free ; he is not, by any 
law, bound thereunto. ^' He sheweth mercy to whom he 
will shew merpy.^ {Rom. ix. 18) Whereas we are but Ipis 
stewards ; and have riches, as the sun hath light, to disperse 
to others. We have the custody, but the comfort belongeth 
unto othea*s ; it is called ' another man^s,^ and not our own. 
{Luke xvi. 12) If a man were master of the light of the sun, 
we should esteem him extremely barbarous and inhuman, if 
he should let it shine only into his own house: — our moneys 
our bread, our clothing, is as necessary for our poor bro- 
ther, as the light of the sun ; and therefore the inhumanity 
as great to withhold the one, as it would be to monopolise 
the other. 

Secondly, From the example of Christ. He was his Fe* 
ther*s almoner ; mercy was his office : it belonged unto bitty 
as the Son of David, to shew mercy. {Matt/u ix. 27) Meroy 
was his practice; " He went about doing good.*^ {jicts z. 
38) All his miracles were in works of mercy, feeding, heal* 
ing, raising, comforting : and though he be now in glory, yel 


be ivckoneth the bounty, shewed to his roemliers, as done to 
himself. (Maith. xxr. So, 40) A sacrifice was oflPered to 
God, thoQgh eaten by the priest and the people ; and our 
alms are caJled 'sacrifices.* (Ueh. xiii. 16. PkiL iv. Is) The 
poor only are benefited; but (iod i^ honoured by theni. 
And there is a connexion between his mercy and ours ; we 
forfeit his, when we restrain our own. (Mattk. ▼. 7. Jamei ii. 
13) And the argument is strong from his to ours; his was 
to enemies; ours, to brethren ;-— his, to debtors; ours, to 
feUow-eervants ; — his, free urace to me; mine, just debt to 
aqr brother ;—( /torn. xiii. 8) his, for ever to me; mine, but 
for a moment to my brother;— his, in talents to me; mine, 
but in pence to my brother ;— his, in blood to me ; mine, but 
in bread to my brother ;*-hi8 mercy enricheth me; mine 
leaves my brother poor still. If then I lire by the mercy 
whkli I do enjoy, and must be saved by the mercy which I 
do expect; shall so much mercy shine on me, and none 
reflect from me upon my poor brother ? Shall all the waters 
of life mo from Christ unto me, as those of Jordan into a 
dead sea, — to be lost and buried there ? Wherefore doth 
the sun shine, and the rain fall on the earth, but that it may 
be frsitfol ? The mercies of God should be as dew and heat, 
as manure and culture, to the souls of men ; that being 
thereby enriched, they may empty themselves, and draw out 
themselves into the bowels of others. Chrint is the foun- 
tain, rich men the conduit, and poor men the vessels which 
are there and thence supplied. 

Thirdly, From respect to ourselves. I. Community of 
nature ; we also are in the flesh. We may want mercy from 
others, as others do now from us. Who would have thought, 
that David should have stood in need of the bread of a 
churl r Good offices between men and men are not duties 
only, but trade and merchandise. I shew them to him now, 
sod another time he may shew them to me : it is the apostle^s 
irirumeot, 2 Cor. viii. 14. 2. A Hpecial honour, when God 
aakes us instruments for doing good ; for " it is a more 
hirasrri thing to give, than to receive. *" (Act$ xx. 3o) iMercy 
is the seed of honour. {Psaim cxii. 9. Prov. xxi. 21) 

Fourthly* From respect to our neighbour, to whom w^ 
owe this debt of love. For there is a debt of charity, as 
veil as a debt of justice: a debt, whereby I owe him that 

H 2 

100 • THE RICH man's CHAKOE. [sERM. XII. 

which is truly his ; and a debt, whereby I owe hioi some- 
thing of that which is mine own. And this I do both unto 
God's image in him ; for, " every one that loveth him that 
begat, loveth him also that is begotten:" (1 John v. 1) and 
unto mine own image ; — for ^^ his flesh is as mine own flesh.^ 
{Neh. V. 6) " He that made me in the womb, made him,** 
saith Job : (Chap. xzxi. 15) and " when I hide myself from 
him, I hide from mine own flesh." {ha, Iviii. 7) ** Homo 
sum ; humani nihil k me alienum puto.^ 

Fifthly, For the credit of our reformed religion, that the 
mouths of adversaries may be stopped, who falsely charge us 
with preaching, and you with professing,. a naked, empty, 
fruitless faith. We preach St. PauPs faith "", ^' a faith which 
works by love; — remembering your work of faith.^ We 
preach St. Peter^s faith y, a faith which hath virtue, and 
knowledge, and temperance, and patience, and godliness, 
and brotherly kindness, and charity added unto it. And 
we tell you with him. That if these things be lacking, 
you are blind ; and your knowledge is worth nothing, so 
long as it is barren and unfruitful. We preach St. Jameses 
faith', a faith which hath works, which may be shewed, 
which visiteth the fatherless and widows in their afflictions; 
— Abraham's faith, that hath a bosom for poor Lazarus ;— > 
Rahab's faith, which had a harbour for endangered stran- 
gers. We preach St. Jude's faith % ^^ a most holy faith, a 
faith delivered to the saints ;" such a faith, as who indeed 
hath it, is not a cloud without water, nor a tree without fruit. 
We preach St. John's faith **, " to believe on the. name of 
Christ, and to love one another \^ and to shew this love by 
opening our bowels of compassion to our needy brother, and 
loving him not in word only, but in deed and truth. We 
tell you, if you trust in the Lord ^, you must do good : If 
you believe either the truth, or the terrors, or the promises 
of Ood, you must not withhold the poor from their desire, 
nor cause the eye of the widow to fail. ** This is the faith ws 
preach ; this is the charge we give. We tell you, without 
this, your faith is hypocritical, your religion vain, your hope 
delusion, and all your expectation but as a spider's web. 


> Gal. V. 6. 1 Thcsft. i. 3. 7 2 Pet. i. 5, 7. » James ii. 

14, 18, 21, 25. • Jude v. 3, 12, 20. b I John iii. 17, 18, 23. 

• Psalm zxxvii. 2. ^ Job zxxi. 16, 23. 


Sixthly, Let me press upon London, the example of Lon- 
don, an easy argument, one would think, to desire you to be 
like yourselves. I might make a large recital of great and 
public works of piety done by this famous city: I might 
mention multitudes of ample munificences and benefaqtions, 
by very many worthy members thereof since the Reforms- 
tion; whereby they have refuted the calumnies cast upon 
our religion by papists, as if it made us careless of good 
works. A large catalogue hath been made of them to mine 
hand by a learned writer. Dr. Andrew Willet % to the honour 
of God, and credit of our religion. I shall content myself to 
give you a report of the general sum, which, upon computa- 
tion, he telletfi us, doth amount, in the space of sixty years, 
unto above six hundred thousand pounds. So that, by an 
equal distribution, through the whole time, this famous city 
did allow ten thousand pounds per annum, for threescore 
years together, unto works of piety and charity ; (besides all 
which was done in a private and unobserved way) an exam- 
ple, I believe, hardly to be paralleled in any city under the 
Roaian jurisdiction. More than forty hospitals built, above 
twenty free-schools, besides granaries, conduits, water-works, 
loans to poor workmen, exhibitions to poor scholars, churches, 
munificent gifts to the universities and colleges there : — so 
that I may say unto you, as Paul to the Tbessalonians, touch- 
ing brotherly love, ^^ You need not that I speak unto you ; 
for you have been taught of Ood;^ only I beseech you, 
<« that you abound more and more ;'^ (1 Thess. iv. 9, 10) that 
you may receive the same honourable testimony and memo- 
rial from Christ, which the church of Thyatirahath received, 
*' I know thy works, and charity, and service, and faith, and 
thy patience, and thy works,^ (they are twice mentioned) 
** and the last to be more than the first.^' {Rev. ii. 19) ** Be 
not weary of well-doing ; in due time you shall reap, if you 
faint not/' (Gal. vi. 9) *' Lose not the things which ye 
Jiave wrought, but that ye receive a full reward.** (2 Johrtf ver. 
8) And this leads me to the last consideration, viz. 

Seventhly, The reward which is set before you. It is 'a 
towiug of seed i* (2 Cor. ix. 6) a scattering which tendeth 
to increase. {Prov. xi. 24) There is no duty, which hath 
more copious promises of reward, than this of mercy and 

• Synopiiis Papismi, Edit. 5. P. 1223—1232. 


good works.— ^Rewarded with plenty ; ^< thy soul shall be as a 
watered gardeo.** {Ita. Iviii. 1 1) '^ For this thinpr, the Lord 
thy Ood shall bless thee in all thy works.*" (Deut. xv. 10) 
Rewarded with honour : ** he hath dispersed and given to the 
poor, his horn shall be exalted with honour.'' {Psalm cxii. 9) 
Rewarded with the blessings of the poor : *' the blessing of 
him that was ready to perish, came upon me.^ («7b6. xxix. 
11, 13) Rewarded with the grace of God : •* God is able to 
make all grace abound towards you."' (2 Cor. ix. 8) Re- 
warded with a/mrr and comfortable usi of what we enjoy our- 
selves ; '^ give alms of such things as you have ; and behold 
all things are clean unto you."" (Luke xi.41) Rewarded with 
a lengthening of our presetU tranquillity. {Dan. iv. 27) Re- 
warded with God^s acceptation; (Heb. xiii. 16) with the 
mercy of God ; (Mat. v. 7) with the mansions of God. (iMke 
xvi. 9) Good works are bills of exchange, which return our 
estates into another country. 

This laying out is laying up ; ' mercatura est^ amittere ut 
lucreris.' It is like putting a basin of water into a pump, 
which draws out a great vessel full. It is a sacrifice ; and 
sacrifices were offered for the benefit, not for the damage, of 
the offerers. A man scatters his seed in the furrow ; but 
he lays up hisx^ropin the barn ; it is a scattering which ends 
in a laying up. The backs of the poor, the bellies of the 
hungry, are the bank of heaven. 

And it is laying up for ourselves. Men lay up usually for 
others ; their children, their heirs, and executors meet with 
it at the last ; but works of mercy are all expended upon a 
man"8 self; he hath the comfort here, and the reward here- 
after. It is money lent to God ; and be will repay it to our- 
selves. In law, he which sows, must reap ; and so says the 
apostle, ^' He that soweth bountifully, shall reap bounti- 

Quas dederisy solas semper habebis opes. » 

And It is laying up a foundation ; a way to make our un- 
certain riches ' sure and stable ; that whereas other riches 

' Si amicus tuus intrmret in domum tuam, et inveniret tc in loco humido fru- 
mentm posuitte. diret Ubi hujusmodi consilium, dicens, ' Frater, perdis, quod cum 


take unto then(i wipgs and fly away, those whiob are thus 
laid out, are laid up as safe* as unmovable as the stones of 
a fQandaUon, as the bottom of a rock. A foundation not by 
way of merit towards God, but by way of evidence in regard 
of ourselves, as testimonies of our reconciliation and peace 
with God. A learned writer ^ makes dsfiixio; jia>i§ t9 c^a- 
swer to the Hebrew ^^i which is the • bond/ or ' instru- 
ment,^ securing tf> a creditor the money which he hath lent. 
'Awalifa'au^fiy ^^Aioy xoXiv, is ^ Bona nomina facqre :* 
God becpmes surety for the poor to repay us there, ** w^^i;e 
oeiUier rp^t, nor moth, nor thief can enter." 

And it is a f^mEidation, eig rd fui>Jjiv, for the time to come^ 
for the life to come, when none of our glory will follow vs. 
Wealtb hs^tb wings ; it is here to day, it is gone to mqrrow : 
but good works ar^ a bank in heaven. When aU othei* men^s 
weallji doth stay behind them, and betake itself to other 
nuiBteiB ; a good mien's, being turned into good works, doth 
folloir him* and enrich him in a life to come. 

And this life tp come, a life which may be held, a life which 
can never be lost : — when the last general conflagration shall 
have consumed and melted all the treasures of the world, pur 
good works will abide that trial. The inheritance unto which 
they follow us, *^ is incorruptible and undefiled, and that 
fadetb not away, reserved in the heavens for us.^ 

And now, right honourable and beloved, to give you all in 
a view» — you have heard the charge of the Gpd of heaven, to 
the rich men of the es^rth : it is my petition, it is his com- 
mand : I beseech you, he enjoins you, ** not to be high- 
minded ;'^ not to l,et that which comes from the deep place of 
the earth, exalt you, and make you forget th^t you are earth ; 
not to let the thipk clay make the thin dust proud. It can- 
not add a cubit to your stature ; let it not add ^o great a sin 
to your souls. It is gift, it is not property ; God^s, not yours. 
You are the fiduciaries, the depositaries only ; why should 
you glory, " as if you had not received it?^ 

Let me add this one word more,— let not your riches make 

ooUegisti : in loco humido posuisti ; paucisdiebus ista putrescent.'— 
' El quid ficto, Fnuer ?' ' Leva in Superiora.'r-Au4ires amicum suggerentero, ut 
(niaaita levares de inferioribus ad superiora, ct non audis Christum monentem ut 
dKsaaram tuum Ictcs de terra ad Caelum ? Aug. in Psalm 148. f Sam, 

Prttii, Var. Lect I. 1 . c 11 . 

104 TH£ RICH man's CHAUGE. [sERM. XII. 

you low-minded neither, to glue your hearts^ to bend your 
affections to things below. Let them make you heavenly-* 
minded, and then they will muke yon humbly-minded. The 
more of heaven in any mind, the more of humility. 

''Not to trust in riches,^ not to let his gifts be used to bis 
own degrading. Who would trustin an unstable thing, which 
he cannot keep ? Riches are uncertain.'* — In a false thing 
which he cannot credit ? Riches aredeceitfuL — In a nothing 
which is not ? He that trusts in riches, makes them an idol^ 
and *' an idol is nothing in the world.^ '— ;Who would trust 
in a dead idol, that hath a living God to trust in ? Who would 
trust in a useless nothing, who hath a bountiful God who 
gives all things, to trust in ? 

You have another charge, '' To do good, to be rich in good 
works ;^ to do them cheerfully, to do them diffusively. And 
though Ood might stop at the charge, his sovereignty and 
dominion would bear him out, to command you only ; yet 
being full of love and mercy, he is pleased to encourage as 
well as command you. He encourageth you ' antecedenter/ 
by that which goes before your duty, his own example ; — be 
encourageth you ' consequenter,^ by that which follows after 
your duty, his great reward. His example you have ; he 
gives, you do but lend ; he gives, you do but render back to 
him of his own. He gives to you ''all things;^' the earth 
empties into your coffers her silver and her gold : the pas- 
tures send you in cattle ; the fields, com ; the sea, fish ; the 
air, fowl; one country sends you in wine, and another, 
spices ; one, silks, — and another, furs ; one, delicates, — ano- 
ther, ornaments. He gives you the light of the sun, the 
influences of the stars, the protection of angels, the righte- 
ousness of his Son, the grace of his Spirit, the hope of his 
glory. He gives you himself, and his own allsufiSciency for 
your portion. And now, if heaven and earth be all, if grace 
and glory be all, if Ood and Christ be all ; he hath given 
you "all things richly to enjoy :^ for many of these gifts 
bring their joy and fruition with them. So the example far 
exceeds the imitation : you lend^ you do not give ; you lend 
something, you do not give all things : you lend to the ne* 
cessities of your brother, you do not give to his delights and 

^ Prov. xziii. 5. ^ 1 Cor. viii. i. 


replenishment : you clothe him, you do not adorn him : you 
feed him, you do not fill him, much less pamper him. This 
is one encouragement, ' a great example/ 

You have another encouragement, ^ A full reward/ good 
measure, shaken together, pressed down, running over into 
your bosoms. You give money, God gives life : you, things 
uncertain, which you could not keep, but by giving ; God 
gives a foundation, mansions, a city which hath foundations, 
** the sure merdes of David/' You lay out to your brother ; 
God lays up for you : you give perishing things to your bro- 
ther ; God, an abiding, an abounding life to you : you, a cot- 
tage, or a coat to your brother ; God, a kingdom and a crown 
to yoQ : you, such things to your brother, which neither you 
nor he can keep ; God, such things to you, which when 
once hdd hold on, you cannot lose. 

So this double encouragement sets on the duty by a three- 
fold love: If you love God,^mitate his example, be merci- 
Ail as be is merciful. If you love your brother, —refresh his 
bowels, make his back and belly your repositories. He can 
repay you with prayers ; and prayers are as good as gold. 
If you love yourselves, — do what the most covetous man 
would do, lay up, lay up for yourselves, not only for your 
heirs, your children, — it may be, for strangers, for enemies. 
Lay up, surely, that which you may lay hold on, that which 
will stay by you, a foundation. Lay up for the future, that 
which time, which death, which rust, moth, thief, cannot 
take away; for life, which is more worth than wealth; for 
eternal life, which is more durable than wealth. If you do 
not thus by your wealth, lay up a foundation unto eternal life ; 
your thick clay will load you with many sorrows, and drown 
yon in destruction and perdition. You have your wealth for 
this end ; you have your life and salvation with this homage, 
and quit-rent upon it. If you do not give, you shall not live : 
if you do not do good, you shall not receive good : if you do 
not lay out, yon shall not lay up. Here is your option ; — 
keep your money, and perish wiUi it ; return it unto heaven, 
and be gainers by it. If you love God, or your neighbour, 
or yourselves, or your very riches themselves, —do good, be 
fich in good works ; you do not only comfort your brother, 
bat you keep your God : you save yourselves ; you lengthen 
your lives ; you preserve your estates unto all eternity. 




Opaoed in a SERMON preached before the Lord M^jror, Aldennen, fuid Com* 
ifNm-Qo|i9ci|, at St. Lftwrepce-Juiy Church, upoo a day of Humiliation by 
them appointed. 

EZRA IX. 16. 

O Lord God of Israel^ thou art righteous :Jbr we remain yiei 
escapedy as it is this day. Behold^ toe are before thee in our 
trespasses ; for we cannot stand before thee^ because of it. 

In the former part of this paper, we bave a narration, qjf 
many great mercies of God to his people, after their long and 
sore captivity. 

1. The edict of Cyrus for return of the people, building 
the temple, restoring of the holy vessels ; Chap. i. 

2. The pursuance of that edict, in the return of 49,000 
and upward ; Chap, ii. 

3. The beginning of the restitution of God'^s worship, set- 
ting up the altar, offering sacrifices, laying the foundatioi^ 
of the house with trumpets and joy ; Chap. iii. 

4. The special assistance and encouragement they receiv^ 
in the work by the prophets, notwithstanding the opposition 
of the adversaries ; Chap. v. 1^ 6, 14. 

6. The gracious decree of Darius for promoting the build- 
ing, after it had been obstructed ; his princely munificence 
thereunto ; the command given to the enemies to be service- 
able to the work ; the finishing and dedication of the 
house, and keeping of the passover ; Chap. vi. 

SEBll. XIII.] TH£ church's SAFETY. 107 

6. The gracious commisBion of Artaxerxes to Ezra, for 
further promoting the worship of God at Jerusalem ; his in- 
dulgence to priests and Levites, ordering of magistrates and 
judges ; Chap. vii. 

7. The expedition of Ezra, and divers others, with this 
commission ; the delivery of the silver, gold, and vessels 
which the king, his counsellors, lords, and all Israel, had 
offered to the house of the Lord, into the hands of twelve 
select men of the priests : the gracious preservation of Ezra 
and his company in their journey, from the hands of those 
that lay in wait for them, after they had solemnly sought 
God by prayer and fasting ; their safe arrival ; delivery of the 
offering to the House of the Lord ; success of the commis* 
sion ; Chiq>. viii. 

Thus fiur things went comfortably on, and with good sue 
cess, notwithstanding the opposition and obstruction given 
to the work for a time, by the enemies thereof, of which we 
read, CAap. iv. 

But in this ninth chapter, we meet with a far more dan- 
gerous obstruction, than any had before been ; a horrible sin 
committed by priests, levites, people, wherein the hands of 
the princ^es and rulers had been chief, in mingling the holy 
seed in marriage with the people of those lands, contrary to 
*ao express command, Deut, vii. 1, 3 '* *Thou shalt not make 
marriages with them,^ &c. Whereby the worship of God, 
DOW newly restored, was in danger to be speedily subverted 
agUD, {Dtut vii. 4. Exod. xxxiv. 15, 16) as we find by the 
example of Solomon. (1 Kings xi. 4, 8) Hereupon Ezra is 
a&cted with zeal, sorrow, and astonishment, verse 3, 4, 5 : 
And *' unto him were assembled every one that trembled at 
the word of the God of Israel, to humble" themselves before 
God 9 and to consult what, in so desperate a case, was ne- 
ceiMury to be done for diverting that wrath which they had 
fffOToked *, verse 3, 4. Ezra prepareth and composeth him* 
tdfioa solemn manner to pray; rends his garments; £ills 
QQ his knees ; spreads forth his bands ; stirs up his faith ; 
takes the fittest season, ' the time of the sacrifice,' when 
God might be minded, by the blood of atonement, to receive 
lus prayer with favour; verse 5. 

* VhL Strmrium in Josh. 6. quest, 60.— Ptned. de Rebus Solom. lib. 7. ca^. 

108 god's fidelity, [serai. XIII. 

In the prayer we have these particulars ; 

1. His abasement * of himself, his shame, and consteroa- 
tion of spirit, a temper essential to true humiliation : *' I will 
remember my covenant/' saith the Lord ; " and thou shalt 
remember thy ways, and be ashamed." (Ezek. xvi. 60, 61) 
And again, ^' you shall loathe yourselves in your own sight, 
for all your evils that ye have committed/' (Ezek. xx. 43) 

2. A general confession of their sins, and the sins of their 
fathers ; (as Nehem. ix. 34. Dan. ix. 8) the greatness, the 
growth, the continuance of them ; ^' our iniquities are in- 
creased over our heads ;*' (as Psalm xxxviii. 4) a metajdior 
from the swelling ^ of watei-s. (Psalm cxxiv. 4, 6) Our tres- 
passes are '* grown up to heaven ;** a further and stronger 
expression of the authority of them, (as 2 Chron. xxviii. 9) 

3. An acknowledgment of the justice of God in the .pu- 
nishment of their iniquities, on kings, priests, and people, in 
captivity, poverty* and contempt, (verse 7, as Psal. xlir. 
9—14, and Ixxix. 1—4) 

4. A thankful acknowledgment of restored merdes cat 
of free and rich grace, unto a small remnant of distreaaed 
bondmen, whom God ^' had not forsaken in their bondage,^ ; 
but extended mercy unto ; who were, 1 . escaped out of thei^ i 
captivity. 2. Settled in their own land, * as a nail in a avre^ j 
place.' (as Isa. xxii. 23) 3. Comforted after their darkneii j 
and sorrow, ' by lightning their eyes,^ who had been long in { 
Babylon as in a dungeon; (Zech, ix. 11) by reviving ttid i 
giving them a resurrection, who had lain in captivity as ^ irf 
bones in a grave.' (Ezek. xxxvii. 12) 4. Aided and assist^ 
by the special favour of the king of Persia, to set up thtt 
house of God, and ' repair the desolations thereof.^ (verse 9) 
5. Compassed about with his protection, as with a wall, from ^ 
the violence of enemies ; (verse 8, 9, as Isa.xxvi. 1. Zech. i^ 
6) by all which considerations, the greatness of their siiM i 
was exceedingly aggravated. f \ 

5. A particular confession of the present sin, under thif 
guilt whereof they did now lie. * 

Wherein are considerable. 
(1.) A pathetical acknowledgment that they are wholh|- 

* Jer. Hi. 5, et xzxi. 19. Dan. ix. 7,8. Luke xviii. 13. b 'As V SnXf 

9mif. Homer. Iliad. 4. 452. 


withoat excuse, put to silence ; for guilt stops the mouth. 
{Mat. xxii. 12. Rom. iii. 19, 20) 

(2.) A full aggravation of it by several considerations. 
I. It was against a severe law provided in that very case. 
{Deut. vii. 3, 4) 2. Against the equity of that law, the peo- 
ple '* were unclean, abominable.'* 3. Against the promise 
annexed to the law, ^' to eat the good of the land." 
4. Against the ' chastening' hand of God which had been 
upon them. 5. Against the ^ measure' of those chastise- 
ments ; they were punished " less than their iniquities de- 
served.'* 6. Against the great and notable ' deliverance/ 
which God had wrought for them beyond their thoughts or 
hopes, {verse 11, 12, 13) 

6. An implicit owning of the wrath of God, which might, 
in this case, justly consume and make an end of them, and 
leave them no ^ remnant* {verse 14) 

7. An acknowledgment of God's gracious fidelity in not 
consaming them, but patiently bearing with them, and letting 
them ' remain escaped.' {verse 16) 

Lastly ; The conclusion of the prayer, the same with the 
iatrodiictioa into it, ^ shame and confession' of guilt, {verse 

^ O Lord God of Israel^* who art in covenant with them, 

and owoest them for thy people, {Deut. xxvi. 18) and art 
* afflicted in their afflictions,' in whose sufferings thy great 
ssne is concerned, in whose prosperity thy sole grace is 
■sgnified;— '^ Uiou art righteous j* just in thy judgements 
iasll that is come upon us; {Nehem. ix. 33) faithful in thy 
eorenanty in all that thou hast said unto us. And hereof 
thoa bast given us assurance ; *^for we remain yet escaped:^ 
seeording to thy promise, that, after seventy years should be 
accomplished in Babylon, thou wouldst visit thy people, and 
ferform thy good word towards them, in causing them to re- 
tan to their own land again. {Jer, xxix. 10. 2 Chroti. xxxvi. 
21) We have deserved, by our provocations, to be cut off 
bom being a people ; but for thy promise* sake we yet re- 
■sin ; for thou hast said, that *^ the sceptre shall not depart 
bom Judah, nor a law-giver from between his feet, until 
Skiloh come.*' {Gen. xlix. 10) That Emmanuel was to come 
«f the house of David, before the Jews should cease to be a 
MtioD, or should have their polity utterly dissolved. {Tsa, 

110 god's fidelity, [serm. Xllf. 

vii. 14, and viii. 9, 10, and x. 24, 27) We have deserved to* 
have been kept captives in Babylon still ; but for thy pro- 
mise' sake we remain yet escaped ; because thou hast said, 
that thou wouldst cause us ** to come up out of our graven^ 
and bring us into the land of Israel.^ {Ezek. xxxvii. 12, IQf, 
14) It is by the blood of the covenant alone, that thou hafll^ 
** sent forth thy prisoners out of the pit." (^Zech, ix. II) 

The words are the close of a penitential prayer ; whereia 
there is observable, 

1. A comfortable address to God, as the God of IsraeL 

2. A penitent acknowledgment of his righteousness^ us 
the evils which they suffered. 

3. A grateful acknowledgment of his fidelity in the nier» 
cies which they enjoyed. 

4. A demonstration of this great mercy. 
(1.) ^ We remain ;' we are not consumed. 

(2.) We remain ^ an escape ;^ we are not detained in ca|i« 

(3.) ' As it is this day ;"* not only escaped, but favoured^i 
encouraged, assisted, to build God^s house, to restore hm 
worship, though to this day we have had so great pvoVo^i 

^ O Lord God of Israel, thou art righteous i' we have sin* 
ned, as a perfidious people, against a God in covenant ; thoB- 
hast afflicted us in measure, as ' a God in covenant.* 

Afflictions are sweetened, mercies are magnified, »ns am, 
aggravated, sinners are humbled and melted by no conside»*i 
ation more, than by the grace of the covenant, that we havtt; 
to do with a God who is pleased to be called ours. When* 
he smites us, this is our comfort, — the rod is in the hand of 
a father; he may visit with stripes, but he ** will not breidL 
his covenant.^' {PsaL Ixxxix. 32, 34) When he loadeth us. < 
with mercies, this is our joy, that they are all appendices to i 
Christ) and rays, and emanations of the covenant. {Rom. viii* i 
32. Jer. xxxii. 41) If he hear us, if he answer us, if he be 1 
gracious unto us, ^^ we shall weep no more, though he giw i 
us bread of adversity, and water of affliction.*^ {Isa. xxx. 18» ^' 
^) When we review our sins, and set ourselves seriously { 
to turn to God, — this makes us loathe ourselves, this fills owt 
faces with shame, and our hearts with sorrow, that we havo 
done it ' against a God in covenant,^ who is pacified towards 



US. (Ezek. xvi. 62, 63) It is great presumption for aliens 
and strangers to despise Grod's authority, or abuse his boun- 
ty : but for an adopted people, whom he hath selected in a 
pecaliar manner to be his own, and set apart for himself, for 
whom he reserveth the choicest of his mercies, to whom he 
refealeth the secrets of his love, — for these to sin, not only 
against precepts and benefits, but against the bowels of a fa* 
ther» the blood of a Saviour, the grace of a comforter, the 
covenant of life, the charter of salvation ; this is that which 
sboaM greatly abase us in our own eyes, that we should thus 
requite a father. {Deut. xxxii. 6) The Lord calls heaven and 
earth to be amazed at it ; '^ Hear, O heaven, and give ear, O 
earth : for the Lord hath spoken, I have nourished and 
brought up children/' adopted them into my family, brought 
them into my land, advanced them into my favour, vouch- 
Biied my presence with them, set up my name and glory 
among them, and yet " they have rebelled against me.^' (/m. 
i. 2) '* Be astonished, O ye heavens," and be ye horribly 
afraid ; be very desolate ; for my people who have heard my 
voice out of heaven, — whom 1 have taken from the midst of 
another nation, by temptations, by signs, by wonders, by war, 
by a mighty hand, by a stretched-out arm, and by great ter- 
rorsy — who have been the fountain of all their blessings, and 
the g^ory in the midst of them, *' have changed their glory" 
for vanity, and their ** fountain for broken cisterns.^ (Jer. ii. 
11, ISf 13) This is matter of great pressure unto him ; {AmM 
ii. 9, 13) and should much more be so unto us. 

Maay aggravations there are in the sins of God'A people, 
which may greatly tend to their humbling and abasement. 
They are committed ; 
1. Against more glorious light, and more spiritual convic- 
tions ; " after they have known God, and are known of God ;** 
(Gtf/. iv. 9) after he hath taught them his ways, and shewed 
his covenant^ and imparted unto them the secrets of his saW 
mtion ; {PsaL xxv. 9, 14) after he had opened their ears, 
Old sealed their instruction to withdraw them from sinful 
purposes; (Job xxxiii. 16, 17) after he had caused them to 
hears * word behind them,^ saying, this is the way, (fsa. 
ixx. 21) and had ' shewed them the salvation of God,' {PsaL 
L 23) and had been, as it were, transfigured in their presence. 
The more the beauties of holiness are discovered to the soul, 


112 god's fidelity. [SEttM. XIII. 

the greater is the unkindness and disingenuity of that soul, 
in giving entertainment to any sinful lust again. 

2. Against special and more tender love ; which love of 
Christ passeth knowledge, and therefore should constrain 
us to love him, that loved us, and died for us. (2 Cor. v. 14) 
David had been highly honoured by God ; Solomon was the 
beloved of God ; and this made their sins both more strange 
and more atrocious. (2 Sam. xii. 7, 8, 9. Nehetn. xiii. 26) 
' You only have I known of all the families of the earth ; 
therefore I will punish you for your iniquities.^ (Amos iii. 2. 
Jer. ii. 21, 22) 

3. Against the breathings of the ' spirit of grace f whose 
motions being ' quenched,' whose operations being ' resist- 
ed/ whose sweet and gracious pulsations at the door of the 
soul being neglected, he is exceedingly ' grieved^ in the 
hearts of his people, and provoked to withdraw himself and 
his comforts from them ; {Eph. iv. 30. Cant. v. 6) and they 
put to cry hard for recovery of him again, whom they had, 
by their unkind usage, grieved away, and caused to hide his 
presence from them% {Psalm lu 10, 11, 12) 

4. Against the peace of God, which should keep our 
hearts and minds in Christ, from yielding to temptations. 
(Phil. iv. 7) When the Lord speaks peace to the souls of 
his people, fyid lifts up the light of his countenance upon 
them, and sheds abroad the love of his Son into them, — this 
should fortify and garrison the heart against the assaults of 
sin. The joy of the Lord should be the strength of his 
people ; (Nehem. viii. 10) and the more comfort they have in 
being acquainted with him, the more fearful they should be 
of being estranged from him : the greater the sweetness of 
the peace of God, the greater the bitterness of those sins 
whereby we forfeit it, and hide it from ourselves. 

6. Against that spiritual wisdom and understanding, 
which the Lord hath given us for this end, that ** we might 
walk worthy of him unto all pleasing. *" (CoL i. 9, 10) True 
wisdom is the knowledge * of the most honourable and most 
excellent things, whereby we discern things which differ ; 
suggesteth the supreme and most necessary ends, and the 

• *Eirian^fii} rmtf rifuurdrttv. Ariit. 



tno»t proper and pertinent means conducing thereunto ; set- 
telfa a man to consider how he may live to the great uses for 
which he wag made ; is a wisdom unto salvation ; (2 Tim- 
Hi. Id) makes him look to the way of life, how he may de- 
farl from hell ; {Frirv. xv. 24, and xiv. 8, 15) teacheth him 
'to walk circumspectly, and warily, amidst the many snares 
ind temptations, which are ready to seduce and mislead him ; 
[EpA. V. 1 j) makes him have his eyes in his head ; {Eccles. 
ii. 14} that he may understand every good path ; {Prov. ii. 9) 
nakea him study the will of God, to the end that he may 
.beep it; (,Prov. xxviii. ') puts the heart and the right hand 
(together i {Ecclet. x, 2) gives a apiritual evidence and taste 
»f the beauties and sweetness of holiness ; shews itself in a 
;ood convei-sation, and in doing the commandments. (James 
ii. 13. Psalm cxi. 10) It is more improper for a holy man 
.to yield up himself unto any way or work of wickedness, 
Uhq for a Counsellor of Slate, or a great philosopher, to 
ftlay with straws or cherry -stones, to give up himself unto 
(•oyish and ludicrous vanities ; and therefore holy men coo- 
fess their sins in scripture hy the name of ' folly.' (2 Sam. 
JtxiT. 10. Pialm Ixxiii. 22) 

6. Against the hope of salvation, which teacheth ub to 
purify ow^elves as Christ is pure. (1 John iii. 3) Our aaU 
vation will be, to be ' like unto Christ.^ That grace which j 
makes as suspire alter a likeness unto him Ki glory, will 
kindle in our hearts a desire to be like unto him in grace; 
(or grace is ^lory inchoate, as glory is grace consummate ; ' 
M touch as we neglect duty, so much we shake the hope of ] 
giofy : ** Lord," saith the Psalmist, " I have hoped for thy , 
salvation, I have done thy commandments." (Psalm cxtx. ) 
166) TboQgh obedience be not a foundation upon which to ' 
build our hope, (for our hope must be in God's word, not ia | 
our own works, Psalm cxix. 42, 49, 74) yet it is a fruit, and 
consequently an evidence and argument, ' k posteriori,' to 
demonstrate it. 

Tlie salvation we hope for, is ' to see God :' and hereunto 
is retjoired purity of heart. {Matth. v. 8) As the object seen 
doth make its own image in the eye which seeth it, so when 
the soul Bees God in glory, it is perfectly fashioned unto hit 
likeness : and therefore, " without holiness no man can sea 

114 con's FIDKLITY, [SEIIM. XI fl. 

' Qod.^ {Heb. xii. 14) So much as we blemigh our holiness, 
we do obscure and sully our hope. ^ 

7. Against the honour of religion, which is thereby ex- 
ceedingly wounded and reproached. (2 Sam. xii. 14) The 
apostle frequently exhorteth us to walk * worthy of our Ugh 
calling,^ so as 'becometh the gospel/ that we may 'adom 
the doctrine^ of our Lord Jesus, and ^ put to silence the ig- 
norance' of foolish men; that they may be ashamed, who 
falsely accuse our good conversation, ut nemo de nobia male 
loqui sine mendacio possit : to be tender of the name of Qod, 
and his doctrine, that these may not be blasphemed. (See 
Eph. iv. 1. Phil. i. 27. 1 Thes. ii. 12. Tii. ii. 10. 1 Tim. vL 
1. 2 Otr. vi. 3. 1 Pet. ii. 15, and iii. 16) For though it be 
most illogical and absurd, to charge a holy doctrine with the 
blame of those sins^ which the professors thereof, contraiy 
to the rules of their own profession, and in obedience only 
to their own lusts, do commit ; yet so much ignorance wid 
malice there is in wicked men, as to blaspheme God for the 
sins of his people, and to reproach the rectitude of the nilt« 
for the obliquity of their lives who swerve and vary from it. 
And by how much the greater ingratitude it is, to be honour- 
ed by Ood, as his servants are, and yet to dishonour him ; by 
so much the more heinous are those sins, whereby we neither 
sanctify God in our own hearts, and open the moutha of 
others to poiS* contempt upon him. 

8. Against the souls of our brethren, which are thereby 
greatly scandalized : for as there is joy in heaven, and con* 
sequently among the saints on earth, (whose affections and 
conversations are heavenly) for the conversion of a sinner^ 
and great mutual comfort in the communion of Saints, inso- 
much that the joy of one is the joy of all the rest ; (1 Cot. 
XV. 31. 2 Cor. ii. 3) so when a converted person relapeeth 
into any sin, it must needs sadden and offend the souls of all 
who rejoiced in his standing, and possibly become a stum^ 
bling-block, and an occasion of falling unto them; as the 
apostle sheweth, Rom. xv. 21. 1 Cor. viii. 10, 13. 

^ Qui tibi male vivendi liccntiam indulgent, totidem sunt Christianismi prOK 
bra ct nuculae : Calv. Opusc. de Scandalis. — Magna insania est Evangelio noa 
credere, cujus veritatem sanguis Martyrum clamat, prodigia probant, ratio corf- 
firmat, mundos testatur^ elementa loquuntur, daemones conficentur : ^ loA|4. 
major insania, si de Evangelii verirate non dubitas, vivere tamen quasi dt.cjoa. 
faUitatt non dubitarcs. Jo. Piau Mirandulay Epist. 

' . *' lul piuiniscd ill null litV, 

!». lit. i. -J) l.e Ton- lh» y 
llitr til. Ill ill tlif )iir|io«c 
•estDWt'd, Uj wlidin tllr llfi- 
from utiiiiil) |iu!|M»>'. ', III 
iils :iie wilimut ic|>t'iit.iiu i 
ttiilli amltVai. jiit^tivc In-. 
) tliat inrn V vshu.ii he h.itli 
r. .w.xii. 1<». I l*ti I. .'f) or 
u>lv, lihd trKiuiutK truiu tlicii 
lie Lord doth cli.i>ti>t* llifir wui 
.ther, l)iit doth not utttrly< 
/•Wmlxxxiv. Js-:;:,) 

.v.e thereof, is (uv aii«l alisuliitc, n >r 
cd iipui) till- un>t.ililr uill nt in.iii. 
^villeth, or iiimu ih, l<ut id' (Im I 
^howeth it 0:1 \\h>iiii l*f \\\\\. i /i"/./. 
lod, the FatluT intU'id, and C'liiivf, 
•he transaction uf the coM-nant \\a> 
He was to take from his Tatlivr a 
nature, to lav do\\n his lih'. and t'l 
. to fulfil all rirrliteoiLini-s.s ; to I*, inadt- 
ave our inic|uitit^, and tin; rl:a*>ti>riiit lit 
<i upon him, hc-fon.- he cmihl >tf of tlu 
•j|. Y*^ea, he undertunk not only tm hi- nun 
ours. By the preciou^^nchN id' his lijntnl In 
.d out of the plenitude of his ^pilit. In Hiip 

116 G0D*8 FlDELlTTt [SERM. XIII. 

2. Thou art a ^ righteous Father f when thou chaatisest 
holy men, thou dost not wrodg them ; thou measurest and 
proportionest thy stripes not unto their sins, but unto their 
strength ; dealest with them tenderly, and suitable to their 
cases and conditions ; to purge them, not to consume them* 
Thon hast a rod for the cummin, and a staff for the fitches, 
and a wheel for the bread-corn. (/sat. xxviii. 27, 28) Thy 
rod is ' Virga Horainum,^ a rod fitted to the condition of 
weak men ; (2 Sam. vii. 14) and the temptation wherewith, 
thou sufferest thy children to be tempted, is m^ifouryu^ ia^ 
tfowifo^f proportioned to the infirmities of man. (1 Cor. %: 
13) Thou knowest our frame ; thou rememberest that we 
are dust ; {Putlm czzxiii. 14) that our strength is not the 
3trength of stones, nor our flesh of brass ; tliat we dwell in 
houses of clay, which are crushed before the moth ; (Job iv. 
19, and vi. 12) and accordingly thou dost in very faithfulness 
afflict, to refine, not to consume us. i 

3. Yea, when thy judgements are secret, yet they are 
righteous. When wicked men prosper, and good men suffer; 
when wicked men are the fan, and good men the com ; when 
the weeds flourish, and the com is over-topped ; when the 
wicked devoureth the man, that is more righteous than he; 
when the affairs of the world seem to be out of course, aqd 
every man out of his place; all this while the Lord makss 
way for the^ revelation of his righteous judgements. EUs 
work will be beautiful in its time. All things will wori( 
together for good, as materials in a building, ingredients 
in ii cordial, colours in a table. (Rom. viii. 28) The pros* 
perity of the wicked will work to his ruin; (Prov. i. 3) the 
affliction of the righteous will work to his glory. (2 Cor. 
iv. 17) . Thus, righteous in thy judgements ; neither thine 
enemies, nor thy children, shall ever have cause justly to 
complain against thee. 

" Thou art righteous.'*'] 2. In thy covenant and promises. 
If thou shouldst have dealt with us according to our provo^ 
cations, we had been consumed ; (Lam» iii. 22. Jer. x. 24) 
but thou hast remembered thy gracious promise to our 
fathers, and therefore we are preserved. Though our sins have 
fprfeited niercy, yet thy truth and faithiuluess hath fulfilled 
it. We owe npt our remaining, that we are a people ; we 
owe not our escaping, that we are a free people,;— unto any* 

S£SH. Xlli.J THE CHUIICH8 •AFI'Tr. 117 

goodflCM of our owD, but unto tbe grace of the cuTeiiani 

Grod^ truth und fidelity unto his people that are in co? e- 
aantwith him* is the true ground of all their safety : he doth 
not diange: therefore we do not perish, who otherwise, from 
thadays of their fcthers, are gone astray. {MaL iii. C, 7) 
Hia aerciea are ' from everlasting to ererlasting ;' ( Pmlm 
ciiL 17) from everlasting in predestination* to everlasting 
in {^orification. * He ^ gave grace, and promised eternal life, 
bdbffc tlie world began ^ (2 Tim. i. 9. TU. i. 2) before they 
were eztant, or had any being (further than in the purpose 
of God), on whom the grace was bestowed, to whom the life 
was promiaed. And what he did from eteniity purpose S he 
will DOi in time revoke : for his gifts are without repentance. 
( Aoak xL 29) He doth, by his faith and fear, preserve his 
people through his power, unto that mercy which he hath 
firom elenity given them. {Jer. xixii. 40. 1 Pei. i. 5) Of 
Ihwisi Irwsj they fall dangerously, and frequently from their 
own stedfitttness ; and then tbe Lord doth chastise their wan- 
tiinneas with the rod of a father, but doth not utterly take 
away hia loving-kindness. (Psalm Ixxzix. 28 — 35) 

L The covenant and grace thereof, is free and absolute, nut 

condttiooal, and suspended upon the unstable will of man. 

" It ia not of him that willeth, or runneth, but of God that 

sboweth mercy ,^ and showeth it on whom he %^ill. (Rom. 

is. 15, 18) Between God, the Father indeed, and Christ, 

as a second Adam, the transaction of the covenant was 

wholly conditional: He was to take from his Father a 

commiaaion in our nature, to lay down his life, and to 

take it up again; to fulfil all righteousness; to be made 

sin for us; to have our iniquities, and the chuKtisenient 

of our peace laid upon him, before he could see of the 

travel of his soul. Yea, he undertook not only for his own 

work, but for ours. By the preciousness of his blood he 

purchased; and out of the plenitude of his Kpirit, he sup- 

plieth unto us whatever grace is requisite unto our salvation. 

Bot I aay, as to us, the grace of the covenant is thus far 

- • Ab mtemo per pradesttnationcin, in fffrrnum per glorificationcm : Brmmrd. 
So. 2. io AsecMien. ^ Ante mandi ooottitutioncm vidit imm, fecit na«, 

itnof, mistt ad not, fcdrmtt not. Hoc c)ut cuntihum nuinclin atci< 
jitig. Sci. 2. in r»alm33. 

118 god's fidelity, [seuh. xiii; 

free and absolute, that no duties are required of us, wbick 
are not as branches of the same covenant bestowed upon ui z 
He bath promised to gire a neW heart, and to put a new 
spirit witiiin us ; to take aMray the stony heart out of oar 
flesh, and to give us an heart of flesh ; and to put bis B^ 
rit within us, and to cause us to walk in his statutes, to savlff 
us from all our uncleanness, to cleanse us from all our inn 
quities, Ezek. xxxvi. 25, 26, 27, 29, 33. And though be 
tliere tells us, that he will be ' eni^uired oP by the house of 
Israel, to do these things for them, ver. xxxvii ; yet we know 
it is he only who poureth out the spirit of grace and suppli* 
cation, whereby we make this enquiry of him. {Zech. xii. 10. 
Gal. iv 6. Rom. viii. 25) True indeed it is, that when we 
believe, it is we only that believe ; and when we work, it is 
we that work : but our working is not the cause of bis 
grace, but his grace the cause of our working : ** Certum est 
nos velle et facere, cum volumus, cum facimus ; Sed ille fiicit 
ut velimus ut faciamus^.^ And therefore the Apostle saith, 
^< I laboured more abundantly than they air*— -to note that 
the labour was his — ** yet not I, but the grace of God which 
was with me;"— to note that the principle was GodV — (1 Cor^ 
XV. 10) ^* Thou hast wrought all our works in us,*^ saith the 
prophet, (ha. xxvi. 12) The works are ours, the strength is 
thine: Ours the heart and the hand that act; thine the spirit 
and grace whereby we act. He doth not withhold his love^ 
till our wills prevent him, and move him to extend it ; but 
he doth *, out of his own free love, frame our hearts unto the 
love of him, and work the will in us, which he requireth of 
us. (PhiL ii. 12, l-i) We repent because he turns us : He 
doth not turn to us, because we first turn to him : His love • 
prevents ours, and doth not stay for it. (1 John iv. 19. Ezek. 
xxxvi. 32. Isa. xlviii. 9, 1 1) '* Inspirat caritatem, ut quas 
discendo novimus, diligendo faciamus.*^ 

2. The covenant ' and the grace thereof is immutable, and 
therefore changeth not with the unstable will of man. ^* God 
is not a man that he should lie, neither the son of man that 
he should repent : Hath he said, and shall he not do it ? 

c Aug.6c Gnt. et lib. Arbitr. cap. 16. ^ Ipse Auctor, ipse Remunenttor 

operit) ipse Remunenitio tota. Bernard, in VuAmSl.Stx, 9, •Illelm- 

cit ut not fadamua quae pnecepit ; oos uon facimus, ut ille faciat, qua promitit. 
jtug* epist. lid. f Vide Bradward, de causa Dei, 1. 1, c. 23» 24, 25. 


Hath he spciken, and shall he not make it good T (Supttb. 
niii. 19) Him covenant of grace is confirmed by an oath *, 
to ihow the immotability of it ** This is as the waters of 
Hosh nnfo me, saith the Lord : For as I hare sworn that the 
witsrs of Nomb ahould no more go over the earth, so have I 
svon that I will not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.** 
For the mountains shall depart, and the bills be removed ; 
Wt my kindnesB shall not depart from thee : Neither shall 
Ai covenant of my peace be removed," saith the Lord, that 
kuk meicy oo thee, (ha, liv. 9, 10) — A covenant, thus 
fowaAffA open mere mercy, and sealed by an oatli, is more 
■movable than hills, or mountains. The strong founda- 
tions of the earth shall be sooner shaken, than the oath of 
God niiacarry. The oath of Qod is the strongest demonstra- 
tion of the immntability of his counsel that can possibly bo 
eaad ; (Hefr. vi. 17) for where he swears, he doth not repent. 
(Psolsi CJL 4) Every work of mercy which he begins, he 
carries on to a consummation. (PAiV. i. 6) The foundation 
of God lemaineth sure ; cannot be infringed, shaken, or 
■Bdenmned by the levity, or inconstancy of the will of man. 
(2 Tim. ii. 19) Whatever the fluctuations of the heart of 
man be, the counsel of the Lord shall stand. (iVov. xix. 21. 
Psdbi xxxiii. 10, 11) 

3 The covenant and grace therefore is most powerful and 
efieacious: Therefore his mercies arc sure; his *' promises, 
yea, and amen :^ because his word is Kettled in heaven, 
seconded with his power, which will find means to etlect 
whatever he hath spoken. " God hath spoken once,'" saith 
the psaloaist ; '' twice have I heard this." It is a word con- 
stant and stable ; a word doubled, to note the certainty of it, 
as Joseph said unto Pharaoh ; {(ifn. xli. 32) " that power and 
Biercy belong to God. (Psalm Ixii. II, 12) Every promii^c 
which mercy makes, power |)erformR. If mercy pron)ise a 
heart of flesh, and to put his fear into us, God hath power 
cnoogh to make it good. He may as sooii be an impotent, 
as an anfiuthful God. Abraham consiidered not the impo- 
lency of his own body, hut the power of God to n)'.ikc good 
his promise, and therefore stagi^cred not through unbelief. 
{Rom. iv. 19,20,21) And so the apostle argues touching 

f JuratJoiM; Drt (iinuta prtimtsio, j1vgi» dc Ct«. fHi, 1. iTi. c. 3'J. 

120 COD*S FIDKLITV, [8£RM. XI 1 1 

the conversion of the Jews : — *' If they abide not still 
in unbelief, they shall be graffed in ; for Ood is able to graff 
them in/' (Rom. xi. 23) 

4. The covenant and grace thereof is invincible by many 
adverse assaults ; nothing can alter, or overrule the will of 
God, or cause him to recede from his own purposes of show, 
ing mercy. If any thing could, sin could : but he hath as* 
sured us, that that shall not : ^' If his children forsake my 
law, and walk not in my judgements ; if they break my sta^ 
tutes, and keep not my commandments ; then will I visit their 
transgressions with a rod, and their iniquity with stripes: 
Nevertheless my loving-kindness will I not utterly take from 
him, nor suffer my faithfulness to fail ; my covenant will I 
not break/' &c (Psalm Ixxxix. 30—34) Though he punish, 
it shall be in measure; not unto rejection, but unto emendm- 
tion. (Isa. xxvii. 8, 9) As to the guilt of sin, and damnation 
due unto it, he will pardon it : "I will forgive their iniquity^ 
and remember their sin no more." (Jer. xxxi. 34) As to 
the dominion thereof, he will subdue it, and purge it away. 
(Micak vii. 19, 20. Psabn Ixv. 3) As to the particular pre- 
valency of any lust, he will awaken us to repent; make us, 
by some word, or affliction, or mercy, or example, or provi. 
deuce, to search and consider our ways, and return from 
all our evil doings ^ . So he did David by the ministry of 
Nathan ; (2 Sam, xii. 13) so Peter by the look of Christ ; 
{lAike xxii. 61) so Joseph^s brethren, by his speaking roughly 
unto them. (Gen, xlii. 21) As to the remainders of it, he 
will daily mortify and destroy them. (Rom. vi. 6) Sin then 
shall not break out so far as to .annul and to evacuate the cove* 
nant : for who then should be saved ? seeing, in many things 
we offend all, and, by the grace of the covenant alone, are 
preserved from offending more. Nay, the Lord is so gra- 
cious to his people, that their very sins, which of themselves 
do only defile and endanger them, are, by God's goodness, 
ordered unto their benefit. The Lord could keep his ser- 
vants from falling, (Jude, ver. 24) and preserve them blame- 

^ Adeo justis omnia cooperintur in Bonum, ut etiam si qui eorum deviant cC 
exorbitant, etiam hoc iptnm eit faciat proficere in bonum, quia humiliores rede* 
unt atqne doctiores. Au%, de Corrupt, et Grat. cap. 6. Vid. de nat. rt Grat. 28.-^ 
An vero ei peccata ipsa non cooperantur in Bonum, qui ex cis humilior, rerven- 
tior, solicitior, timurntior et cautior invcnitur? Bernard, Scr. 1. dc diversis. 

• ERM. Xni.] Tilt CIIL'llCIIS SAKtIV. 121 

; (I 7"A*M. V. 23) bul he is pleased Gometlmes to leave 
dtem. that they may know themselves, and their own wealed 
nes«, as he did llezekiah ; (2 Chrvn. xxxii. 31) that they miy 
bemoan their own misery, and loathe themselves in theif 

eyes; {Jtr. xxxi. 18, 19. E;ci, xx, 43) that tbey may 
be dri»en to live upon free grrce and pardoning mercyj 
.{Ptahn It. 1) that they may set the hii>her price upon the 
Xord Jesus, who is a sanctuary for the chief of sinners to 

onto ; (Jsa. viii. 14. 1 Tim. i. 1.5) that they may be the 
more watchful over their loose and deceitful hearts, having 
once, yea twice, been betrayed by them ; (Job xl. 6, and 
ncxiv. 3-2) that they may pray more earnestly for the aub- 
ling and mortifying of prevalent corruptions : {Psalm li, 
8^10. Rom. vii. 23) these and other the like ways, the Lonl 
bath tu order the very sins of his people unto their good. 
And if fttn shall not prevail against the covenant, we are sure 
BOthing else shall : he that pardoneth sin, rebuketh Satan, 
eonquereth the world, — his love is above the reach of any 
Ifaing to separate ua from it; {Rom. viii. 33—39) none shall 
be able to take us out of Christ's or his Father's hands, 
(JoAw X. 28—30) 

b. The covenant and grace thereof is founded in the blood 
of Christ and ratified by it: as he hath by his blood pur- 
chased his people, (Tit. ii. 14) so hath he by the same pro- 
cored for theoi all good things, specified in the covenant 
{Rom. viii. 32) The blood of Christ can as well be vacated) 
ai any branch of the covenant be unfultilled to believers, for 
■rhom tbey were all bought with so precious a price. 

6. His purchase is seconded by his intercession. His io- 
tarceMion is the petition of his blood, and therefore shall un- 
doubtedly be granted. His father heareth him always, (Jo/in 
xi. 41,42) and he prayeth to bis father, that his people may 
be ao kept, as that they may be with him, and behold his 
glory; {Joh. xvii. 11 and x». 24) therefore accordingly they 
ifaall be kept ' 

7, Christ's intercession is seconded with his Father's love 
lo bis people, " I say not that I will pray the Father for you, 
fw the iTi/Aer Ajw«e/i^ loveth you," saith Christ; (Jo/in xvi. 
30, 27) and therefore must needs be exceeding acceptable* 

> Vid. CatHrron. dc E 

122 god's fidelity, [serm, xiii. 

because God^s own heart is towards them, and bis lore upon 
them ; as the woman of Tekoa's petition for Absalom was 
easily granted by David, because his heart was towards bim 
before. (2 Sam. xiii. 39, and xiv. 1, 2) 

Lastly, The Lord bath promised his holy Spirit of fear, 
love, grace, adoption unto his people ; by the help of which 
they are preserved from the dangers, whereunto of tbemaelv^M 
they are exposed. (EzeL xxxvi. 27. Isa. lix. 21) Upon 
these and such like grounds it appeareth, that because God 
is righteous and faithful in his covenant, therefore we remain 

And if it be here objected, that the promises are usually 
set forth as conditional, " the Lord is with you while ye be 
with him ;"*' and '^ if you seek him, he will be found of you : 
but if ye forsake him, he will forsake you ;^ (2 Chron. xv. 2) 
" If ye be willing and obedient, ye shall eat the good of the 
land:*" {I$a. i. 19) '' He that believeth, shall be saved ;"* 
{Mark xvi. 16. Joh, iii. 16) *' Except ye repent, ye shall all 
perish ;^ {Luke xiii. 3) We answer, 1 . Promises are, in some 
places, made absolutely, which, in others, are conditionally 
expressed : as Heb. xiii. ^' I will not leave thee nor forsake 
thee :'' Jer. xxxii. 39. ** I will give them one heart and one 
way, that they may fear me for ever; I will give them a 
heart to know me, they shall be my people, I will be their 
God, they shall return unto me with their whole heart ;^ 
{Jer. xxiv. 7) " If ye will obey my voice and keep my GOve» 
nant,"*' is a condition in one place, Ewod. xix. 5: a free 
promise in another, *' ye shall keep my judgements, and do 
them,^' Ezek. xxxvi. 27. *' The mercy of the Lord is to- 
wards them that fear him,^' Psal. ciii. 11. There the fear of 
God is a condition. — '^ I will give them one heart, and one 
way, that they may fear me,^ Jer, xxxii. 39 ; there it is a free 

2. The Lord doth not only give us good things under a 
condition, but doth give the condition itself to his people. 
(Compare Isa. i. 19. with Phil. ii. 12. Acts x. 43. with Phil. 
i. 29. Ephes. ii. 8) 

3. Precepts and conditions are used as the ' Vebicula' of 
the grace promised. Of ourselves, we can do nothing of thoite 
duties unto which promises are annexed ; for all our suffi- 



fijeney is of God, who worketh all our works for us. (2 Cor. 

ffi. 5) But the precepts or the word nre the usual iiistra> 

bents, by which he worketh thoae things in us, which he re- 

rcth of us. (Rom. x. 17) 

4. Conditional propositions do not imply, that our perfor- 

Itnces work upon God to do what he hud said ; as if the 

trfonnanceof duty were only ours, and then the perforninnc« 

Iff promise alone his; but tbey imitate the order and coa- 

I Aexion, which the Lord hath set amongst his own gifts; some 

I Whereof he hath appointed to be antecedent dispositions and 

I'prrpflrations towards others consequent upon them. " He 

t bclierelb, shall be saved :" this is a conditional promise: 

Kth the condition, salvation the promise. But ne may not 

I understand it, as if faith were only ours, and salvation 

me his : but faith is one gift of God, antecedent to salva- 

foe, which is another ^ft of God. 

' Ver, I. Now ihen, since the Lord is righteous in all the 
sof his Judgements and secret providences, we must for 
Her iHy oar hands on our mouths, and put our mouths in the 
imt, and beware of omrmuring and repining against him, as 
if his ways were not equal towards ua. " Behold he taketh 
amy, who can binder him ? who will say unto biin, what dost 
Ihoa?" {Job ix. 12) We may, in our prayers, plead with 
God about his judgements as holy men have; (Jer. xii. 1. 
Uabak. i. 2-4-13) but we may not quarrel at them, nor mur- 
mur against them. . 

2. When the Lord doth strangely vary bis providences to- 
itards a people, and worketh unusual changes and alterations 
among them ; stirreth up some helps, and then layeth them 
hy : calleth forth others, and quickly revoketh them; titteth 
men for great actions, and in the midst of those actions cut- 
i«th them offi— our work here is not to censure either the 
i;;cnt. or the instruments, to charge the dealings of God 
cither as aniighteous or as unreasonable : but to reflect upon 
oimelves, and learn our uns ted fastness in God's covenani, by 
tut diversifying of providences towards us. 1. Sometimes 
*7 over^dote upon instruments, and deify them, as if God had 
aa way to help us but one. And then God breaks that staff, 
■»iwi we lean too hard upon it, to force us to lean upon his 
Etae again. 2. Sometimes we undervalue them, and will 
^A understand that God is doing us good by them, (as it is 


said of Moses, Acts vii. 25) and then God saspendeth hia 
work, which he was about to do. 3. Soinetimes'the hearts 
of the people are unprepared for mercies ^ and then Ood doth 
not honour his instruments with settling them. Jehoshaphat 
was a good king ; yet he did not work a perfect reformation ; 
the high places were not taken away ; and this the reason, 
** the people had not as yet prepared their hearts unto the 
God of their fathers." (2 Chron. xx. 32, 33) 4. Sometimes 
the guilt of old sins does remain uncleansed away, as it is said 
of the iniquity of Baal-Peor; (Josh. xxii. 17) and in this case 
instruments are too weak to divert wrath. (2 Kings xxiii. 26, 
£6) Never such a reformation as Josiafa made about the 
eighteenth year of his reign ; and yet because the people re- 
turned but feignedly, {Jer. iii. 10) virithin a few years after, 
they were carried into captivity. Our Saviour was very near 
his sufferings, when they cried ' Hosannah^ before him. The 
sun often shews biggest, and shines brightest, when it is 
ready to set. The candle blazeth most, when it is in the 
socket Many times dying men, and it may be so with dy- 
ing churches, have a lightning before death. 

1 speak not this to bode ill unto the land of my nativity. 
If any say. It shall not be so, but we shall still have peace, 
and truth, and holiness flourish,— 1 will cheerfully say as the 
prophet did, {Jer, xxviii. 6) '* Amen:^ The Lord do so for 
this land : but withal, ^^ happy is the man that feareth al- 
ways.'' (Prov. xxviii. 14) The sins of the people may weak- 
en the hands of the best instruments, and make them unable 
to help us. It is noted as a cause of wickedness that men 
have no changes; {Psalm Iv. 19. Jer. xlviii. 11) but to be 
tossed and emptied, and exercised with frequent alterations, 
and out scent to abide in us still, — wanton under mercies, — 
sullen under judgement8,-'-after all our physic, to relapse,-^ 
after all that is come upon us, again to break the command- 
ments ; this is a sad symptom, a great aggravation of our sin, 
and justification of God's righteousness in all his dealings 
with us. 

Again, since the Lord is the God of his people, and rigbte* 
ous to them in a way of mercy and fidelity, we learn to ac- 
knowledge it a great mercy, and to glorify God for it, that' 
we " remain yet escaped:'* that we may set up an £bt'U-£zer, 
and say, * Thus far hath the Lord helped us." 



Many considerations may set on ihe sense of tliis mercy 

r hearts. 1. The many sins which remain amongst 

I, even in the Israel of God: sad divisions, sharp animosU 

perverse opinions, vanity, luxury ; severe censuringa, 

1 walking, worldly-mindedness, &c, 2. The many shak- 

md universal sufleriugs, whereby the Lord haih made 

It appear, that his quarrel was against all orders of men; that 

: disease was all over; (hn. i. G. Jer. v. ] — 5) so that 

■fOne can blame others, but every one acknowledge the plague 

f hia own heart ; and say, as David did, " I confess my sin, 

pd the sin of my people. "^ (Dan. ix. 20) Now various shak- 

s and concussions in a nation use to be sore presages of 

sater judgements; as we may see in God's dealing with 

t ten tribes before their dissolution. What shakings have 

sett ftinongat us. we need not recount ; by changes at home, 

y differences abroad; shakings on the land, and shakings 

P'CDthewa; shakings at hand, and shakings afar off; shak- 

I by war, and shakings by sicknesses; shakings in our 

^niiids by divided opinions, shakings in our hearts by divided 

tSections, shakings in our estates by divided interests. And 

whether these shakings have a tendency to dissolution, we 

1 know not ; — we are not ignorant of the rage, which hatk 

^■teen upon many of our proteslant brethren in other parts of 

^Bbfittendom ; — but surelv this consideration may lead us both 

^Bb glorify Ood, that we " rtmainyet escaped," and to hambls 

™ oarselres under the fear of his further wrath. 

3. The powerful preaching which liath been in the land, 
which where it doth not kindly work, where it is not honour- 
ably entertained, doth exceedingly ripen judgements, and 
make white for the sickle : it is compared to the shining of 
ibe sun, (2 Cot: \v. ti. 2 Pet. i. 19) and to showers of rain, 
{Vtml. xxxii.) which are intended for the bringing forth of i 
ulvation, and springing up to righteousness; (Zsai. xlv. 8) 
but if tbey iaJl upon sins, do hasten their maturity, and 
make them nigh Unto cursing. {Heb. vi. 7, 8) The sins of | 
ihe church are summer- fruits : they ripen faster than the 
fcioft of the world. The sins of the Amoritea were four huit- ' 
dted years a ripening : {Geit. xv. 16) the sins of Israel in tha 
■ ildemess, forty years, (fsaim' xcv. 10) God's patience ' 
towuds the ten tribes, after their revolt, was but two bun- | 
died at>d uxly years. From the sins of Manaaseh to th^ 

126 OOD's FID£LIT\% [S£RM. XIII. 

captivityi brought upon Judah for thofi^ sino, little more 
than one hundred years. A% at Jericho, the aounding of 
the trumpet seven times did lead in the falling of the wf|U ; 
so the long sounding of the word in the ears of disobedient 
•people, is a shrewd presage of ensuing ruin. 

These considerations laid together, as they justly awaken 
us to humiliation, so are they evidences of God^s goodness 
towards us, in that such a people " remain yet escaped ;'' 
escaped from the bondage of popery, from the flames of per- 
secution ; from the Spanish Armada, from the vault of pow<- 
der ; from troubles in the State, from the terror of a bloody 
war, from renewed attempts of trouble and danger ; escaped 
from a vote, extinguishing and abolishing the whole mainte- 
nance of the ministry,, the consequences whereof could not 
but have beeu unutterably miserable. Any one of these evils, 
.God might have sharpened into a destruction : and yet after 
all this, " righteous art thou, O Lord ; for we remain yei 

2. It reproveth our unbelief, if consulting with flesh and 
blood, betaking ourselves to carnal shifts in time of danger, 
having a faithful covenant, and a righteous God to lay hold 
upon, whose alone fidelity is the ground of his peopled 
safety, who knoweth how to deliver the godly out of tempta* 
lion. (2 Pet. ii. 9) This was the sin of Ahaz, in sending .to 
the Assyrian to help him, when God oflered him a sign to 
confirm his trust in him. (/sat. vii. 11, 12. 2 Chron. xxviii« 
19) The Christians, in the church of Corinth, being afhtid 
to displease their heathen friends, and endanger themselves, 
would sit with them at the idol's table, and eat at their tables 
meat offered to idols: the apostle dissuadeth them firom 
using this carnal shift to decline danger ; bids them ^* flee 
from idolatry," lest that which they, in carnal wisdom,. might 
judge the means of their standing, should prove theoccasioB 
of their fall ; and directeth them to trust for safety in. a 
faithful God, who would not sufier them to be tempted above 
what they were able, but would with the temptation make 
a way to escape, that they might be able to bear it. (1 Car. 
X. 13, 14) 

3. In fears therefore and dangers, we should be encouraged 
by theoe two arguments. 1. The righteousness of God« 
2. Our own present remaining escaped ; &ith in^ andUeiqijpf, 


•Krh. xin.] THE church's SAI'KTY. 


ience of th« fidelity of God to help lis ; to trust in him at all 
■Mines', not to fear the wrath of man, but to secure the love 
•fOod. He sometimes purposely bringeth his servants to 
llfifBculties, that they may make trial of such a friend, who 
n six and seven troubles is at hand to deliver them. FaJth 
If s Tenturous grace ; it honours God, and lays hold on his 
tngth. (Rom. iv, 20. hai. xxvii. 5) It is a victorious 
race, and tises up above difSculties ; {1 Joh?i v. 4) all things 
pe possible to it. Therefore in times of danu;er, let us 
jlfead God'a covenant, and our own experience ; " Lord, wilt 
Ttoa ROW destroy us, seeing wc remnin i/et escaped, and are 
nouaients of thy mercy? hast thou wrought so great de- 
rvncea, and done so many wonders, and snatched us as 
knnds out of the fire, to destroy us at the last 'f Thou hast 
riivered, and dost deliver ; wilt thou not give us leave to 
Ptiat in ihee for deliverance still r" Though the Lord had 
%rDken D8 in the place of dragons, and had cast us off and 
tMit ns to shame ; yet even so we may lean upon his name. 
iad plead his covenant; {Psalm xliv. 17, 19, and Ixniv. 
i— 2t>. /mi. Ixiv. 8— 12. Httb.W'u 17. Ih) how much more 
comfortably may we plead it, when, by the alone mercy 
diereof, vx remain esaiped f When we may say as the people 
of Joseph did, (Josh, xvii 14) " We are a great people, and 
Ae Lord hath hitherto blessed us:" and may set up a mo- 
nuffleot as Samuel did, (I Snm. vii. 1'2) and say, " Thus far 
bath the Lord holpen us.^ This is one chief argument which 
God's •errants use in prayer, to mind him of his word and 
oovertant, wherein he had caused them to hope. So Jacob; 
" I am not worthy of the least mercy ; but thou saidst, 1 will 
do thee good." (Gen. xxxii. 9 — 12) So Moses; "We 
rcmaio yet escaped out of the land of Egypt; thou hast 
brought us out thence ; turn from thy fierce wrath ; remem- 
ber Abraham, Isaac, and Israel thy servants, to whom thou 
nreareat," fee. {Eiod. xxxii. 11 — 13) And again; "Let 
the power of my Lord be great, according as thou hast 
•pokea ; pardon the iniquity of thy people, as thou hast for- 
tiven them from Egypt until now ; as they remain yet es- 
c»ped, so save them still ; the same mercy and power can do 
,t DOW, which did it before. {Numb. xiv. 17—19) So David ; 
" Thou bast spoken of thy servanfa house ; for thy word's 
uke hast thou done these great things; and now, O Lord, 

12b GOD^S FIDELITY, [s£IiM. Xlll. 

establish thy word, do as thou hast said.*' (2 Sam. vii. 19, 
21 , 25, 27, 29) So Solomon ; '' Let thy word be verified, 
which thou spakest unto thy servant David.** (1 King$ viii. 
26) So Asa ; " O Lord, we rest in thee, thou art our QadJ* 
(2 Chron. xiv. 11) So Jehoshaphat ; ^' Thou art God«— our 
eyes are upon thee." (2 Chron. xx. 6 — 12) No such plea 
in prayer as the free^grace, the word, the truth, the fidelity, 
the righteousness of God. 

4. This may comfort us against all the mutability of oar 
own wills, whereby we are apt to start aside like a deceitful 
bow ; inasmuch us our safety dependeth not upon our own 
performances, but upon the covenant of God, who is righteoiM 
and faithful, and will not sufier our weakness to annul hin 
promise. (Rom. ix. 16) * 

5' This caution notwithstanding we must take in, ThMk 
we beware of playing the wantons with the grace of God'ft 
covenant, because thereby we remain escaped ; for the Lord 
will not pass by the petulancy and lasciviency of any of hia 
children ; though he doth not totally cast them off, yet ke 
hath sharp rods wherewith he can chastise them. If they 
-flee from his service, he can send a whale to swallow thein^ 
and can bring all his waves and billows upon them. If they 
keep not to his commission, he can send a lion to tear tbeaiy 
he can make them feel the weight of his frown, though they 
do not his fury ; and, it may be, cause them to walk in dark- 
ness, drooping, and disconsolate all their days, complaining 
of broken bones, and of a wounded spirit, with strong criet^ 
imploring the comforts of that Spirit, which they had so oor 
kindly grieved and resisted. 

As it iSf this day,] '* Escaped, escaped this day, in which 
we lie under so sore and heavy a guilt" This is a marvel- 
lous heightening of God*s mercy; that we may remain 
escaped in this datfy a day of so great sin ; and also a mar* 
vellous aggravation of the sin, that it hath been committed io 
this day, a day of so great mercy, wherein we remain yef 
escaped. Sin, committed in a day of mercy, is the more ex- 
ceeding heinous ; mercy, extended in a day of sin, is th% 

* Ut tocum Deo detur, hominii voluntatem boDam et praeparat adjavandaa 
ct acQuTac prseparatam. Aug, Enchirid. c. 32. Si Deus miseretur, etiam vola^ 
mat ; ad eandem qaippe grattam pertinet, ut vclttnus. Ad Simplicium Q. 3. eC 
Epitt.ia6. . 

£RM. XIII.] THE church's SAFIiTV. 


e exceeding glorious. That (*e should so greatly pro- 

Jce the Lord, this dajf, wherein we remain escaped; — O how 

|iprodjgiou3 and presumptuous the wickedness ! That we 

nbould remain escaped thit datf, wherein we have so greatly 

rovoked the Lord ; — O how admirable and unsearchable his 

f I. Sin, in a day of great mercy, is exceedingly the more 
It ia a great aggravation of sin, when it TvithBtand- 
fc judgements, when the Lord cbaeigelh the corrections, and 
B still bold fast their sins, {Amos iv. 6, 12) and turn not 
onto bim that smiteth them. {hat. ix. 13) It is a brand 
«pon Ahaz, that " in the day of his distress, he sinned more." 
Chnm. xsviii. 22) How much more heinous is it to abuse 
Lavrcy and loving-kinduesa ! It is the character of a wicked 
lU, that " though favour he shewed him, yet he will not 
I Ttgbteousness." {Isat. xxvi. 10) The augel spared 
^^and yet be ran greedily after the wages of iniquity. 
lii. 35) This is an unkiudness die Lord oftea 
k his people with. (Deul. xxxii. 13, 16. Jer. xxii, 
9t. xiii- 5. Amot ii. H — 13) This made Solomon's sin 
ibe greater, that he turned from the God of Israel, who had 
appeared lo him twice. (1 Kings xi. !') This adds disinge- 
uuity, un I hank fulness, unkindness unto disobedience, when 
Bcn neither fear nor love the Lord for his goodness. No 
soffeiu more dangerous than those which are upon sweet 
things : no diseases more desperate, than those which reject 
conttals : no fruits ripen faster, than Uiose on which the sun 
coQlinoaiiy shincth. As the apostle saith of grace, " Where 
sin abounded, grace did much more abound;" so we may by 
m inTeiMon aay of sin, " Where grace aboundetb, there the 
guilt of ein is the more abundant." 

2. Mercy, extended in a day of sin, ia the more exceeding 
s^orioas; when the Lord is pleased to proclaim mercy to a 
'livorced people; {Jer, iii. 12, 16) in the midst of provoked 
«ntb, to remember mercy. (H/ifi. iii. 2) And when men 
io OQ frowardly in their own ways, then to heal them, to re- 
*an comfort to them, to create peace, (,1m. Ivii. 17, 19) to 
Ual a backsliding people, and to love them freely ; {Uos. 
UT. 14) to look back upon a denying Peter : {hake xxii. 61) 
to Kod a pardon to an adulterous David; (2 Sam. xii. 13) 
. heaven to a persecuting; Saul ; {Aetr ix. 4) this 

130 god's fidelity, [sBRBI. XIII. 

18 that which maketh mercy the more radiant ; which magnl* 
fieth the freeness, fulness, and superabundance of it, that it 
rejoiceth against judgement. {James ii. 13) 

These considerations tend much to humble a people which 
remain yet escaped, as we do this day. 

The sad conjunctions of our sins with the Lord^s good* 
ness, when the Lord saith, " I will remember my covenant, 
and thou shalt remember thy ways.*** Then, he saith, " Thoa 
shalt be confounded, and never open thy mouth any moffe, 
because of thy shame, when I am pacified towards thee/^ 
Ezek. xvi. 60 — 63. When we compare his mercy with our 
corrupt doings, then is a time to loathe ourselves in our owm 
sight. (Ezek. xx. 42 — 44, and xxxvi. 35 — 32) Sin punished* 
doth many times harden a sinner in pride, as we see in Pha- 
raoh : but sin pardoned, an^ subdued with mercy, shookl 
melt the soul into a godly sorrow, holy revenge, and sdfr 
displeasancy for it. They shall fear the Lord and his goo^ 
ness in the latter days. » 

O let ua learn to bewail our wickedness, in that we have 
ventured on it in a day of mercy, as if we had been delivered 
to commit abominations ; (Jer. vii. 10) as if privileges were ^ 
a protection to profaneness. Certainly^ if mercies be aggnip 
vations of sin, no nation in the world is less excusable thea 
we. What nation in the earth hath God so honoured widi 
a long possesaioD of his oracles, and glorious light of Us 
word 1 insomuch that other nations study the English tongue 
to read our books. — What nation hath ever had such man^ 
fold, such miraculous deliverances ? What nation hath the 
Lord crowned with a greater abundance of all good things f 
What means could be used to work upon a people, which 
the Lord hath not made use of amongst us ? If teaching 
would vTJOxk upon us, we have had his word. If chastise- 
ments would amend us, we have had his sword. If bounty 
would persuade us, we have been fed, and cloathed, and 
healed, and crowned, and compassed with mercies move 
than we can recount. If strange and unparalleled provi* ^^ 
dencies would awaken us, this nation hath never had, for 1 
many hundred years, such a prospect of God^s works, such 3 
interwoven mixtures of mercies, of judgements, of wonder^ 'f 
of terrors : wars raging, and again ceasing ; seas roaring, | 
and again calmed. And certainly the works of the Lord ^ 

I SCKU. XIII. 1 THE chuiich'm 


l-Vbonld be aougbt out of his people, {Pialin cxl. '2) and im- 
l^roved to their own account. Felt judgements should make 
llbem out of love with sin : renewed mercies should make 
tkem in love with God. That which humbleth, should heal 
bl>em; thnt which comforts, should cure them; that which 
lazeth, should amend them. 
2. This is a strong argument in prayer for penitent sin- 
ners to use, that God hath mercy in store even in a day of 
sin for his people: that though wc have trespassed against 

tGod. yet there is hope in Israel concerning this thing ;^ 
[Ezra X. 2) that though sin do ever forfeit mercy, yet it 
Jloth not ever remove it; though it do always provoke 
iirath, yet it doth not always procure it. How will mercy 
triumph in a day of repentance, when so great provocations 
have not hitherto extinguished it l How will fire break forth 
in dry wood, when it hath prevailed against tlie green.' 
Ne«ds must that jewel be glorious in the sun, which glisters 
in (he night. This should exceedingly encourage us unto 
rrpentance. Doth the Lord invite backsliding Israel? doth 
be wail to be gracious to a free people 't doth he pity us in 
our blood? and are his bowels kindled towards us, when we 
cantpass hiru about with lies and doceit? doth he look back 
with pity upon a denying Peter? doth he speak pardon from 
heaven upon a persecuting Paul.' doth he shew mercy on a 
Uaitasseh, filling Jerusalem with blood and idols? doth he 
apprar first unto Mary Magdalen, out of whom he had cast 
MTfiB devils ? O, who would not be encourged by such ex- 
amples, to tlee for sanctuary from the wrath to come, unto 
that mercy which hath snatched these as brands out of the 
ftre? The Lord keeps as open house for us as for them, 
(/w. Iv. I. ficc. xxii, 17) His mercy as abundant for any 
ether penitents as for them. {ha. Iv. 6, 7, 8) His call and 
m<riialioD the same to us as to them, {Juhn vii. 37, 38) The 
Uijod of Christ as etlectual for us as for them. {1 John li. 2} 
Tliey were set forth as examples to all, that should, after, 
brlieve in him unto eternal life. (1 Tim. i. 16) 

Only let us beware of profaning this comfort, by persist- 
tBg in our sius ; but follow the example of these penitents 
bne: (hough their sin had not removed God's mercy, yet 
God^ mercy did remove their sin, They entered into a 
it, ftworc 10 the Lord, gavf their hands thai ihty 



[sliRM. Xtll. 

would put away their strange wives, and separate themselrei 
from the people of the land. (Esm x. 3—11. 12—19) Thii 
is a genuine work of true hope in mercy, when it makeR ut 
jpurify ourselves, (1 John iii. 3) No man can hope for glorjTi 
' who is an enemy to grace ; for glory is grace perfected ;— ' 
and we can hope for nothing when we hate : he that hate* 
grace, doth not love glory. 

3. We note, that, in soEemn humiliations, there is a great 
k emphasis in these words, As it ts this day. It is a circum. 
' fetance greatly considerable, the time wherein we have sinned 

and escaped. Time greatly agaravates sin; (£x«(j. viii. 33. 
Luke xix. 42) time greatly commends mercy, that God kept 
touch with his people to a very day. {Rxod. xii. 41, 42) 
Therefore we should learn wisdom to improve time unto 
duty : as it is said of the children of Tssachar, that " they 
had understanding of the times to know what Israel ought 
to do." (I Chron. xii. 32) " Who knoweth," saith Mordecai 
to Esther, " whether thou be come to the kingdom for such' 
a time as this ?" Esther iv. 14. Let us therefore wisely con* 
aider the condition of the times, which God hath brought 
upon us: times of great and universal sickness and infir- 
mity, after he had, not many months since, upon prayer, re- 
moved such distempers in good part. Surely his anger i» 
not turned away, his hand is stretched out still, because wc' 
1 have not unfeignedly turned unto him that smiteth us. 

4. Times of wonderful changes and unseltledness ; many- 
I preparations and attempts to heal the breaches amongst ui^' 

&nd many abortions and miscarriages in those attempts; 
honourable persons, raised up by God to serve the interest 
of the nations, and, by hi^ providence, laid down again, ft" 
is good to study the meaning of God in these things. 1. That 
We should bewail our carnal confidence, and learn to look op 
t &nd to trust more in him, and less in man. 2. To labour foi 
' hearts established by his grace, that we may the more coBi 
fortabiy look for an outward establisltment in order and 
peace ; for our settlement must begin in our hearts ; — so Ion 
as our hearts are unsteadfast with God, his dealings may I; 
Btill in fluctuation and uncertainty towards us. 3. To ai 
knowledge, notwithstanding these aad changes and concui 
Bions, this great mercy. That we remain yet escaped, that th* 
Lord hath not yet said unto ue, that he would cast us offj 



hath not exposed us to those flames and commotions which 
our sins have deserved ; but that yet we sit under our vines 
and fig-trees, and none make us afraid. 

Lastly, To cast anchor on the rock of ages, and keep close 
to the throne of grace ; to secure his love and care of us, his 
presence and throne amongst us, who never dies, in whom 
there is everlasting strength ; to get firm holdfast of those 
comforts, which have nothing of mortality, nothing of lubri- 
dty in them ; which will stay with us while we remain here, 
to sweeten all the passages of our pilgrimage, and accom- 
pany us unto the presence of the Lord ; in whose presence 
there is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand there are 
pleasones for evermore. 








Preached in two Honourable Conventions of Parliament. The former, Jaau 

27, 1657. The other, Feb. 4, 1658. 


D. D. 













D. D. C. 

E. R. 

[London, 1659] 


PHIL. iii. 16, 16. 

Lei uSf therefore^ as many as be perfect, be thus minded : and 
if in any thing ye be otherwise minded, God shall reveal even 
this unto you. Nevertheless, whereto we have already at^ 
tainedj let us walk by the same rule^ let us mi$id the same 

The * head and the members^ Christ and his people, make 
up bat one Christ, and one church; and this church like 
Jerosalero, a city compacted within itself ^ wanting neither 
comeliness to allure the love of those that behold it, nor 
strength to subdue the power of those that resist it. 

And in this building by how much the more curious the 
compacture is, by so much the greater is the deformity and 
dinger of any breach therein, whether by heresy, "which un- 
tieth the bond of faith ; or by schism, which breaketh the 
bond of love. Christ is a Prince of Peace % and his church 
a kingdom of peace. When he came into the : worlds he 
brought peace with him ^ ; and when he departed, he left it 
behind him. * There is nothing more contrary to the nature 
of the church ^, nothing more advantageous to the enemies of 
it, nothing doth more tempt hypocrites to forsake it, or 
strangers to despise it, than the distractions and differences 
which are fomented within it. 

What sad breaches are crept into the church of God in 
these nations, no man but he that is a stranger in Israel, that 
dwelleth at the antipodes, can be ignorant of. What great 
reason there is to have sad and mournful thoughts of heart 
for the divisions of Reuben, for the differences and distrac- 
tions which are amongst us, every good man doth easily ap- 
prehend. How much it is incumbent upon those whom the 

* Ca|nit ct corpus anus est Chiistus, Aug. de Civ. Dei, 1. 17. cap. 18. et 83. 
vgmA. 69. ct de unitat. Eccles. c. 4. b Psalm cxxit. 3. Ephes. iv. 16. 

1 Cor. xii. 12. < Isai. ix. 6. Hcb. vii. 2. ^ Luke ii. 14 . 

* iohn xtv.'27. ' A^Soixa ^i) i ^Ayrlxgurros Koip^v \dfiri r^f icunov 

Iwarr^os rd iifiirtpa wlaifffund r§ iral aif^c0an/ifuera.-^KVfi^la ydp rots ix' 
^ i ifL^ r^ttytfSia. Greg, Naz, orat. 14. 


prophet calleth healers, {Isai. iii. 7) to put their helping 
hand to prevent further ruins, and to close up the breaches 
of Sion again, it is needless for me to prove. Since, therefore, 
so long as we know but in part, and prophesy but in part, it 
cannot be but that there will be variety of judgements in the 
church ; I have deetned it not incongmous or unbeseemmg 
thh present service, to open utito you, out of these words of 
the apostle, such a heatenly way of calming and pacifying 
difieretices, as that no common adversary of our religion or 
prosperity may make any use of them against us. 

The apostle having (verse 3) warned the Philippians to 
take heed ' of dogs/ and ' evil workers,' who endeavoured to 
corrupt the doctrine of the gospel, by mingling circumcision 
and other legal observances therewith ; shewing that though 
he had as many legal privileges to rejoice in as any of tbem^ 
yet he cast them all away, and esteemed them * loss and dung,* 
fat the ' excellency of the knowledge of Christ,' and his in- 
terest iti him and his righteousness ; and the communion be 
bad with him in his death and resurrection ;*^he then proM 
ceeded to exhort the church to imitate his example, to {ne- 
fer Chtist above all, to press forward unto more holiness and 
perfection ; and, in case of differences of judgement, to wait 
in the use of means upon Ood by his word and spirit, to re* 
veal his counsel further unto them ; and by their holy livea^ 
loving affections, and united ends, to prevent the danger^ 
which otherwise their different opinions might expose them 

"Ocoi oSy TfAsioi, " As many as be perfect*'] There is a 
double perfection, * Perfectio Vice,* and ' Perfectio Patriie ;• 
perfection attainable in oar way to heaven, and perfectioti 
expected in our heavenly country itself; opposed unto the 
other, as the whole to the part. When that which is perfect, 
is come, then that which is in part, shall be done away* 
(I Cor, xiii. 10) Perfection * in the way,' is two-fold : 
1. Created perfection ; that habit of original justice, whereby 
Adam was enabled exactly to perform that obedience, which 
in the law written in his heart, God required of him : and 
thus no man, Christ only excepted, hath since the fall beeo 
a perfect man. {Eccles, xii. 29) 2. Restored ^ and evangelical 

* Perfectio quae nostie competit fiagtiitati. Hitron, contra PeUg. I. 1. 


perfection. And tbis again is twofold: perfection of inte- 
grity and sincerity, and perfection of parts ; — as the child 
bath all the |iartB of the parent ; and the believer, as soon as 
r^enerate'J. hath all the members of the new man, grace for 

ice wrought in him. And perfection of maturity or pro- 
:|kieney, perfection of degrees: its Beza here rendereth the 
-irord by ' Aduiti,' men grown up unto a greater measure of 
^^rittial Itnowledge and grace. As many then as are sincere, 
vpright. and humble-hearted, bow great a progress soever 
tliey bare made in the grace and knowledge of God, must 
yet,all of them, be thus minded. !t is not a precept belong- 
iogonto babes only; but apostles and prophets, and the 
holiest of saints, must be thus minded ; must renomice all 
Cftmal confidenue, all self-performances ; must suffer the loss 
af all, and esteem themselves greater gainers by the bargain, 
to win Christ; must acknowledge tbeir own imperfection, 
and be still contending unto more holiness. 

Kol n Tt Iri^ ipgonrri- " If any of you be so carnal, as 
through the cunning of false teachers, and through ignorance 
and unacquaintsnce with yourselves or with Christ, are se- 
dnced to think otherwise; I doubt not, but he who hath 
already called you, will rescue you out of the hand of so 
dangerous an error ; if, by faith and prayer, you attend upon 
ibe word of trutli, and yield up yourselves to be taught 
thereby ." 

n>^* lis • i^airccfuv. " Nevertheless, whereunto we have 
slready attained, let us walk," or "we ought to walk," 8ic 
So the words ore an exhortation, grounded on the condition, 
whereby the former promise is limited. " If we be careful to 
w«tk in obedience and love, according to the light which 
^readv we have received, the Lord will reveal more of his 
«<n unto us: using the light we have, will be a very ready 
laeaits for the obuining of more." 

T» a^np mtxti" itavJyi- "To walk by the same rule." 
There seemeth to be a double metaphorical allusion in the 
mgtnal words, the one to a military march'', wherein a 
soldier keeps his proper rank and station, obeying the order 
lad rule which his commander gives ; — the other to an 

^OtOino miliii 

Homeius (lusiin 

rrlxaj drigdr. 


agonisticaly or athletical rule ^, wherein was drawn a white 
line^ by which the running of the horses was to be guided ; 
as the learned Civilian, Petrus Faber, in the second book of 
his Agonisticon, hath observed. This line, or rule in our 
Christian race, is the word of God, the rule of faith, love» 
and a Christian life, called, '^ Walking in the Spirit," GaL v. 
16 ; walking according to rule, GaL vi. 16. 

To aM fgovtlv. The same with being avfi^^ruxoi, ^ like-mind- 
ed,^ of one accord, of one judgement. Let not the perfect 
despise the weak ; let not the weak judge the perfect; but 
fft; S l^oo-oftey, in these fundamental articles, wherein we 
all agree in that common salvation unto which we all con- 
tend, let the piety of our lives in walking by the same rule 
of faith and love, the unity of our judgement, the concord of 
our affections, the concurrence of our ends, our consent and 
delight in the same truth (all which are intimated in the 
words ro ouro ^gowMl ; let all this declare to the church of 
God, and to our own consciences, that, in our difierences* 
Christ notwithstanding is not divided ; but that amidst the 
variety of our opinions, the purity, piety, and peace of the 
church is still preserved : and let these things likewise pre- 
dispose and qualify our hearts to admit of the revelation of 
further truth out of the word, and so make way to the re- 
conciling of those differences which are yet amongst us. 
This I take in brief, to be the scope and meaning of the 

Wherein we have, 1. The difference, ' inter Adultos et 
seductos,^ in the church, between perfect Christians, and 
Christians seduced. 2. The variety of judgements and 
opinions, which by reason of that difference may grow. 
3. The right way of reconciling those differences. And 
that is, 

1. An humble submission «of judgement, and willing at- 
tendance in the use of means upon divine teaching ; " God 
shall reveal even this unto you." He will lead his people 
into all necessary truth, and give them all things requisite 
to life and godliness. 

2. To have an ^U o ^fAao-ajXfv, some main fundamental 
doctrines, wherein the dissenting parties do all agree, which 
may be the meusure and touchstone of all other doctrines ; 

« Phil. ii. 2. 


>aV5A^^^^*"g ^«^Hich is cither inconHisteiit with the truth, 

QivjbieKft^^^nS ^l^c majesty of that foundation. 

^.IJiovriB o^ros^acv lunhi. To walk exactly and in order 

icciQK&n^to tliet liings wherein we agree ; not to break our 

Tiiii,OT desert our station, contrary to the rules which we 

hafe teceWed. So that two things are herein implied. 

1. Fietj o( Vife, to live answerably to the truths we know. 

2. Sobriety, moderation and prudence of spirit, to serve God 
in the place and condition wherein he hath set us, and ac- 
cording to the measure of the rule which God hath distribu- 
ted to oa ; (2 Cor. X. 13) that neither by an unsuitable <. on- 
fcmtion we belie the truths we hold, nor under any pretence 
of service, we break forth to attempt any thing in the church 
beyond the place and station, wherein God hath set us. 

4. To hold the truths wherein we agree, in love, unity, and 
eomtaiicy. For why should not the many truths wlierein 
we agree, teach us to join in love, which is a Christian duty, 
lalber than the few opinions wherein we disagree, cause 
breach in affection, which at best is a human infirmity? 
The word here used fpoMiv, in the use of scripture, usually 
noteth not a bare rational and intellectual act of tlie mind, 
bat ' jndiciom practicum,** such a judgement as hath an order 
unto practice, which is the same with ' sapere/ to have a 
aevoury relish of truth, and so to apply the mind unto it; as 
Mattk. xvi. 23, ov ffwftf ra rou 0fou, Thou savourcst not 
the things that bj of God. — Rom. viii. 5, G ; Ta riji aapnif 
fgwoDO-iv, &c. they that are after the flesli, do mind the 
things of the flesh ; and they that arc after the spirit, the 
things of the spirit; for to be carnally minded is death, but 
to be spiritually minded is life and [leace. — Col. iii. 2 ; If 
ye be risen with Christ, rot ivw f^oyflrt, set yuur atfections, 
have your minds, upon things above. — Phil. iii. 1!) ; rm 
hwirf9%a ^fOfovrrf^. who mind earthly tilings ; whose hearts, 
studie't, incliiinlioTiS, ntftjctions, are larthly and brutish. 
We are not therefore barely to think the same ihin|xs, where- 
■nto we have already attained, to athnu them : but in the 
main, to agree with one another in the same ends and dc- 
sgns; that is, when we hold the same general truths, in so 
holding TO mo fpovfiv, to have the same purposes, to pursue 
the same intentions, to carry on the suuk dc-fiun^i wt ulorify- 


ing God, edifying the church, and saving one another 
thereby. These are the four excellent ways, which the 
apostle in this text prescribeth to reconcile controversies, to 
close up divisions, to reduce calmness and serenity, upon the 
face of a distracted and dilacerated church. 

We have briefly opened and analyzed the words ; let us now 
take a short review of them again, for our further instruction 
and benefit 

1. We may observe a difference which the apostle makes, 
amongst the members of the church : some strong, some 
weak ; some perfect, some seduced ; some listening to Paul, 
and others to the concision. As on the same foundation^ 
some parts of the building may be marble and cedar, other 
parts lath and tearing; some strong, and others ruinous. 
As in the heavens, so in the house of God ; some stars differ 
from other stars in glory. (1 Cor. xv. 41) He who hath the 
fulness of the spirit, and a residue to give still unto him thai 
lacketh, doth yet blow by his spirit where he listeth, (John 
Ki. 8) and divideth to every one severally as he will; (1 Corl 
xii. 11) yet always xari f^rpov, a measure only of knowledge, 
of faith, of grace, of every needful gift ; (Rom. xii. 3) which 
the apostle calleth the * measure of the gift of Christ,^ and 
the * measure of every part ;^ (Eph* iv. 7, 16) unto which 
measure there will ever, while here we are, be something 
lacking. (1 Thess, iit. 10) They who have most, have note 
fulness, except comparatively, and respectively to some spe- 
cial service ; as Zacharias, Elizabeth, Stephen, Barnabas, aad 
others are said to have been full of faith, and of the Holy 
Ghost. * Otherwise the best must say, as our apostle here 
doth, ^' Not as though I had already attained, or were already 
perfect ; but I follow after, and reach forth, and press for* 
ward.^ Some have need of milk ; others, of strong meat;-^ 
some, babes ; others, of fuller age ;•— some, unskilful in the 
word of righteousness ; others, senses exercised, to discern 
good and evil. (Heb. v. 12, 13, 14) Some, fitches ; some, 
cummin; some, bread-com. (Tsai. xxviii. 27, 28) Some 
have knowledge, and others weak consciences. (1 Cor. viii. 
7) Some are first-bom, and they have five talents, a double 
portion of the spirit, as Elisha had. (2 Kings ii. 9. Matik^ 

• Luke i. 15, 11, 67. Acts ii. 1. vi. 37, 55. xi. 24. xiii. 9. Tit. lii. 6. 



Mt, 16) Otiiers are younger children, and have lower 
kbilities, who therefore have not so large a stock, nor so 
boble a Beirice. Some children, by reason of their strength, 
do perform work ; others, by reason of infancy and infirmity, 
do only make work ; some are for the school, and others for 
the cmdle ; some for the field, others for the couch ; some for 
duly, and others for care ; and yet all children. With such 
admirable wisdom hath God tempered the body, that there 
ight be a varions love amongst the members ; in the strong 
Id the weak, a love of care ; in the weak to the strong, a love 
•f rererence ; that the strong may learn to restore the weak, 
tad the weak to imitate the strong : that by those who fail, 
strong may learn to fear, and by those that stand, the 
weak may leani to fight : that the weak by the strong may 
he provoked to emulation, and the strong by the weak may 
be provoked to edification : that they who stand, may be for 
fte praise of Christ's power and grace ; and they who fall,. , 
lor the praise of his patience and mercy: and that in the 
vcriety of different supplies unto the members, the fulness of j 
tite bead may be admired. 

Let not those, therefore, who have more eminent gifts, : 
JKicilioufily overlook and despise their inferior brethren: 
I " For who bath made thee to differ, or why dost thou glory 
u if thou hadst not received It ?" Rather thus judge : — the 
more iJiy gifts are, the greater must be thy service to the 
church of Christ here, and the greater thine accounts at his J 
tribunal hereafter 
And again; let not those who have not so great a mea- ' 
■ lore, envy or malign the gifts of others ; for it is God who 
^HmU) made them to excel : and why is thine eye evil, because 
Vfty master's is good ? Rather thus consider, — The head 
p cannot sav to the foot, I have no need of thee. And the 
Sesi way to improve and increase the gifts of God, is to em- 
;i|oy them with humility and uprightness. The apostle hath 
ipetil ooe whole chapter upon this argiiuient, to persuade 
Christians from nnbrotherly censures of one another, upon 
'hfference of judgementin smaller things, (Rom.xiv.) press- 
ing this duty by many reasons. 1. God who is the judge, 
rfceiveth men into his favour, notwithstanding their differ- 
eooei : therefore they ought not mutually to cast otic another j 
cut of tlieir own favour, vvr. 3. 2. Our brother is another's 


servant, and not ours ; therefore, we ought not to make our 
will, or judgement^ the rule of his ; (servants should have no 
will ** of their own, but their Lord^s) since God can and will 
keep him in service, and from dangerous falls, as well as us, 
ver. 4. 3. He walkcth according to the light and persuasion 
of his heart ; so that his failing is erroneous only, but not per- 
tinacious, so long as he doth reverence light, and resolve that 
his heart shall not reproach him : he is docile and reducible 
by any clear conviction ; his heart is Godward, though he 
does sometimes miss his way, ver. 5, 6. 4. We must all be 
accountable to a common Lord, and have thereupon work 
enough of our own to do ; and, therefore, ought not to make 
others accountable unto us : we have none of us dominion 
over ourselves, therefore not over others neither, ver. 7. We 
have a Lord, who dearly purchased the dominion over us, and 
before whose tribunal we must all give an account of our^ 
selves, ver. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12. 5. By judging, despising, and 
offending one another, we break the rules of Christian charity, 
grieving and endangering the souls of our brethren, ver. 13, 
15. We expose those good things, wherein we agree, unto 
reproach, ver. 16 ; and prejudice the great things of the 
kingdom of God, ^* righteousness, peace, joy in the Holy 
Ghost** (which are the things which render us acceptable to- 
God, and therefore should make us approved of one another) 
by our uncharitable altercations in smaller things, ver. 17, 18. 
We hinder the peace and edification of one another, ver. 19. 
We minister occasion of falling, stumbling, and offence to 
our weak brother, rer. 20, 21. We abuse our liberty, by 
making it abail of contention, when we might enjoy it within 
ourselves, without any such danger, ver. 22. We go about 
to entangle our weak brother, by inducing him to act doubt, 
ingly, and without a warrant and persuasion of the lawfulness 
of what he doth, ver. 22, 23. So then, whatever be the dif- 
ferences amongst true believers, who agree in the great things 
of God*s kingdom, the strong ought not to despise the weak, 
nor the weak to judge the strong ; neither ought to hurt, 
grieve, wound, offend the hearts of one another, inasmuch as 
they are all fellow-servants to one conimon Lord, who will 

b Vellc non videntur, qui ubsequuniur impcrio patris vcl domini. Digest, de 
Regul. juris, leg. 4. 


JBtlge US all : and inQsmuch as we are owned by that T^ord, and 

:eptcd, the weak as weU as the strong; who doth not eo 
nnch value us byjthe degrees of our knowledge, as by the 
Bncerity of onr love ; who dotli not reap any benefit by the 
lifFerence of our services, but is pleased and glorified by tbe 
Bpriglitness of our hearts ; yea, possibly is more pleased with 
be coDscionable tenderness of the weak brother that errs, 
dian with the confident and inexpedient liberty of the strong 
brother who doth not err. 

II. We may here note wherein the perfection of a Chris- 
ian standetb, viz. in ravrt) ^pom*, to think of Christ, and 
Ibiak of himself, as the Apostle Paul here did. 

I. To shake olf all self-opinion of our own righteousness, 
■II moral presumptions and fleshly conlidence in any pcrfor- 
lances of our own, in onr most zealous and blameless con- 
venation : they are good in ' genere viae,' as paths to hea- 
; not in ' genere causa?/ as proper causes, on which we 
may depend for salvation. He that, living in the country, 
'iatb a rich office given him freely in the city, must travel 
~rODi the country to the city, if he will enjoy it ; but he must ' 
"Oot ascribe the enjoyment of it to his own journey, hut to his 1 
;|iatTon's bounty. We must be dead in ourselves, if we wiU I 
lie alive by the life of Christ ; we must sufi'er the loss of all, J 
ud esteem it an excellent bargain for the gaining of him^ J 
Ve must not establish our own righteousness, if we will be 
fbaod in hie. The* nearer any soul comes unto God, the 
Dore it learns to abhor itself, by his light discovering its .] 
deformities. The'' angels cover their feet and their faces*' 
Ifoses exceedingly fears ''; Elias wraps his head in his man- I 
tie ; the * Prophet Isaiah cries out, ' I am undone ;' and 
^oly Job', ' Mine eye seeth thee, therefore I abhor myself, i 
(The greater our approaches and acquaintance is with God, 
Ae lower our thoughts will be of ourselves. The stars di»- 
jippear, when the sun riseth. Though heaven be high, yet 

e more there is of heaven in the soul, the more humble and 
r it is- Mountains must be levelled to make a way for 

■ SMCti viii, qua sliiiu apu'l Dcum victutum ilignilUc pfuficiunt, Ki sublilioi 
tn^gnok K oac dcprchenduDt ; quia diim proximi luci fiuni, qukquiti eoi in w- 
ipwliubil, inTcniuDt. Grrg. Mocal. 1. 32. cap, 1. ^ Issi- vi. I. 

' Btb. vL 3(. •* 1 Kings xix. 13. • Isxi. vi. 5. * Job 



Christ. As the > orator said of Trajan, * Te ad sidera toUit 
humus/ that his walking on the ground raised him, in die 
estimation of his people, unto heaven ; — we may say of a 
heavenly soul, * Te ad humum Cesium deprimit ;' the more 
heavenly, the more in the dust ^' Qui ^ Deo placet, sibi de 
se nil relinquit ;^ the more we study to please God, the more 
nothing we are in ourselves. 

2. To rejoice in the Lord, and in his righteousness alone. 
I will make mention of thy righteousness ; of ^ thine only/ 
saith the psalmist. (Psalm Ixxi. 16) All mine own is as a 
menstruous cloth. So true is that of St. Austin % " Justitta 
nostra potius in remissione peccatorum constat, quam in per- 
fectione virtutum.*^ 

3. To have communion and conformity to Christ, in his 
death and resurrection, by inchoate holiness, by mortifying 
our earthly members, and glorifying Qod in a heavenly con- 
versation.'' The love of Christ constnuniog us to die unto 
sin, because he died for it ; to give ourselves ' living dacrifi. 
oes unto him, who was pleased to give himself a dying sacri- 
fice for us. For our °^ own we are not, but his that bought 
us ° : as the civil law says, that a redeemed captive is Us 
that bought him, ^ per modum mancipii,' till he can restofle 
the price by which he was redeemed. This we can never be 
able to do : therefore we must ever be die servants of him 
that bought us. 

4. To be always so tenderly affected with the sense of onr 
own manifold imperfections, and coming short of the glory 
of God ; that thereby our hearts may be the more inflamed^ 
by a heavenly ambition and noble pursuit, to prees forwasd 
in the use of all holy means, unto move nearness and intimate 
communion with the Lord Christ. The Lord is pleased here, 
in iSie church militant^ in the land of temptation, by such 
slow and slender progresses, to renew his servants ^ ; ^ Ut sit 
quod petentibus largiter adjiciat, quod confitentibus clemea- 
ter ignoscat,^ as Austin excellently speaks ; that there may 
still be a residue of spirit and grace, wherewith abundantly 

f Plin. Paneg. ^ Greg, Moral. 1. 10. c. 4. * Aug. de Gif. J>ei, 

lib. 19. C.27. ^ 2 Cor. v. 14. 1 Rom. xii. 1. « 1 Cor. 

6, 19. Deo dicata membra nulla tibi tcmeritate usurpes : non eniro sine grari 
sacrilegio in usus vanitatis assumuntur. Bern, in Psalm 90. S«r. 8. » Dtgetf. 

de captivis ct postliminio, 1. 12. sect. 7. <> Aug. de Spirit, et Vit. cap. ult. 


40 answer the thiags which are desired, and mercifully to 
fiardon the sina that are confessed ; that every mouth may 
.Ite stopped from its own praises, and opened in the praises of 
God. From whence it cometh to pass, that God's servants, 
sing always displeased with their present imperfection, do 
■ess forward unto that whereunto they have not yef attain- 
I, — itke the waters of the sanctuary from the ancles to the 
ins ; the water of life wJlhin them never giving over flowing, 
nil it spring up unto eternal life; (John vii. 38) that those 
Ds which, in our'' justification, are remitted, may be so 
daily, in our sanctification. weakened and diminished, that at 
lut in our salvation they may be utterly removed. ' "Hie 
coim non peccare, prasceptum; in C»lo, praemium;" In this 
Ufe, not to sin is our duty ; in the next, it shall be our re- 
.«ard and glory. Thus, as Christ never gave over his work 
on earth, till he had brought itto a consummation, {John xix. 
13) nor will give over his work in heaven, till that likewise 
be pronounced consummate, (Rev. xvi. 17, and x\\. 6) fat 
ilu must reign till he hath put down all authority and power, 
j[l Cor, XV. 24) that he may save to the uttermost tliose that 
pime unto God through him ; {lleb. vii. 25) — so the servants 
iofCbrisI rest not in any past performances; are not weary 
af well-duing, but labour to perfect holinciis in the fear of 
God. As by repentance they break off their sins, and do not 
finish them, (of which we read Dun. iv. 24. Jam. i. 15) so, 
by a continual progress of sanctitication, they labour to in- 
crease more and ni^re ; (1 2'AtM. iv, 1) to grow in knowledge 
«nd in grace, (2 Pet. iii. 18) till they come to be perfect 
naeo, and to that measure of the stature of the fulness in 
Christ, which he hath intended for them, that they may be 
complete in him, and filled wiih all the fulness of God. 
{fyies. iii. 19, and iv. 13. Cot. ii. 10) Thus as in the body, 
M> in the soul, hunger is usually a sign of health ; and the 
greater our present perfection is, the greater will be our long- 
inga aftermore perfection. No man in those days was nearer 
God than Moses was ; and no man ever made, if I may in a 

r Semper libi ditpliceu quod c*,. *i lis ul id pttweaiK, quod nondum a. — Si 
laaa ' >uficit,'pc(iili. /lug, dc veib. Apoit. Sei. IS. 1 In icnucenti- 

tm, itmiiiuocui ; la proficientibiu, mtnuuniui, ilug, Contr. Julian. Pelig. lib. 6. 
t)(. IS. ' <Aie. contiB duas Ep, Prlag. 1. 3, e. 7. it pccc. merit, ei 

a. lib. 3. c 7, 8, 13, 15. ie pctftci. Iniiii. cip. 5, B. 


spiritual sense so call it» a mote ambitious prayeiP than MoaeB 
did ; {Exod. xxxiii. 18) *' I beseech thee, shew me thy 
glory .'^ As Absalom^ when he was brought from banishmenty 
aspired higher to come into his father^s presence ; (2 Sam. 
xiv. 32) so the soul, when it is once delivered from the thml- 
dom of sin^ is still more and more ambitious of nearer ap- 
proaches and accesses unto God. (Rom. v. 1, 2. Psalm xlii. 
2) In these things consisteth the highest perfection attain- 
able here, in remission of sin, in the gift of righteousness, in 
conformity to the death and resurrection of Christ, in an 
humble and penitent apprehension of our own failings, in re- 
nouncing all carnal confidences, and in an importunate and 
indefatigable contention unto more grace and glory. 

III. In that the apostle saith» ^^ If in any thing ye be 
otherwise minded," viz. touching legal rites, and Mosttcal 
ceremonies, or touching the doctrine of Christian perfection^ 
and the weakness of your present graces and attainmentB,«i-» 
'' the Lord will,^ in due time, out of his word, and by his 
spirit, if you be careful in the use of means, and attendant 
upon his teaching, '^ reveal the same unto you/' We may 
from hence learn, that in the best ages of the church ihete 
have been, and therefore we cannot expect but that there ever 
will be, varieties and differences of judgement amongst the 
members thereof 1. While we know but in part, and propheey 
but in part ; 2. while there is difficulty in the disquisition df 
truth ; 3. weakness of judgement in men to make that eiw 
quiry ; 4. carelessness to try the spirits, and to prove all 
things ; 5. prevalency of some lust or spiritual interest dark- 
ning the mind, and entangling the judgement ; 6. crednlity 
in attending unto false teachers ; 7. itching ears, affecting 
and hankering after novel suggestions ; 8. a top great rever- 
ence to the persons of men, having them in admiration, and 
giving ourselves up by a blind obedience and implicit faith 
unto their hands; 9. while there is sleepiness and inadver- 
tency in the labourers ; 10. cunning and sedulity in the ad- 
versaries; 11. unweariedness in circumambulation and so. 
persemination of the envious man ; — we cannot expect but 
there will be r) hip(of fgovQwrrts, men that will not in all 
things agree with their brethren. We cannot wonder to see 
some com in the field of the church smutted and mildewed. 


and kqyf back from maturity by the twitting of weeds about 
it When we remember the angry distentions between the 
Western and Eastern churches ■ in the case of Eatter ; the sad 
difieraiGea between the Roman church ', and the African, and 
other churches, in the businesses of rebaptization, in the days 
of Cyprian ; the doleful dissensions between Chrysostoni and 
Bpiphanios % breaking forth into mutual imprecations ; the 
great breaches in many famous and ancient synods " ; the 
dtffierences of judgement between Cyril and Theodore ' ; Ba- 
sil and Damasus'; Austin and Jerome*; Jerome and Ruffi- 
■os ^ Rhemigitti and Hincmarus % Peter of Alexandria and 
Miletiiia', when they were both in prison, and confessors 
fsr the truth ; — and of late years, in the days of Edward VI. 
between Ridley and Hooper*, afterwards martyrs; and in 
Queen Mary's days, between the English protettants in exile 
for tma religion ' ; — ^nay, when we consider that a BarnabaH 
mnd a Ptol had their contention ; {Jcis xr. 3i>) that a Peter 
ami a Barnabas had their dissimulation, {(iai. ii. II, 12, 13) 
that the apostle hath told us, that there would be some in the 
churchy who would build upon the foundation silver and gold, 
and others hay and stubble ; (1 Cor. iii. 12) that some were 
Ibr Paul, and some for Apollos, and some for Cephas, and 
atfceis for none of them all, b«it for Christ without their help ; 
(1 Car. i. 11, 12) that our Saviour hath said, " Neceuary 
it is that offences come,^' (Matth. xviii. 7) and the apostle, 
" There most be heresies,^ or secU ; (1 Cor. xi. 19) that tlie 
wtory of truth s, the malice of Satan, the hypocrisy of men, 
the cooatancy of the perfect, the fmilty of the seduced, the 
eompaaaion and patience of the Lord, may be discovered ;— 
well we may, as our duty is, wish, and pray, and project for 
■ai^ in the church ; but till Satan, and ull the enemies of 
the church be chained up, and the nieml>eni thereof have at- 
iKDed unto their full stature, there cannot be expected such 
a onrrersal consent of judgements, and harmony of doc- 

• EmaH:. Hiftt.L 5. c. 22,23, 21. • kusil; lib. 7. C4p. .(, 4. Cyjnxan. 

ipiriL 70, 71, 72, 7 J, 74, 75, 76. « Sotomin. I. 7. c. 14, 15. » Hu- 

•M. L 1. €. 16- Nueph. lib. 14, cap. 17. J Ct^nl, aJ i:iiu(>tium Epi^o- 

pHL ■ Barun. Ann. .172. tcct. 15 — 25. • Epist. Amarb.apud 

i%. Ep. ^— l!l. ^ Hitrun AiMiloff. advcfi. Kuffin. • Utheri 

Ctmr*-iM-in p. (5($. * tipiphuu. \{mt. f»H. < F»j Mutyr. Turn. S, 

fL 147. ' Troubles At KnnVluri. S Cypnan, dc uniuic Bcdct. 

Of^n eontn CcUunk I. X Au^. Ep. &05. dc Civ. I>i lib. Ki. c 2. 

L 2 


trines, even amongst good men themselves, as shall not admit 
of some variety and dissonancy. 

IV. In this case of unavoidable differences amongst good 
men, there ought to be mutual charity , meekness, modera- 
tion, tolerance, humanity, used, — not to judge, despise, re- 
ject, insult over one another; not to deal with our vireaker 
brethren, &XkaTpl(o$ sed oiBfXfmAsy as with aliens, but as with 
brethren ; not to proceed presently unto separation, rejec- 
tion, anathematization *", but to restore those that are over- 
taken with any error, with the spirit of meekness. The 
apostle suffered some things &^ r^; olKwofulof^ the ezigeo* 
cies of the church requiring it, which in other cases they did 
not allow ; they allowed Jewish ceremonies sometime, and 
leisure for an honourable interment. We find Optatus ^ forcing 
even upon the Donatists the name of ^ brethren.* It was 
grave advice of Gregory Nazianzen ^ in such disputes, vfrHj/tah' 
fMv, W vixriffoDiJLi¥, to decline all exasperations, to use all meek- 
ness and condescension, so far as our duty to truth will give 
us leave; that so, though wa cannot reconcile judgements, 
yet we may gain the affections of our brethren. It is noted 
of Basil, that in the controversies concerning the Holy 
Spirit, he forbore all unwelcome words, and phrases, where- 
by the contrary-minded were exasperated, and the unstable 
startled and made jealous ; and used such mild isninuationSy 
as might win and confirm men in the ti*uth. 

For a more particular stating of this point, let us, 1. Dis- 
tinguish of opinions. Some are in the foundation, in those 
necessary doctrines, upon which the house of God is built; 
<1 Cor. iii. 9, 10. Heb. vi. 1. Matth. vii. 24) the errors cod». 
trary whereunto are pernicious and damnable. (2 Pet. ii. 1) 
Some are only in the superstruction, which do not so nearly 
touch the vitals and'essentials of religion, which are not ' fidei>* 
but ^ quaestionum,' as Austin somewhere distinguisheth. 
Such were, in the apostle^s time, disputes touching meats^ 
and drinks, and days, and things indifferent; {Rom. xiv. 
5, 6) and, in our days, touching forms of discipline and go- 
vernment in the church, wherein men abound in their own 
sense, with meekness, and with submission to the spirits of 
the prophets. 

t> Qreg, Naz, Orit. 51. and 12, 26, 37, 44. Aug, Ep. 19, 64. * Optui 
lib. 1. Ont. 14. k Hazian. Ont. 20. 



2. We are likewise to distinguish of persons. Some are 
Kdacers ; who, out of pride, enmity against the doctrine 
which is according unto godliness, canini ends, desire of 
Irantage and dominion, do snw lares in the church, and 
hour to cause rents and divisions therein: such were 
fmeneuB, Philetus, Diotrephes, &c. Others are seduced 
lople, who, through ignorauce and credulity, are led away 
fitive by the cunning craftloess of those who lie in wait to 
(2 Tim. iii. l(i. Ephes. iv. 14) Again, some are 
sous, meek, and peaceable men ; others are of turhulent and 
BinuUuating spirits, who love to kindle Hames, and to foment 
lirisions, and to fish in troubled waters. Joachim Camera- 
Ins', in the life of Melanctlion, complainethoflhe faction of 
fiacius Illyricus upon this account, who loaded with chal- 
]n>geB and reproaches, as betrayers and deserters of .the 
inth, all who were not as flagrant and vehement as them- 
selves; contrary to the meek temper of that good man, who 
would have all things, which might, without wickedness and 
good conscience, be endured, rather than new wounds 
to be inflicted upon the church of Christ. 
These things being premised, we conclude, 

1. That there can be no syncretism or accommodation in 
case of differences, where the differences are against the 
foundatioDE of faith, worship, obedience, and holiness. There 
can be nu agreement between light and darkness, Christ and 
Belial; damnable heresies, and the doctrine according unto 
i;odlinea8. (2 Cor. vi. 14, 17. 1 Cor. x.2l) We must depart 
from the impurity of heretical synagogues, {ha. Iii. 1 1 . GaL 

I 8, 9) Heretics are to be admonished, and, in case of per- ' 
tioacy, to be rejected. (^Fit. iii. 10) Therefore there may 
W DO brotherly concord or coalescency with them : but 
icduced persona are to be by the spirit of meekness and 
gentleness instructed ; and, if it be possible, be won unto 
the Inith, and delivered from the snare of the devil. 

2. Though the differences be not ' prima facie,' so daii- 
ilNoiUt y^^' notwithstanding, if it be evident that they be 

ily sowed by men of turbulent and ungracious spirits, 

liy to kindle flames, and foment. divisions, to lay the 

bimdation of perpetual broils and jars in church and state. 


' ?agc 593 End 385. 


to gratify the commoD adversary of the reformed churcfaes, 
and to be subseryient imlko bia ends and designs ;— in ;this 
case, the apostle hath taught us to mark some men, and to 
take heed of them; {Rom. xvi. 17) and would not give place 
by subjection for an hour unto them. {Gal. ii. 4, 5) 

3. Where a syncretism and agreement is allowable, yet 
we must, love and join peace and truth together. {Zech. viiu 
19) We must not betray the truth, or dissemble it ; or make 
a mixture of truth and falsehood, a kind of Samaritanism in 
rdigion : for of them it is said that they ^^ feared the Lord, 
and served their own gods,*^ 2 Kings xvii. 33 : and therefore 
. God^s people would not admit them into the society of 
Ibuilding God^s house, Ezra iv. 1, 2, 3. We must not add 
or diminish one jot or tittle to or from divine truth, or temper 
and reduce it to the rules of mere human wisdom. Jero- 
boam and Ahaz acted beyond their power, when they Set up 
ways of worship subservient unto carnal interest, and not 
according to the will of God. We can do nothing against 
Uie truth, but for the truth. (2 Car. xiii. 8. Matih. v. 18, 19. 
DetU. iv. 2) 

4. When the foundations and necessary doctrines of law 
and gospel, of faith, worship, and obedience, are safe, and 
on all sides unanimously embraced ; therein differences of an 
inferior nature, which do not touch the essentials and vitals 
of religion, mutual tolerance, meekness, and tenderness^ are 
to be used, as amongst brethren and fellow-members. In 
the body, if the finger have a gangrene in it, which cannot 
be cured, the body cannot, without danger of deadly infec- 
tion, hold communion with that member : and therefore it is 
severed and cut off, ne pars sincera trahatur : — but if it have 
only a boil, or some other less dangerous sore, the other 
parts love and cherish it, and are not all cruel and churlish 
unto it. And this is consonant to the doctrine of Scriptures;, 
which teacheth the strong to bear with the infirmities of the 
weak; {Rom.xv. 1) the spiritual to restore their brethren 
with meekness ; {Gal. vi. 1) the members to have the same 
care of each other; (1 Cor. xii. 26) to do nothing through 
strife or vain-glory, but in lowliness of mind to esteem 
others better than ourselves; {Phil. ii. 1,2,3) with lowli- 
ness, meekness, long-suffering, to forbear one another in 
love, endeavouring to keep the unity of the spirit in the bond 



•f peace; {Epktt. iv. 2, 3) to follow peace with all men, 
with wbom we may retain holiness too. (Heb. xii. 14) Peace 
ria the ornament and honour of religion; i,Ptalm cxxxiii. 1) 
tad the wiBdoni which is from above, is first pure, and then 
peaceable, gentle, full of mercy. {James iii. 17, 18) God is 
a God of peace, and Christ a Prince of Peace ; and hia 
ligacy to the church, was a legacy of peace. Hereunto he 
bath called ug, to be all of one mind, and to love as brethren. 
{i Pet. iii. 8, 9) Love, and a spirit of unity and peace, is 
new commandment, — the ointment which ran down from 
4te bead to the members. He that is not a man of peacoj 
DOot be a man of God : this is an ointment which belongp ^ 
>ly to Christ's body, Erod. \xx. 33. Divisions are fruits 
Qf the flesh. (1 Cor. iii. 3) Contention, a child of pride. 
IProo. xiij. 10) Light vapours, many times, come doivu ia 
gtevt tempests; and light difl'erences, through pride, may 
grow into great storms; whereas love covereth a multitude 
of sins. (1 Pel. iv. 8) 

And as it is consonant to the will of God, so it is greatly 
beneficial to the common body. 

1. Hereby we shew forth the communion of spirits, that 
ire are all members of the same body, when we seek every 
■Bn another's wealth. (1 Cor. x. 17, 24) One body is ani- 

kted by one spirit. {Eplias. iv. 4) Hereby we are known ' 
be Christ's disciples. {John xiii. 34, 36) 

2. Hereby we jointly promote the welfare of the whole ' 
;!body; whereas biting and devouring is the way to be con> 
nmed. {_Gal. v. 16) 

3. Hereby we prevent the insultatlons and advantages of 
ceronion enemies, when we fall out amongst ourselves. ' Hoe 
Ithacus reht, etmagno mercentur Atridce.' 

4. Hereby even civil interest and safety is presen'ed. , 
Charity is a bond which keeps things fast together. {Col, 
t». 14) A whole faggot is not easily broken ; cut away the 
hood i and then, without farther breaking, the sticks will fall 
ooe from another. 

I will conclude this point with two good sayings of re- 
aowned Calvin " ; the one touching Luther : " Though," 
•aHh he, " he should call me Devi), yet I will still esteem of 

■ Calotn. cpiiL ad Bullingcr. Addd ISIl. p. 383. Edit. 3. fol. et p. 138. 


him as of an excellent servant of Jesus Cbrist.'* The other 
of another person, who is not there named ; ^ Such a man,^ 
saith he, " is a sincere minister of Christ, a godly and a 
moderate man ; therefore though he dissent from us, I will 
not cease to love him still/' 

V. I shall now proceed to speak a few words, touching the 
rules which the apostle giveth for reconciling differences in 
the church : whereof the 

First is. To attend upon God in those means and ways» 
whereby he is pleased to reveal his truth unto us ; to dis- 
possess ourselves of prejudice and partiality, and with candid 
affections and judgements to try the spirits ; as being as- 
sured that, in all points needful unto life and godliness^ 
6Ti «r^oy to^ xei ri Sfvrf^y Scoo-fi*', he who hath already 
revealed that wherein we agree, will also reveal that wherein 
we differ, if, with meekness of spirit, without wrath and ca- 
villation, we do wait upon his word. And the means thus to 
do, are 

1. To study the scriptures, which are the alone rule of all 
controversies, and are able to make us wise unto salvation^ 
and thoroughly to furnish us unto every good work. 

2. To attend on the ordinances, which open the scripture 
unto us, the ministry which Christ hath erected for this very 
purpose to perfect the saints, and to bring them, by the unity 
of the faith, and knowledge of the Son of God, unto a full 
stature, (^hes. iv. 12, 13) 

3. Because the scripture may speak, and the ministry 
teach, and the heart all the while be sealed up and hear no«^ 
thing, except the Lord from heaven ^ speak, and open the 
heart to attend, as he did the heart of Lydia "* ; — therefore we 
must ever remember David^s prayer, {Psalm li. 8) '* Make 
me to hear joy and gladness :*^ otherwise seeing I shall not 
see % and hearing I shall not hear. It is the spirit ^ of wisdom 
and revelation, which both openeth the heart to the word, 
giving s an understanding to know the scriptures, and open- 
eth the scriptures to the heart; for he takes of Christ's, and 
shew6th it unto us. (John xvi. 14) The spirit doth not re- 
veal truth unto us, as he did in the primitive patefaction 

b Greg, Naz, Orat. 44. « Hcb. xii. 25. d Acts xvi. 14. 

• Matth. ziii. 13. f Ephes. i. 17. 8 1 John v. 20. 


ttereofto the prophets and apostles, — by divine and imme- 
4iate inspiration, or in a way of simple enthusiasm : but what 
k revealB, he doth it by and out of the scriptures, which 
B the full and perfect rule of faith and obedience ; as Christ 
tfened lo liis disciples in the scriptures the things nhicb 
concerned himself. ( Lufce xxiv. 27) 

So then the only light by which differences are lo be de- 
luded, is the word, being a full canon of God's revealed will: 
If the Lord doth not now, as in formet times, make himself 
loowii by dreams, or visions, or any other immediate way. 
To tUia the apostle referreth the church against danger of 
rolves. {Acis xx. 32) This (he said) is profitable, vrpr Si- 
, wpis if'^yx"*- (2 rim. iii. 16) To this only St. Aus- 
j&a ha dleamed ■ " timorem et honorem deferre." — '' " Si ad 
IJTiuie traditionis caput et originem revertamiir, cessat error 
hanaaaus.'*'^ — Hcec sunt causae iiostr^e documenta, haic fun- 
daments, htec firmamenta.""' — And this is the meaning of 
Terluilian, Optatus, Vincentius Lirinensis, and others, when 
they teacb us to prove the truth of doctrine by ecclestasticat 
tradition, and the voice of the church; for tliey speak of 
Apoftotical cbuTches, which Tertullian calls ' Matrices Ec- 
desias/ and not nf the peremptory authoritntive decision of 
Lny present church : for they were all able, in bo short a time 
' ■ was between them and the apostles, to draw down from 
e apostles a doctrinal succession, which he calls ' Tradu- 
I Fidei,' and to assign the time, authors, and posteriority 
if those heretics which they gainsayed ; as he saitli, " Sole- ' 

, Hereticis, compendii causa, de posterioritate pri^scri- 

I decline controversy thus, only in a few words. 1. It i» 
St that he who made the word, should be judge of the mean- 
ing of it. (1 Cor. ii. II)' " Cum de rebus Dei sermo erit, 
I eoncedanius cognillonem sui Deo," saith Hilary. 

2. When any assembly of men assume to themselves 

•A».«pi. 19.48, 112, 166. CI fa. Ala. mom. 1.7. b Cyprian, com. 

I V.S«ph. • rfiJ«.deBapl. 1.2. c. .1.1.5. 2G. Cono. lil«M I. 2. 

t. »n.&aDiiu. cede*. c. 3,3. Tn-r. Apolog. e. 47. de Rciui. c.3. contr. Mucion, 
llLcS. P qplBl. 1. S. 1. 4.C.44. 7h. de pmcrip. c. 19,21, 32, 

|n,36.C»RC. «or«oB.I.4.c.5.*-f.ep.l6.S.contr.Crascon.l.2.c.33. yimnl. 

nmaaiMrio. Vid. Reynold Confei. with Hati. p. 141—151. Ftrld, of :he 

dl L 3. c 10. • nUar. dc TliD. I. 1, 3, 5. 


judicature, which they deny to others, they must shew some 
ground of the difference, and some commission directed to 
them, and not to others; which the church of Rome endea- 
vouring to do, are forced (though with little advantage)^ to 
fly to the scriptures : so that in this over-ruling controversy, 
the scripture is made the judge : and why not as well iu the 
rest, since in them a lesser light than scripture 1$ presumed 
to suffice ? 

But then the objection is, * How shall I know the mean* 
ing of scripture, wh^eof one giveth one sense, and another 
another, if there be not some infallible judge to have recourse 
unto P I answer, 1. ' Ad Hominem f how shall I know. that 
this man, or church, is to give that final s^n$e which my 
conscience is bound to rest in, rather than another man, or 
another church.^ — 2. We say, that the word is ^ perspicuous, 
9iid hath " notas ** insitas veritatis^ in all necessary truth, aii 
being written not for scholars only, but for vulgar and illi* 
terate men. And that this light in the word is manifested 
unto us, 1. By the manuduction and ministry of the church, 
pointing unto the star, which is seen by its own light, 
2. Because we bring not such an implanted suitableness of 
reason to scripture, as we do tp other sciences in which the 
principles are exactly consonant to the ingraffed notions of 
the mind : — therefore, to proportion the eye of the soul to 
the light of the word, there is required an act of the spirit 
opening the eyes, and drawing away the vail, that we may 
discern ^ the voice of Christ from strangers : for having the 
mind of Christ ^ we do, according to the measure of his spirit 
in us, judge of divine truths as he did. 

But here again they ' object, That we make all religion 
hang upon a private spirit. To which we say, 1. Thateverjr 
true believer bath the spirit of Christ. (Rom. viii. 9). 2. That 
spirit doth enable to know and to judge ; (1 Cor. ii. 12« 

f Andrad, de Concil. gen. 1. 1. fol. 49. 1. 2. fol. 123. Bellarm. de Rom. Pontif. 
. 4. a. 3. StapUtan, princ. fidei doctr. controv. 4. q. 2. et contr. 3. q. 1. in prooe- 
mio. Greg, de Fol, torn. 3. ditp. 1. q. 1. p. 7. q. 5. lect. 28 — 37. f 2 Cor. 

IT. 3,*4. 2 Pet. i. 19. b Theodof. de curand. Gf»c. Aflfect. 1. 8. Aug, de 

doet. Cbritt. 1. 2. cap. 8. 1. 1. 11 Cor. ii. 14. John i. 5. 2 Cor. Hi. IS. 

1 Cor. xii. 7, 8. 1 Cor. ii. 10. John xit. 21. Ephcs. i. 17. k ] Cor. ii. 16. 

1 Beilar. de ver. Dei, 1. 3. c. 3. Stapleton, de princtp. doct. eontroy. 2. q. 2. — Dr. 
Jo. fVhiU^t yf^Jf P« 60—66. Jim. in Bellar. de interpret, verbi. 1. 3, c. 3. — Dr. 
Jaekiofif of Scripture. 1. 2. eect. 3. c. 6. sect. 3. 


1 Jolm ir. 13) for believers ha?e ' Judicium Discretioiiis/ u 
the OMQ of Berea, to try the things which are taught them. 
(AcU xvii. 11) 3. That this spirit, though in a private roan^ 
yet is not a private spirit, because not ori^nally from that 
mftn : as my money, though private in regard of my property 
to it, yet it is public in regard of the currentness of it. The 
dMfrch by her ministers, hath the ordinary public power of 
expounding scriptures, but not power to lead the people to 
sabscribe to such expositions as peremptory and iiifullible ; 
for they have a spirit of discerning, to prove all things, and 
hold faust that which is good. 

The sum of all is \ — ^There are differences in the church, in 
matters of religion : The removing of them is to be expected 
from divine revelation. God reveals it by three concurrent 
means : ' Ministerialiter,' by the service of the ministry ; 
' Jndicialiter/ by the sentence of the word ; ' Efficaciter/ by 
the illamination of the spirit, healing all that folly, inadver- 
tency, unbelief, impenitency, proud and contumacious rea- 
sonings, whereby the carnal mind is not only indisposed to 
leeeive, but armed also to resist the truth. And thus we 
having by Ood^s spirit an eye, the word having in itself an 
evidence, and the ministry directing this eye to this evidence; 
•o nmch of Ood*s counsel is discovered, as is necessary unto 
fiuth and holiness here, and to salvation hereafter. 

And our Saviour telleth us, that this revelation is not aL. 
ways to the wise ^ and prudent (though learning sanctified 
be an excellent help thereunto) but unto Babts ; (Mattk. xL 
2b) whereby are noted two preparative dispositions unto the 
receiving of divine truth. 1. Humility, and tractableness of 
spirit, a meA and docile temper: The poor receive the gos» 
peL 2. Spiritual hungering after the sincere milk of the 
word ; praying and crying for the knowledge thereof, that 
we may grow thereby. 

The second means for healing divisions in the church, is 
to have an tl^ 3 ifMs-e^Mv, some xoiviwtvra, some fundamen- 
tal doctrines wherein all agree : this is the basis of unity and 
concord in the church. The\ancient8 call it the rule of 

• John Yii. 48. 1 Cor. i. 19, 20. Vid. Camtro, in Mat. 18, 2. to. 2. p. 320, 
324. — Jackscn, of Script. L S. sect c. c. 3. sect. ^.-^MeUh, Canus in loc. Thcd. 
L 12. c 1 1. n Irtiums 1. 1. c 3» Nat, Or. 14, 40. ^u^. Enchirid. c 7. 

TertML de pratcripC. c. 13, 14. dc Vcland. Virgin, c. 1. Athanut, in SymboL 
/rcasKs, I. i.e. 1. Jug. cp. 57. Vid. Parker dc dcsccns. 1. 4. c. 3. 


faith, seed of doctrine, the catholic faith, the character of 
the church, that which is common to small and great ^ St 
Paul, the foundation, the form of sound words, the principle 
of doctrine, the faith of the gospel, the unity of faith, the 
mystery of godliness, the rule by which we are to walk. And 
these fundamentals are of three sorts. 1. Fundamentals in 
faith, that knowledge of God and Christ, unto which eternal 
life is annexed. {John xvii. 3. John viii. 24. Acts iv. 11, 12. 
1 Cor. i. 23, and ii. 2, 3, 11) 2. Fundamentals in practice, 
viz. repentance from dead works, sincere obedience, self-de- 
nial, love of the brethren, 8cc. (Li/Ae xiii. 5. McUth. v. 19, 
20. Rom. vi. 1, 2. Rom. viii. 1. Matth. xvi. 24. 1 John \\u 
14) 3. Fundamentals in worship, to worship God in spirit 
and in truth, to call upon God in the name of Christ, as our 
advocate and propitiation ; not to worship creatures, but to 
bold the head, to keep ourselves from idols, and communion 
with devils. {John iv. 24. PML iii. 3. John xvi. 23. Col. iii. 
17. Col. ii. 18, 19) 

Where there is agreement in these fundamentals, there is, 
1. A fair way unto discovery of truth, in the things of difier* 
ence : for where true principles are laid, there is a great pre- 
paration unto all true conclusions deducible from them ; and 
the more clearly we understand the comprehensions and lar 
titude of these principles, (which are * Omnium Doctrinamm 
Matrix,^) the more skill we have to discern the genuine de* 
duction of true conclusions, and the inconsistency of those 
which are false and spurious : for matters of division are to 
be measured by the doctrines which we have learned. (Rom. 
xvi. 17) We must not suffer any doctrine to corrupt our 
judgement or enthral our consciences, which doth, either di* 
rectly or by visible and just consequence, overturn, or 
wrench^ or shake, or endanger the foundation. We must not 
do with doctrines in religion, as, Herodotus *■ saith, the Ba- 
bylonians did with their virgins, — sell the fair ones, to raise 
portions for the foul ; plead agreement in fundamentals, for 
prevarication in other things : for the rule is made to rectify 
other errors by, not to warrant them. They who consent not 
in this necessary disposition to peace, but will have all 

> 1 Cor. iii. 10, 11. 2 Tim. i. 13. Col.i.23. Ephes. iv. 13. 1 Tim. iii. 16. 
Gal.i. 6. 17. xii. 6. 2 Tim. i. 13, 14. ICor.ii. 2. 1 Tim. vi. 3. Tit. 
i. J. PhU. i. 27. Rev. ziv. 12. » In Clio. 



>«pinions to strike sail to theirs, and will exercise domina- 

tioD *• over the faith and conaciencee of their brethren, (which 

the case between us and the Roman church, which boast- 

!i of her infallibility, and that hef laws bind the conscience, 

if the Pope, und not Christ, were to ait in judgement at 

jibe last day) — these. I say, will be found to have been the 

igreatest schismaticks, who, by intolerable tyranny over the 

eonsciences, and cruelty over the lives of men, have misera- 

JHy torn the peace and unity of the church of Christ, • 

?. Where there is this agreement in fundamentaU, there 
ght to be mutual and fraternal affections, notwithstanding 
ferences in other things ; no reproaches, no exasperations, 
individuouB consequences, no odious imputations, no ur- 
itable digladiati^ns ; but an owning of one another as 
ibtelliren, and diacussing and ventilating of the points in dif^ 
lerence with the spirit of love and meekness ; saying to one 
«&oliier, as Abraham to Lot, " Let there be no strife be- 
Itmeen ihce and me; for we are brethren."'' 

III. The last expedient which the apostle useth for paci- 
icatioD amongst brethren, is, " To walk by the same rulet 
to mind the snme things ;" thot is, notwithstanding all 
differences, to preserve unity in these three things'; 
unity of wills in love ; unity of holiness in life ; unity of enda 
iu design. The aposlle pulteth faith ' and love, faith and a 
good* conscience together: calleth Christian doctrine, a 
'myalery" of godliness ;' and knowledge, which is accord- 
ing' to godliness. Without this, our judgements are vola- 
tile and unfixed : for* the heart is established by grace.' ^ He 
who holds truth to serve turns, or makelh it a handmaid to 
his own lusts and ambition, like that atheist in"* Jerome, 
" Fac oie Romanie urbis Kpiscopum, et ero protenus Chris* 
tianus;" — or, like Hermogenes", in TeituUian, " Legem 
Dei ID Itbidinem defendit, in artem contemnlt ;"— will, for 
adTantage", be ready to set the truth to sale, and to ex- 
diacge hia opinion that he may gratify his lust. And usu- 

' Biihap Uikrr-s Setm. on Eph. ir. 13. p. 7.— Afornay 
' Gen. nil S. • jtug. de Oral, et lib. 

uici. c. 1. '2 Tim. i. 13. Gal. v. 6, 

1 Tim. iii. 16. ' 1 Tim. vL .1. ' Heb. 

" nimm.Mb. conti. Joan. Hterosolyttiii. " TirtuU coDtr. 

BnsK c 1. * AmanI icriiium lucrtiitm ; odcritnt redBrsuentcm : 

*%.CaaStm. ArianinonDeum, icd peipuramcLlum. -Sotrn. I. 3. c.22. 

• 2 Cor. i. 21. 
bE<xl.ciiI. 10. 



ally we find, that through men^s own wickedness, and the 
just judgement of God upon them, corrupt lusts are the 
causes of corrupt minds, and that carnal ends have been the 
rise and original of dangerous heresies ; as Tertullian p hath 
observed of Valentius the heretic ; and Theodoret % of Arius. 
Carnal ends, and crooked affections, open a passage unto 
heretical opinions. And there is an excellent speech of the 
philosopher', which gives us the reason of it, Al ixpoaani^ na^ 
ret Tci Shi 0t;ftj3a/yov^fy* A§ yoip 9ioo$sifM¥f wrm^ i^twfuv xtywtcu* 
That cohimonly as men^s courses of life are, so would they 
have the doctrines to be which their teachers instruct them : 
notable examples whereof we have in scripture. ' The best 
way then to know that wherein we differ, is to obey that 
wherein we agree. For as a corrupt heart will make a cor- 
rupt judgement, so purity of heart is a good step unto unity 
of judgement; the Lord having promised that *' they who 
do his will, shall know his doctrme;'* {John vii. 27) that 
they who are his sheep, shall discern his voice ; (John x. 4) 
that the meek he will teach his way, and reveal his secrets 
to them that fear him. (Psalm xxv. 9, 14) Let us, theve^ 
fore, as we have received Christ, so walk in him : and we shall 
certainly reap one of these two fruits ; either we shall get to 
the knowledge of the truth, and so our differences cease ; or 
we shall so allay them with humility and love, (as Austin* 
observes of Cyprian) that they shall never break forth into bit* 
temess, animosity, or scornful esteem of our fellow-brethren. 

I conclude all with a very few words of exhortation unto 
this honourable Assembly, all grounded upon the particulars 
of the text. 

1. To acknowledge with the apostle your own imperfec- 
tion. Solomon was sensible of the disparity between hid 
work and his strength; and so all good men are: And there- 
tipon, 1. ' Wait upon God for wisdom.^ (James i. 5) 2. Do 
not precipitate counsels, but mature them by grave and full 
deliberation : '* Ita enim nati estis, ut bona malaque vestra 
ad Rempublicam pertineant.'^ 

2. To settle and secure the weighty doctrine^ of righteous- 

P Tert, oontr. Valcnt. c. 4. q Theodor. Hist. 1. 1. c. 2. r Ariit. 

Metaphy. 1. 1. • Isai. xxx. 10, 11. Jer. v. 12, 13, 31. Jer. xliu.2. Mic. 

ii. 1 1 . 2 Ptt. iiu 5. * Aug. ep. 1 12. de doct. Christ, lib. 2. c. 6.— De Mo- 

tlb. eccl. cap. 17, 18. — Greg, Naz, On. 34. Clem, Alex, strom. 1. 6. p. 489. 


by CbritI alone, of boliness and conformity to bis cleatb 
and reMirrectioOy of imperfection of human rigbteoutneu, 
of necemty of daily progress in the ways of grace, and of 
dioae means which Christ hath set up in his church in order 

3. In making laws and penalties, to be tender towards the 
w«ak coDScieiices of your brethren. There is indeed a very 
great Teneration doe to laws ; and magistrates do, with good 
reason, expect to have their sanctions obeyed, rather than 
dispated: Bat they must remember they are brethren as well 
as nagistrateS) and therefore must take heed * of writing, or 
binding beavy burdens. No law*maker can know the law- 
folneas of his own edicts more certainly, than the apostles 
knew that legal ceremonies were extinguished by the death 
of Christ. Yet knowing likewise the weakness of their 
brethren the Jews, they did not presently put forth their 
npoatottcal anthority to the inhibiting of them, but suffered 
tbem to die a lingering death. It is a sad thing to be re- 
dnoed to that uncomfortable dilemma, of choosing either 
iniqnity (as to a man^s conscience, I mean) or affliction. 
And if by any means he be brought unto it, he may take 
comfort in suffering it, than others in inflicting it. I 
not this to weaken the hands of law-makers, or to de- 
from the authority of laws (unto which I shall ever, 
both cat of principles of conscience and prudence, carry all 
reference and submission, either cheerfully to do, or meekly 
to suffer) ; but I speak it as an humble caution, that since 
there are some of humble and quiet spirits, who may some- 
times be otherwise minded, laws may be made so exactly 
consonant to the general rules of the word, and may have 
snch prints and evidences of their own goodness, whole- 
someneaa, and righteousness in them, as that they may not, 
by any rational exception, or semblance of equity, be de- 
dined or objected against 

And I would herewithal distinguish between men of a 
anek, humble, and patient temper, and others of busy, bois- 
tcrons, turbolent spirits, who, under pretence of conscience, 
doy at any time, engage in actions, apparently inconsistent 
with righteousness and peace. For we are sure that the 

• Isai. z. I. Matth. JiJiiii. 4. 


laws of Christ do require all men to lead ' quiet and peace- 
able/ as well as * godly and honesi* lives, under the laws of 
men. And no man can, with any probable pretence of good 
conscience, tumultnate against public order and peace, in 
church or state. 

4. Since the Lord doth heal breaches in his church, by 
his spirit and word, as the ordinary means Uiereunto,— there- 
fore, special care should be had that these means be duly 
used and applied, by authorizing, countenancing, encou- 
raging, protecting, rewarding the faithful ministers of the 
gospel, in the due discharge of their duties ; not suffering 
their persons, functions, doctrines, labours, or comforts, to 
be assaulted by any turbulent or malicious opposers. 

5. To lay to heart the breaches and differences which are 
amongst us ; and to pour oil and balm into the wounds of 
the chuix^h, and to apply all requisite expedients for the 
closing of them, considering the great advantages which ad- 
versaries take by our differences and divisions. 

6. To countenance and encourage fundamental truths, 
wherein all agree ; and as much as may be, to hinder those 
digladiations, whereby the common enemy is gratified, and 
his interest promoted by animosities from the press, over 
which it were very needful that there were a more provident 
superinspection : there being a great difference between a 
liberty allowed men between God and their own consciences^ 
and a power to sow their tares, and to spread their leavea 
into the whole lump. 

7. To manage all councils and consultations by the rule 
of the word. For though I am not of their opinion, who 
would have no other human laws, but such as are formally 
to be found in the scripture, yet there are three general rules 
of equity, truth, justice, expediency, liberty, unto which all 
human laws should be conformable. 

8. To eye and mind the same things ; to have all the same 
joint and honourable ends ; to have no divided interests, no 
domestical reflections ; but single upright aims at the glory 
of Ood, the truth of the gospel, the power of godliness, the 
interest of Christ, the souls of men, the peace, tranquillity, 
and happiness of these nations. 

9. lastly. To wait continually upon God for counsel and 
guidance by his spirit, for acceptation with him and his 


people, for bleating and aucceaa upon all righteous and ho- 
nourable undertakmgs, that he would gi?e you one heart and 
one way ; and cause you to know the way wherein you should 
waJk ; and do nothing by you but that alone which may pro- 
mote his glory, advance his truth, rejoice his people, tend to 
the GRlming of unhappy differences, and to the reducing of 
tbeae discomposed nations unto unity and serenity. For 
which purpose let us pray, 8ic. 



PHIL. ii. 1, 2. 

If there be therefore any consolation in Christy if any comfort 
of hvef if any fellowship of the Spirit ^ if any bowels and 
mercies; fulfil ye my joy ^ that ye be like-minded^ having the 
same love, being of one accord, of one mind. 

It was the saying of a wise * man. Nihil mihi videtor fri* 
gidiuB quilm Lex cum prologo : that he did not in any wise 
approve a law with a preface. And we find it enjoined to the 
orators ^ at Athens, that they should not, in their pleadings, ' 
wfooifAi^tfrieu or olxr/^io^ai ; or as Quintilian ^ expresseth it, 
they were forbidden ' movere affectus/ to stir up, by their 
artifices, the affections of anger or pity in the judges, lest 
thereby the rule of judgement should be wried and made 
crooked. And one would think, that, of laws, a divine law 
should not make way for itself by a prologue, nor court those 
affections which it can command. The apostle telleth us, 
that his preaching was h eanBsl^ei : it was not suasory, bat 
demonstrative. (1 Cor. ii. 4) Nevertheless, so great is the 
condescension of God to our frailty, that he doth not only 
command, but beseech and entreat us ; (2 Cor. v. 20) doth 
not only bind our consciences, but excite our affections, and 
win our consents to the duties which he teacheth. 

And, certainly, if wise and able speakers do ever propor- 
tion their importunities to the greatness and consequence of 
the matter which they speak unto, and do not spend a high 
wahf upon a low argument ; we may, from the vehement 
preface, and most pathetical obtestation which the apostle 

• Seti€c, ep. 94. ^ Alheiutut I. 13. C. 6. Arittot, Rhet. 1. 1. c 1. 

« QuintiL ojnt, InstU.l. 2. c. 16. ct l.C. c. 1. 



senu. XV.] 

here utetb, safely infer the very great urgency and necessity 
of (he duties so enforced, Fov I nm persuaded, that there ifl 
scarce, in all the scripture, to be found, an exhortation 
wherein the duties required are set on with more vehement 
ind invincible obsecration, wiiii more melting and conquer* 1 
iog persuasions, than in the words of my text. 

It may seem, that the PhilJppians were assaulted witb 
folse teachers, who sought to bring them under the bondagis J 
•f carnal and legal ordinances, by whose impostures thejr j 
were in diinger to be broken asunder into discords and sedi- 
tions, and thereby to have a door opened unto all wicked and I 
Uipore doctrines. And therefore as be doth enter a caveat 
and Riunituent against the sorceries of those men, (Chap. iij. 
t) so he doth once and again press upon the Philippians, tbs I 
doty of spiritual constancy and unity in the faith of the gaB> I 
f)el ; and that they should not, by the fear of persecution, be j 
f>e(»ua(Jed to entertain the doctrine of circumcision, (which j 
tor tliat retiRou the false apostles did preach, Ga/. vl. 12) j 
bat should remember, that God doth give unto beljeven j 
■bihty to 'suffer in behalf of Christ.' (Chap. i. 27, 29) 

NeUber doth the apostle satUfy himself with a simple and 
<mked proposing of this duty : hut, in the words of ihe text, 
ke dolh urge it again with a most elegant and most prevalent I 
^testation, — as it were charming and adjuring them by ] 
abatever was dear and precious in their eyes, as they had 
'ioy sense, or did set any value upon the most high and j 
bcavenly privileges of Christianity, to be *' like-minded, to 
•Wve the same love, to be of gne accord, and of one mind." | 

How loudly the condition of the times wherein we live, i 
Ihe miserably shattered and divided minds and hearts of the 
pie, crumbled into atorab of opinions, engaged upon coiv 
interests, inflamed with Jealousies and animosities, dia- 
fdeased with what is, inhiatingand lingering after netv things f 1 
" ink men, who nauseate what is set before them, and 
'dHiitng things which themselves fancy ; variety of couceit«, 
if^inninjr aud weaving themselves into various contextures of 
gioctrine and policy ; — how loudly, I say, the conditions of 
ilhvse times, and the dangers inevitably wailing upon sucfa 
diviuoDS, do call upon all of us, to bemoan ourselves hither- 
to in the words of the prophet: " Why hast thou smitten I 
w, and ihere is no healing for us ? We looked for peace, 


and there is no good ; and for the time of healing, and be* 
hold trouble : we acknowledgp, Lord, our wickedness, and 
the iniquity of our fathers ; for we have sinned against thee ;*' 
(Jer. xiv. 19, 20) how loudly they call upon you, whose 
office it is to be healers of the people, (Isai. iii. 7) to -be of 
" one mind, and of one heart^ in your consulutions ; I need 
not stand to demonstrate unto you. " Res ipsa clamat ;^ 
and he must needs be destitute of eyes and sense, who is not 
apprehensive of it. For which purpose, I have pitched upon 
this most emphatical exhortation, to open a little unto yoa 
this most necessary duty. 

In the words there is very little difficulty ; and therefore 
I shall not detain you with any unnecessary explication, 
which we shall sufficiently do in handling the particular parts 
of them. 

In the whole context, then, we have three general parts. 

1. The matter of the duties variously proposed, Ter. 2. 

2. The manner of pressing them, very earnest and patheti* 
cal, ver. 1. 3. The means of procuring them, being all of 
them so many further duties, ver. 3, 4, 5. 

I. The main duties are two, Auro^gAn^tf, and Adrvyinni, (if 
I may take the liberty to coin the words) ; to mind the same 
things, and to love the same things. The one important 
consent of Judgement in the same doctrines; and the other, 
consent of wills and affections in the same care one of ano- 
ther ; and bearing one with another in those unwilling diC- 
ferenceSy which we cannot presently conquer. 

Either of these duties seems to have a basis and founda- 
tion joined unto it for the more sure and easy raising of it; 
for 1 would not willingly admit a tautology in the text. The 
basis of the former is ho^p^trig, or to tv fpovilv, to have an 
unity wherein we all agree, one foundation upon which we 
all build. For the fundamentals in Teligion being firmly 
held, there is a sure preparation towards agreement in otber 
doctrines, which have a natural deduction from them. 

The basis of the latter is ffviA^nix^f to have the same Bonlf 
to be animated and enlivened by the same holy spirit^ where- 
by we arc made members of the body ; and so, as rneOK 
bers, cannot but have a iiatural love and care one towards 

II. The manner of pressing these duties seemeth to hsTe 


a threefold efficacy in it. 1. By way of most prevalent 
KOd patbetical insinuation, as you prize your dearest joys, 
be 'like-minded.' 2. By way of most rational argumeuta- 
' tion. Because " there is consolation in Clirist, comfort of 
lo»e, fellowHliip of the Spirit, bowels and mercy, therefore 
fee like-minded." 3. By way of most comfortable consecu- 
tion ; be like-minded : for this is the way to impress and 
difiuse the cuasolations of Christ, Ecc. upon you. 

III. The means to procure and promote these duties, are 
of two sorts, viz. 

1. Negative, by way of caution, where he warneth them 
to take heed of three dangerous evils and obstructions. 
1. Strife and contention. 2. Vain-i^lory and ambition. 
3. Self-love, or self-seeking. 

'2. Affirmative, by way of positive direction unto such 
good things, as will set forward these duties; and they are, 
1. LowUnesa of mind. 2. An honourable esteem of others. 
3. Public-heartedness, to look every man on the things of 
others. 4. The holy example of Christ: "Let the same 
mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus." 

The first duty is, to auvi f^ovtit, ' to be like-minded,' or 
to mind the same thing. The word ^fnyfa, being of a gene- 
nl conipreheusion, [extending to the autions both of the J 
iroderstandiug and of the will, rendered sometimes ' think^fl 
ing," or 'judging;' {Phil. i. 7) somelimes ' savouring,' oR 1 
'reluhing;' {Mallh. xvi. 23) sometimes ' setting our affec ■ 
trans upon,' or looking towards, and aiming at a thing, Col,- 1 
iii. 2.] seems to import these three things; 1. An act of I 
the jodgement, a consent in the same truths. 2. A spiritual M 
se, tasting, savouring, relishing, discerning some sweet- I 

K and goodness in those truths. 3. A directing our aima I 

A desires mutually upon the same common end. , I 

1. The apostle exbortelh and adviseth, to efioyvm/tok its I 
» «MTiv, as the Greek scholiast hath it ; to be of the samt: I 
jiulgement in the faith ; to be ' peifectly joined together ia I 
dke same mind,' and in the same sentence, or judgement, as fl 
^^ie, 1 Cor. i. 10. ,4 

Afid this first is simply necessary in the vitals and essen- ' 
ifiala of Christian doctrine ; for Ciirisi^s sheep hear his 
X. and liave a spiritual judgement to know it from the 
voice of strangers. {John x. 4, o) " If any man will do hia 

16^ fiROTttERLT AGREEMBNT. [sl^ftM. Xr* 

will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be of Ood.* 
{John vii. 17) Whatever knowledge is absolutely reqoisite 
onto salvation (as some certainly is, * For this is eternal life 
to know thee the only true Ood, and Jesus Christ,' Joka 
xvii. 3 ; * How shall they believe in him, of whom they have 
not heard ;^ Rom. x. 14. ' Ye have not so learned Christ : 
If so be that yon have heard him, and have been taught by 
him, as the truth is in Jesus/ Ephes. iv. 20, 21) I say, all 
such knowledge is undoubtedly afforded, first or last, unto 
as many as shall be saved. 

Secondly, It is very greatly to be desired in all other things, 
as a fulfilling of those gracious promises, '^ that the envy of 
Ephraim shall pass away; {Isa. xi. 13) that Ephraim and 
Judah shall be no more two, nor divided any more; (fsdk 
xxjtvii. 22) that the earth shall be full of the knowledge of 
the Lord ; {ha. xi. 9) that they shall all know him, from the 
least to the greatest*^ {Jer. xxxi. 34) 

1. By such joint consent of judgement, holiness would 
be greatly advanced, when our chief business would be to 
' provoke one another onto love and good works,' according 
to the doctrines wherein we should all agree. As in your 
house here, so in God^s house, much business of weight and 
moment might be despatched in that time, which is spent in 
examinations about differences, touching those who claim to 
be members. 

2. Hereby wickedness would be more put to shame^ when 
all that fear God, having no flames of their own to quench^ 
would be at liberty to join hearts and hands to the pulling 
down of Satan^s kingdom. 

3. Hereby a smoother way would be prepared for the pre- 
valence and progress of the gospel into all parts of the 
world, when the general beauty and universal consent of the 
churches of God, would be an allurement and provocation 
unto other people, to join themselves unlo them, because 
they see that God is with them. {Zech. viii. 23) 

4. The truth is, bv the sad divisions and dissensions in 
the church of Christ, very sore and doleful consequences do 

1. Through the prevalence of corruption, the afiections of 
i^ood men so dissenting, are many times alienated and e6« 
tranged one from another. Those who have been ' martyros 


dengnad/ M TertuUian calU them, confeison in boudt for 
the name of Christ, have, in the fiame prison, separated from 
Qoe another^ and set up a veil between one another; at 
Epipbaniua* tells us, in the case of Petrus Alexandrinus and 
Meletius. And no hut were the contentions between Epi- 
pbaDius^ and Chrysostoni, that they mutually did, ' tantum 
oon/ corse one another, and foretel evils to befal one ano- 
tber, which God for their humiliation did bring upon them 
both ; as the historian telleth thus. We find upon how small 
a controversy % viz. the time of keeping Easter, — Victor, 
bishop of Rome, took upon him to excommunicate the east- 
em bishops that dissented from him. Nay, the passion be- 
tween Paul and Barnabas about Mark, was so hot, they were 
fiun to part companies ; as we read, AcU xv. 39. 

2. Hereby occasionally the seeds of atheism are cherished 
in the minds of profane men, who, seeing those that profess 
fdigioo, warring and digladiating amongst themselves in 
controversies^ against the same, wretchedly conclude that 
there is no such thing as religion at all, when the greatest 
servants that it hath, cannot agree amongst themselves about 
it. For such mockers who are ' willingly ignorant* of tlie 
thioga which they dare not know, because the knowledge 
thereof doth endanger their quiet, and bring torment upon 
llieniy-^o wilfully turn away their thoughts from the many 
and great truths of religion, wherein all agree ; that they 
may, ander the pretence of smaller dilTerenceSi palliate their 
own scepticism and profaneness. Of which kind of men, 
however their consciences may slumber, yet the apostle 
asaoreth ns, that their ' damnation slumbereth not.* (2 Pei. 

3. Hereby the practice of holiness is much weakened, 
much of the time which should be spent in the Ufe and 

Ep^> Bar. 68. ^ Nicefko, 1. 13. c. 13. c Eusthtyi. Hitc. 

L S. c 25. <1 " With our contentions their irreligious humour is 

ttieiigchciicd : nothing plcmseth Xhem better than these manifold oppo« 
aboac the matter of Relii^ion, as well fur that they have hereby the more 
to learn on one tide how another nuy be o|>pugBcd, and so to weaken 
^ cndic oT all naio tbcoifclve^ ; as alto because by the liot pursuit of lower 
M»Mii(^^> mea profcising religion, they conceive hope, that about 
prjaciplca chcmsclves, time will cause alicrGaiion to grow t" li9oktr, 
Ptalkj, lib. S. KCC 8. p. 1S9. 


power of godliness, is taken up in uncomfortable and niiedi- 
fying altercations. 

4. Hereby the conversion of Jews and Grentiles is much 
hindered; the dissensions which are amongst Christiana, 
being as so many stumbling-blocks in their way, and pro- 
ducing such scandals and prejudices in their minds, as can- 
not easily be removed. And therefore it is noted of Julian * 
the Emperor, that he did purposely cherish the divisions be- 
tween the Catholics and the Donatists, when the church before 
had enjoyed a glorious peace ; as well knowing how much 
they would obstruct the progress of the gospel. And Am- 
mianus Marcellinus ^ telleth us of the same Julian, if I right- 
ly apprehend his sense, that as he did foment the dissen- 
sions of Christians, so he would say That no savage beast 
was more cruel to men, than Christians were to one another: 
thus through their divisions was their holy profession ex- 
posed to the scorn and reproach of enemies. So Eusebias * 
reporteth, that upon that huge breach which the Arian con- 
troversy made in the church of Ood, the sacred mysteriear 
of Christian religion were, upon the stages of the pagans, ex- 
posed unto open scorn and reproach. 

6. Hereby very often truth is on both sides endangered, 
when, in the heat of disputation, either side thinks that the 
further^ he leaveth his adversary, the nearer he cometh unto 
the truth. As * Basil the Great hath observed of Dioiq^sios 
of Alexandria, that, out of his zeal in opposing the heresy 
of Sabellius, he did first sow the seeds of the Arian heresy, 
which afterwards did so much prevail in the church. And 
Sulpicius Severus noteth of Ithasius, that he so hated Pris- 
cillian, that the very habit which good men used, if it were 
such as Priscillian had used, made him hate them also. 

6. Hereby many times through heat and contention, the 
foundations and grounds of religion are shaken ; and things, 
before fixed and indubitate, are rendered the subject for 
proud wits * to exercise their profane curiosity upon : as the 


• Optat, 1. 2. post medium p. 54. Edit. Par. IdSl. jImmimM, Mimt* 

c«Utfi. I. 22. « De Ttta Ck>nstant. 1. 2. c. G.-^Greg. Naz, Orat. 1. p. 35. AJi. 

d Difficile est, dum perverse homines Titia devitant, non in eonim oontraria pei^ 
niciter currant. Aug, de Gen. ad lit. 1. 9. c. 8. • BasiL Tom. 2. Epitt. il. 

' Sulpic, Sever, 1. 2. 6 *£irl robots yeXSaw ol ivurrMf vake^eimai'^ 

^Xtyovurroif dfi^$oKos i| wlvris, &c. Basil, epist. f>9. 



Soctnians in this last century of the church huve done, re- 
TJrtng many of those prodigious errors with which the rest- 
less and proud wits of Arius, Sabellius, Photinus, Samosa- 
tenus, PelagiuB and others, did iufest and trouble the church 
of Christ. 

Lastly, Hereby the eueiuies of truth are exceedingly 
hardened against the professors thereof: and there is scarce 
any thing which the papists do with more vociferation object 
against the reformed churches, than the many divisions and 
dissensions which are amongst them, though ihey do it with 
many false aggravations. " 

For these and other such like evils, have good men ' ever 
greatly bewailed the disseasions, which have been in the 
Christian churches. How doth the apostle complaia of it 
mmoDgst the Corinthians, as a fruit of the flesh. (1 Cor. iii, 3) 
•od warn the Romans to take heed of it ! {Rom. xvi. 17) 
Holy Cyprian' in his time looked on it as one great cause 
of that sore persecution, which God then sent upon the 
church : " Had unanimity and peace,'" saith he, " been 
amongst the brethren, we had long ago obtained our petitions 
from Divine Mercy ; neither had we been thus long tossed 
with those tempests which endanger our faith and salvation : 
Imo rero nee venissent fratribus btec mala, si iu unum fra- 
temitas fuisset snimata."* 

Therefore it greatly concerneth us, in our several places 
and stations, to endeavour, so far as may be, a healing of 
all the breaches and divisions which are amongst na. 

1. All of us by imploring divine grace, that He who is one, 
and his name one, would make us likewise one in him, in his 
Son, and towardi each other; that he would pour out upon 
OS a spirit of light to discern truth, and a spirit of love to 
embrace it ; that he would give us one heart, and one way ; 
that we may hear a voice behind us continually saying, 
* This is the way, walk in it,' when we are turning aside to 
the right hand or to the left ; that he would say to our con- 
fiisions, • Peace, be still,' that the winds may cease, and 
there may be a calm. 

* FtTTjtal. dial. I. p. II, \6.—Stani>taui, Rttihiui in miniilramacbii. 
■VU-BanJ. it Spir. Slnci. c. 30. Epiii. 48, al, 61, 69. Gi eg. Nt^.OiK. I. 
13, M, 18. h Cypiian. ep. 8. 

17Q BB,OT»£H{.T AQRS£l^£;yT, [S£^M, |(Yt 

2. The people, by following i^fter tbo^e thipgs which V^^k^ 
for peace; by laying aside heart-burnings |in4 animoaitiea j 
not every one declaiming c^gainst the miscarriages of otheri^ 
nor putting hard and unbrotberly constructions Mpoq tb^ 
actions of one another ; but every one to descend into bj^ 
Qwn heart; and^ by the conscience of his own failings, to be 
deterred from insulting over the errors or fallings of his bre« 

3. The pdinisters of the gospel of peace, by preaching th^ 
peace of the gospel ; by holding forth the wholesome ' fomi 
of sound words ;^ by laying the foundations of faith and love \ 
by forbearing affectation of novel and uncouth expreasions, 
of dividing, and unnecessary potions; healing and not fp* 
menting the differences i^mongst brethren. 

Lastly, You that are magistrates, 1. Sy cquntepancipg, 
owning, protecting, promoting, establisbiQg soMud^ whole* 
some, and saving truths; those especially, wherein there ie f 
sweet harmony and consent among the reformed churches, 
The King of Israel was to have a copy of the |aw before hin^ 
{Deut. xvii. 18) to intimate unto him his duty, which viraa to 
be ' custos et conservator legis.** 

2. By comforting and encouraging a godly, learned, able^ 
sober, and peaceable n^inistry, as He^ekiah did ; (2 Chrom^ 
XXX. 22) not suffering them to be disturbed or diaheartene4 
by the reproaches of vain and unquiet spirits. I heard, hiace 
auribus, out of my study window, one standing above tl^if 
confluence of people, which were gathered about him, use 
these words : *' The priests and the lawyers are bloody men ; 
give them blood to drink." And though such reproaches 
may seem contemptible and ridiculous from such inconsid^r* 
able persons, yet who knows, in combustible matter, and ip^ 
dubious and discontented times, how great a flame a few 
sparks may kindle ? 

3. By preserving and vindicating schools of learning from 
the artifices of avarice and rapine, and keeping those fouiir 
tains pure from the leaven of error and profaneness. I( 
would be a sad time with the church of Christ, when i^ 
should want the pen of champions, and have nothing left 
but the blood of martyrs to defend the truth ;— when David^s 
captains, and his bucklers, and shields, and armory should 



be taken down, and neither sword, nor spear, nor smith 
found ihroughout all the land of Israel. 

4. By discouraging and preveating dangerous and perni- 
eioua doctrines, subversive to faith and godliness. Certainly 
it is an excess of liberty, when Socinisn catechisms are 
taught to speak English, and fly from presses to the closets 
•TanBtable persona. 

6. By providing, for all the dark and ignorant places of 
ihe land, an able and resident ministry, who may teach the 
peopte the good knowledge of the Lord. For notwithstand- 
ing all the means which may hare hitherto been used to 
that pitrpose, yet there are many barren and desolate parts 
of the nation, which either for want of a settled mainte- 
flduice, or through some other miscarriages, do cry aloud unto 
you, as the man of Macedonia did in a vision unto Paul, 
" Come ant] help us.^ 

But after all this care is used to prevent pemictouB dan- 
gers, porisibly there may slill be divisions amongst good 
nen : what course is to be taken in that case 1 

Truly while we are here, we know but in part; and there- 
fore it is no wonder, if where there is a mixture of ignorance, 
there be found a difi'erence of judgements : in tlie dark, very 
loTing friends may run one against another. ' 

In this case. First, If undue passions and exasperations 
hapf>en, the Christian magistrate may interpose by his au- 
thority (if necessity retiuire) to forbid and moderate them. 

'2. He may, if at any time he find the peace of the church 
disquieted by them, call conventions and colloquies ; wherein 
there may be a fraternal and amicable debate and composure 
of them. 

:). And if after all this, differences be not perfectly healed 
sad accorded, brethren mustmutually bear with one another, 
nd jtray for one another, and love one another. " Whereunto 
tfcey have already attained, tbey must walk by the same rule, 
mi nind the same things ;" and wherein they yet diBer, 
nh bambly upon God to reveal his will unto them. Where 
eaaaod the sauie straight road to heaven is kept, a small dif- 

'. Episr. 92.11 


ference of paths doth not hinder travellers from coining b 
Ihe sume inn at night. Gracious was the carriage of Cypriaa' 
ifi the controversy of rebaptizatiun, in this point, and greatly 
commended by St. Austin : " Let us," saith he (speaking in a 
council 8t Carthage) " deliver every man hia judgement i| 
the case, judging no man, removing no man from his rip;ht o| 
communion, if he be otherwise minded. For none of us can 
make himself a bishop of bishops ; or, by any tyrannical ter- 
ror, compel his colleagues unto a necessity of obedience^ 
but every one hath the freedom of his own liberty and poweij^ 
and can as little be judged by any other, as he btmEelf c^ 
judge another. Therefore let us all wait for the judgement 
of the Lord Jesus, who only hath power both to promote 
in the government of the church, and to judge of the act 
which we shall here pass." 

And this we shall the more readily do, if we take along 
with us the two other acceptations of the word ^p«viiv. 1. If 
we have a spiritual sense to favour and relish the divine 
truth. As the Lord hath furnished the natural man with 
outward senses for the service and comfort of natural life; so 
hath he, the spiritual man with spiritual senses, for the use 
and benefit of the life of grace. We read of such, Phii. i, 9- 
Hel). V. 14. Holy men taste and see how gracious the Lord 
is ; (Psalm xxxiv. 8) they hear and distinguish the voice of 
Christ from strangers. {John x. 4, 5) His name ia unto them 
as the smell of an ointment, poured forth. All his gariii«nlfi 
smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia. lCa?tt. i. 3. Psalm xlv. 8} 
Where these spiritual senses are, there is the mind of Chri) 
(I Cor. ii. 16) And so far forth as we have the 

I Christ, we are apt to be of one mind amongst ouraelvea; 

' because Christ is one, and not divided. 

2. Aeain, If we agree in the same end, and do sinci 
aim and direct all our designs and purposes unto one and 

k Supcmt, at de h>c ipu re quid linguU lentiamui, proferuniu : 
licuites, «ui a jure communionii aliqiKm, li divcntum KntcHl. amotoil^ 

^ Nique ciiim quisquam noKtHm Episcopum se cue EpiBCopai 
tf rannico [etioic ad □biequendi Dccessiinleni eol1e;;u looi adigil.- 
bcst amnii Epiicnpui pro liccacia libertalu cl potcsniia lUfe srblicium propiiw 
Omqae judiori ibaliD non pouit, quini nee ipse point alicrum judicarc; a 
expcclenius aniTcnl judicium Doinitil noitci Jetu Chcitti, qui unut ct Kiliu hab 
poltituem et ptKponendi nos in ecclesi* iua gubenmione, > 
dicindL Ct/pnan, apud AoEuil, dc Baptiimo conira Donaiisi 


same ultimate issue , we are thereby in a very apt prepara- 
tioDp amicably to treat of, and willingly to consent in» all 
such subordinate things, as are requisite and dirigible unto 
the attainment of those ends. Thev are divided ends and 
isteresta. (when one man is for his will and lust, and another 
for hisy) that are the ball of contention amongst them, and 
kindle the flames of war. (James iv) 1. It is too usual for 
men's opinions to be proportioned to their interests. '* His 
qutt Tolumus, doctrinam coaptamus,*^ as Hilary * speaksw 
Men many times suit their doctrines to their wills : their per- 
▼ene disputings and corrupt minds grow from hence ; that 
they suppose gain is godliness. (1 Tim, vi. 6) Avarice, am- 
bition, pride ^ of wit. a spirit of contention, a corrupt con- 
science, and carnal ends, have usually been the originals of 
those heresies, which have, from time to time, annoyed the 
chnich of God. The apostle gives us a large catalogue of 
carnal lusts, as the harbingers of enmity against the truth, 
and corruption of mind ; 2 Tim. iii. 1 — 8. When men put 
away a good conscience, they will make shipwreck of the 
fiulh. (1 Tim. i. 19) So it hath been ' observed of Arius. 
Yalentinna. Marcioo, Montanus, Novatus. and others, that 
ambition and impatience of repulse was the ground of thdr 
revolting from Uie truth. When men cannot bring their 
lives to the truth, they will wrest doctrine, and brin{i^ that 
down to the proportion of their lunts. Ho that doth evil. 
hateth the light. (John iii. 20) They that love wine and 
Strang drink, would have their teachers prophesy of such 
things unto them. (Micah ii. 11) As Jerome '* said unto 
Jovinian. " Noble men, and rich men, that are given to lux- 
vy and intemperance, honour and esteem thee ; for till thou 
earnest, drunkards and gluttons could not enter into Para^ 
dise/' Those that agree in the same wicked lusts, will 
easily agree in such wicked opinions, as do countenance 
ikose lusta. The devils, though it is impossible they should 
lore one another, (for love is a heavenly thing, and no 
bcavenly thing is to be found in hell) yet having all the 
end. to oppose God, and Christ, and the salvation of 

• Otor. dc Trin. lib. 10. ^ Mater omnium llaretieorum tupcrbia. 

J^. ^ Gen. oont. Manicb* 1. 3. c. 1. Btm. in Cam. Scr. 65. < Mrod, 

Dean. 1. I. tit- 6. tect 12. Tertui. cont. Valentin, c. 4, — Amlru*. \. 1. «ie pnnic. 
e. M^-^Sir^pk. 1 4. c. 32. * Wi*r»,.|. ad Jovinianum \. "J. 

174 atKOTAEftl.T AOftEEWMT. [s£RM. Wf. 

mttkr^^Tkd having all large understandings to dise^rn ike 
most efiecttial means to carry on that end, dierelbre Any 
almiys agree : they are never divided in jodgemcBt and ^mo^ 
tice ofM from another. If Christ and his glory> if *die ser- 
vice and sadvation of his people b^ our end ; if we mind live 
tmme 'cotemon salvation,'* as the apostle caHeth it; the di& 
ferenees whidh after remain amongst ns, arise porely from a 
ttarrOwness find defect of judgement, disabling us dearly ta 
discam the most natural expedients unto that end, anrid not 
'froad ttny otb^ root of malignancy or hostility : and, con- 
eequd&tly, the ^M%y to agreement is more open and facile. 

Now in the next place (as I told you before) the basis tsnd 
fomidntion of a^rofp^vi^, is Koip^'yijo-i;, to have a unitj 
wherein all do agree. For as the ultimate resolution of irfl 
beings, is into one prime entity ; so the ultimate resolution tt 
M truths, is into one prime verity. Let us, therefore, agree 
itk the one first truth; and that will be a seminary and 
•matrix of tfll other consequent conclusions, whidh are ^ib^ 
duciUe therefhrni. The apostle tells us what this unity 4i^ 
4he tru«h in Jesus. (l^A. iv. 21) The only foundatiiMI^ 
Sesus Christ. (1 Cor. iii. 11) The unity of the faith, andcff 
Mie knowledge of the Son of God. {Eph. iv. 13) Holdiiif 
the head. {Col. ii. 19) In him it is that the body is joined 
and compacted, and knit together. Whatever our otBar 
doctrines are, they are all to bear conformity unto this. ^ 
any mian prophesy, it must be xar avaky/lenf vlarto^, aecordiBj^ 
to the proportion of faith. (Ram. xii. 6) This is the riA^ 
according unto which as onany as walk, peace and men^ 
shall be upon them. (Gal. vi. 16) From this one bead, tl 
the nerves and ligaments, which fasten the parts of the bed^ 
together, are 'derived : in this one root and one stock, are idl 
^he branches ftutened : by this one soul are all the membiM 
'sittimated : on this one foundation, is all the supenrtruciiM 
veared. Cut off the head, take away the soul, remove tte 
fouBdatioti,-*all the body, all the building, presently tendaia 
^dissolution and ruin. Tliis is the great foundation of eovi. 
aeilt nmdngst Christians, vi tv fpo¥ih, to mind one thing, <ta 
agree in a unity, that that may make way to agreement in 

* O^kv i^fS Urxypow c2f 6fi6votay rots ytmitriots ra vp6s riv h*i» Jr i) itmI 
b^aH (TvjtftMfia, Greg. Nazian. Orac. 12. 



r things. To hold the unity of faith, and the knowledge 

if the Son of God, and of the truth as it is in hira. * 1 de- 

nined to know nothing among you, save Jesus Christ, 

rt crucifted.' ■ ' God forbid that I should glory, save 

I the cross of our Lord Jesua Christ.'^ 'There iB not saU 

ilton in any other, no other name under heaven whereby 

ecan be aaved.'' To hold a unity of worship; "Thou 

nit worship the Lord thy God, and him only sbalt thoti 

' {Malth. iv. 10) " God is a spirit ; and they that wor- 

jltip him, must worship him in ajyirLt and truth.'" (John iv. 24) 

y hold A unity of obedience ; " As we have received Christ, 

t to walk in him, to walk as he wallied : because, without 

., DO man can see the Lord.*" {Coi. ii. 6. 1 John ii, 6. 

Heb. xii. 14} ' Priniuni in unoquoque genere est regula 

CKterorum.' All our knowledge must he measured by a 

onity, the unity of faith : all our worship by a unity, unity of 

»||pn>it: all onr obedience by a unity, unity of love, and of 
•ipngfatneas ; called by the apostle 'singleness of heart -^ 
f^pA. vi. o) WiAoot this unity o^' fmlh, of spirit, of lore, 
iSf aiocerity, neither our knowledge, nor onr worship, nor our 
obedience, is at all salvifical. These are the cement and 
bgaments of concord in the church of Christ. 

And if we consider it, we shall find thatlhe great breaches 
and divisions, which have been caused in the church of God, 
have arisen by adding pluralities unto these unities. See it 
in the Roman church. We hold one scripture: they add 
their traditions. We hold one judge of controversies, tlie 
mrdofGod; they add their Papal infallibility. We hold 
one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus ;— 
(key add many mediators of intercession, saints and angels. 
We hold one satisfaction by the blood of Christ ; they add 
penaDces and purgatory of their own. We worship One God 
m spirit and truth ; they add angels, and saints of their own 
Biakiog. We obey God according to his precepts; they 
add eraogeliCBl councils. We leach justification by the 
ng^teousnees of Christ alone ^ they add the righteousness of 
o«r own works. And yet they accuse us of schism and di- 
tuion in the church, who hold close to that primitive unity 
vhieb was first delivered to "the samte, tmd cannot tedmit 


thpse human super-additions, which carnal interest . hath 

I would willingly here have added one thing more, as a 
needful expedient unto consent in judgement, out of the 
apostle, (1 Cor. i. 10) which is ri auri Xtyfiy: To speak the 
same things ; to hold 'the form of sound words.^ (2 Tim.i* 
13) For many times the use of new phrases and expressions 
(a curiosity too much affected in this age) doth make wfty 
for the introducing of new doctrines. Eusebius ^ tells ns of 
some in his ditys, who, to win upon the minds of men, did 
amuse them with new words : whereas those who were 
orthodox and zealous defenders of the truth in those primi- 
tive times, would not change a letter nor syllable in tb^ 
forms of speech, to the prejudice of the truth. Qtegory 
Nazianzen % a holy and grave writer, is bold to compare this 
curiosity and novelty of speech in the things of God, unto 
lascivious dancing, and the arts of jugglers, whereby they 
deceive the senses of those that look on ; and telleth us, thttt 
the rh dirKolw n xol i^yivf^ too kiyw wffifiua fooffr(|ffro, that 
simple, proper, genuine language was, in holy things, wont 
to be esteemed godliness. It was good counsel whieli 
Austin gave unto him that intended the truth, but used an 
iacommodious expression, " Sententiam teneat, lingoam 



Hitherto I have spoken of the first duty in a spiritual reln» 
tion, as you are Christians. It is very necessary for you to 
extend it further, as you are patriots and citizens ; especially 
in such a time as this is, wherein your discords and divisioiw 
may endanger the welfare of three nations. I beseech yon 
consider (be great depositum which you are entrusted wiUial, 
the liberties, the properties, the safety, the dignity, of three 
great Christian Protestant nations. This you cannot bnt 
agree in, that the preservation of these is one of your princi* 
pal duties ; so you have an hofpinfi'is to build upon. Look 
straight forward unto these great and honourable ends ; look 
still upward unto the Father of lights, for wisdom to direct 
you to unanimous expedients for promoting of these ende. 

^ Buteb. Hist 1. 4. c. 7. et c 11. o2 rots ^iois \Ayois irrtBpofA^poi, 
9ai fUp rAf ^§im¥ Zcyfidrvif o6i^ iday Mx^rrai trvXXai^v, Basil, apud 
Theodor. 1. 4. c. 17. et lib. de spir. sane. cap. 1. • Greg. Nax. Orat. 21. 

Vid. f^edelutm de Pradentia veceris Eccles. 1. 3. c. 3. et 4. 


Be yoo fiuthfnl to hit interests, and he will be careful of 
yooiB. It woold be arrogance in me to counsel so wise a 
body in matters political. I shall make it my business to 
beg help and counsel from God for you ; — and shut up this 
first duty with minding you of that famous example of the 
two statesmen in Plutarch, who, being jointly sent abroad 
spon public senrice» laid down all their private differences at 
the city gate ; and went, with united resolutions, to prosecute 
Ae ministry entrusted with them. 

Now followeth the second duly, rifv avri» «yirfbi|y j^^orrif , 
** Haying the same love.^ 

L The same in object, to love the same things : for tlie 
love of different objects, doth naturally divide the minds of 
men into divers studies and judgeuients. 

2. The same in truth, love unfeigned ; (1 Pei. i. 22) with- 
oot diasimolation. (iZom. xii. 9) Of ail affections, love is 
the most naked and open-hearted. 

3. The same in measure, to luve ' ad ultimum virium f for 
lore Ib strong as fire. ** Amor mens pondus meum :^ it is 
the w^^t, the wing of the soul, which carries it swiftly to 
its proper object. 

Now this duty of love is very naturally subjoined unto 
that of minding the same things ; for it serves both to limit 
itp and to strengthen it, and to excite it * 

1. It limits it. For Turks consent in the same impure re- 
ligion ; derils are of one mind in the same cursed designs. 
But the object of our consent must be * Res per se diiigibi- 
Um,^ that which is in itself amiable and lovely. Such is 
Christ to believers, precious, their hope, their desire, their 
lore; as Ignatius called him, '* the chiefest of tep thousand, 
altogether lovely.^ Such the word of Christ, unsearchable 
riches. Such the church of Christ ; beautiful as Tirzah, fair 
as the moon, clear as the sun, terrible as an army with ban- 
ners. (^Cani. Ti. 4, 10) Such are couutry, law, liberty, pro- 
perty, dignity, safety, to true patriots : they look on these, as 
It desirable things. ^ 

One 14. b UiMf oUeBm lut XirfMOP^ Sn witf-cv §^giw^ff dymMrrrio^ 

On^. Nmx. Ont. 12. 1 Pet ii. 7. Col. i. 27. Hag. ii. 7. Caiic. t. 10, 16. Ephcs. 

▼ OI.. ▼. N 


2. It strengtheneth our unity. For though things may be 
put close together, and joined one to another, yet if there be 
hot a bond to fasten them, they will easily fall asunder. And 
this bond is love : so the apostle calleth it, CoL iii. 14. It 
is as the mortar, which fasteneth the stones of the building 
to one another. Apostasy from the truth proceedeth from 
want of love unto it ; as the apostle saith of such, that ^^ they 
received not the love of the truth, that they might be Saved." 
(2 Thess. ii. 10) For when Ood himself doth inwardly teach 
by his spirit those who are called according unto purpose, he 
doth it with inefiable sweetness : ^* Ita ut non ostendat tan* 
tummodo veritatem, verum etiam impertiat caritatem.^ ® 

3. It exciteth and acteth it. Love is a working and paiiw 
ful gmce; laborious to remove difficulties; victorious to 
conquer them; of a healing nature to close up breaches; 
of a uniting nature, to endear the hearts of mok unto one 

And here is added the basis and foundation of this love ; 
and that is otippuxtft, to have the same soul, to be animated 
by the same spirit of Christ ; as it is said of believers, dutt 
they were *' of one heart, and of one soul.*^ {Acts iv. 32) 
This the apostle calls, «' Christ living in us :'' {Gd. ii. 20) 
for, <' by one ^ spirit, we are all baptized into one body.'' 
(1 Cor. xii. 13) This is the ground of that love which is in 
believers one to another ; (the heathen took notice of it, 
'< Vide ut se diligunt Christiani**) because they are all mem* 
bers of that body, which is actuated by the same commoo 
spirit; so that they weep together, and rejoice together, and 
have the same care one of another. As some philosopheft 
have affirmed a universal intellect; and a general soul whidi 
actuateth the whole frame of nature, * Totamque infusa per 
artus Mens agttat molem, et magno se corpore miscet ;' so» 
in the universal church, it is most certain, that the head in 
heaven, and the members on earth, are all animatedt and en- 
livened by the same spirit. {Epkts, iv. 16) 

You see the great duties of the text, unanimity and love. 
I shall but name the manner of the apostle^s pressing them ; 

« Aug, de Gnt. ChrisU. 1. 1. cap. 13. ' rlrcroi dfi^tpa U ^ Urn 

Nat. One. 26. 



ud that il is marvellous, earnest, uid putlietical. 1 told you, 
BK faad a threefold efficacy. 

). By way of prevalent insinuation, and most rhetorical 
ibteatation. As if he should have said, " O ye Philippians, 
jl yonr apostle, your father that begat you unto Christ, who 
1 willing; to abide in the flesh, to continue in bonds, for 
>at furtherance and joy, that your rejoicing may abound ; 
% adjare you by the choicest of all youf endearments j if you 
Mve ever had any sense of the consolations of Christ; if 
ron have ever felt sweetness in his love to you, or in yours 
D bim ; if you have ever been ravished with the communioa 
if saints, and with the glorious joys of the spirit of grace ; 
r yon have any mercy and bowels for a poor prisoner in 
wds, who could with Joy be olfered upon the sacrifice and 
rvice of your faith ; if you would minister any joy to your 
■thet in Christ, to revive and comfort him in the midst of 
* afflictions ; — this, this is tlie way to express it all, by 
your being " like-minded, having the same love, being of 
one accord, of one mind.'^ He might, by his apostolical au- 
thority, have commanded and charged them ; but he rather 
bcaeecheth and obiesteth them. The duty is a duty of love; 
ud therefore lie useth no expedients but those of love and 
vweetue&B, to move them unto it. As he said unto Philemon, 
" I might ^join thee ; yet for love's sake, 1 rather beseech 
thee; being such a one as Paul the aged, and now also a 
prisoner of Jesus Christ, I beseech thee ;" ( PAi7. viii. 9, 10) 
%o to tlie Romans, Chap. nv'i. 17. So to the Corinthians, iu 
the present case, " I beseech you by the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ," 1 Cor, i. 10. The apostle doth, as it werC) 
melt hia heart into theirs, that theirs may be soldered and 
united together. O the tenderness, and gentleness, and 
uieckaess of soul, which should be in spiritual pastors to- 
nanlit their people; to win them, and to prevail with them 
onto the love of peace and truth ! ' Mutato nomine,' you may 
•joL on all this as spoken unto you. 

2. By way of rational argumentation. He takes princi- 
\ii», which their own hearts could not choose but gmot, 
Uving lasted the truth of them; and from them he infers 
the duly. 

1. El Ttj woifajiXiiffis iv XgioTu. If a.ay exhortation : bo Am- 

tane uid others render it. " If you have any regard to the 

N 3 


.advice and counsel of Christ, he commands you, as you would 
be esteemed his disciples, to love one another : and bo prays 
for you, that you may be one. {John xiii. 36. xvii. 21) 

'* Ifamf consolation.'"] O where have we any consolation, 
but in and by Christ ? He is called the * Consolation of Is- 
rael/ Luke ii. 25. And wherein is this consolation in Christ? 
Surely in this, that he is our great peace-maker. 1. He hath 
made peace and accord between God and us. A sad 
thing it is for a weak and sinful creature, to be exposed to 
the wrath and displeasure of a righteous God, who is a con- 
suming fire, and into whose hands it is a fearful thing to fall. 
And therefore it must needs be an abundant comfort, to be 
by Christ reconciled unto his favour, and adopted into bis 
family. '' Behold what manner of love the Father hath 
shewed unto us, that we should be called the sons of God I** 
— 2. He hath made peace ^* between us and ourselves.'^ A 
sad thing it is for a man, who can never be out of his own 
company, to be (as the prophet Jeremiah said unto Pashur) 
'a terror to himself f— and therefore it must needs be a 
great comfort to have the conscience so calmed, the love of 
Christ so shed abroad into the heart, and the joys of salva- 
tion and peace of God so fill the soul with sweetness and 
spiritual pleasures, as that it can, with unspeakable delight, 
retire into itself, and rejoice in no company more, than in the 
company of God and itself. — 3. He hath made peace ' be* 
tween man and man.* It is a sad thing for men to be like 
thorns and briers one unto another, hateful and haters of one 
another, as naturally we are. {Tit. iii. 3, 4) And therefore 
it must needs be a great comfort to have this enmity remov- 
ed, or at least restrained : for when a man's vmys please the 
Lord, his very enemies are at peace with him. He maketh a 
covenant for them, with men and beasts. Herein is one 
principal branch of the consolation of Christ, in reconciling 
our hearts to Gocf, and to one another. Therefore saith the 
apostle, ** Be alike-minded ; have the same love,^ or else 
you deprive yourselves of a very great part of the consola- 
tion of Christ How can you expect comforts from him, 
when you minister discomforts unto one another ? 

•' If any comfort of /ow.*^] If you ever received comfort 
by my love to you ; if you desire to return any comfort back 
by your love to me ; if you have ever found sweetness in the 


lore of God, in the love of Christ, in brotherly love; shew. 
the power of that love, which is, to unite the minds, hearts, 
■onls, judgements, affections of brethreu one unto another. 
Wheii you are divided and broken one from another, youde- 
prire yourselves of one of the sweetest coiiiforta of Chris- 
tunity, that li};ht and easy yoke of love. 
" If any j'eUowMp of the Spirit."^ The spirit of God is 

vioculura' and ' vehiculum' of that holy communion, which 
itiie members })ave with God the Father, with Christ their 
head, and with one another. Communion with one another 
the same duties, to edify one another; communion in the 
De ends, to further one another ; communion in the same 
^▼ileges, to enjoy one another. They are acted by the same 
^itciples, animated by the same soul, mind the same inter- 

>ts, promote the same ends. By this communion of saints 
St is, that we have all one Father, one head, one hope, one 
common salvution. And communion is ever found in a pre- 
ceding union of the members to the head, and to one ano- 
ther. Discords amongst brethren do quench the communion 

** If ami bowels and mercies. "^ In Christ towards you ;" If 

B tender heart have been wide open to refresh you. — In 

iti towards me ; if you have any sympathy with a suffering 
ipMllei with a father in bonds. — In me towards you: if you 

ive ever found in me the compassions of a Father. — In you 
awards your brethren ; if you will not be like Judas, a dis- 
Bplc without bowels, whose bowels gushed out; a brother 

ithoat natural adectious, shew this tender-heartedness in 
like-minded one to another, llie bowels are wrapped 
i, ta it were, in one another ; and so should the hearts 

id BfTections of believers be. 

** Ful^l i^e my joy.'"] " AiSictions I have enough already; 
you need not by your dissensions add more. A prisoner in 
bondB, expecting the sentence of death, the sword of perse- 
cution; but these things trouble me not: I can rejoice 
m dungeons, in bonds, in deaths, if it go well with the 
diutcli of Christ. I prefer Jerusalem above hberty,and life, 
ukI my chiefest joys. This would accumulate and complete 
my afflictions : this would be heavier than my chain, darker 
than my prison, sharper than my sword, worse than a Nero 

unto me, if you my children should wound my soul with yonr 


dissensions. God hath used me as a means of much joy to 
you, the consolations of Christ, the comforts of love, thie 
communion of the Spirit, the bowels of Christianity. If there 
be any joy in the gospel of salvation (and surely that is on^ 
speakable and glorious) these hands have administered it 
from Christ unto you. And Qod hath used you,as a means 
of much joy to me. Your ' fellowship in the gospel, my 
joy/ Chap, i. 4, 5. Your faith in Christ, your readiness to 
suffer for his name, my joy. Your care of me, and 8uppl]^-» 
ing my wants once and again, my joy. Chap. iv. 10, 16. 
These things are the beginnings of joy. Would you comr 
plete it ? would ye make my soul run over with comfort t 
would ye crown me with glory and joy ? O then mind the 
same things ; have the same love ; and then I have all, I 
abound, I am full. There is no greater joy to a minister of 
the gospel, than to hear that his children walk in the truth.^ 
(3 John iv) 

3. By way of most comfortable consecution. This is the 
ready means to impress and diffuse the consolations of Christ, 
the comforts of brotherly love, the joys of the communion of 
saints into your own souls, when you mind, and judge, and 
savour, and seek the same things. 

And now, honourable and beloved, what can I say more 
unto you, than the apostle hath here said unto his Philippi- 
ans ? What think you, if Paul were here in our place to speak 
unto you ; would he not mind you of the same things ? Do 
not all the good ministers, all the good people in three na- 
tions, pray for your agreement ? Are not the wives in yonr 
bosoms, the children of your bodies, your families, your es. 
tates, your posterities, the safety of three nations, concerned 
in your unanimity ? Would it not be a sad thing for thou- 
sands, ten thousands of prayers, to be, by your divisions, dis- 
appointed ? Would it not be a sad thing for thousands and 
millions of people, who have put their comforts and interests 
into your hands, to be by your dissensions endangered ? O 
therefore fulfil you the joys of the people of the land, by 
minding the same things. Let it be said of you, — This was 
a wise and understanding house, that had Ood nigh unto 
them in all that they called upon him for: these were conn- 
sollors of value, healers indeed, repairers of breaches, pre- 
parers of paths to c' in. — Away with strife and conten* 

•^-^-"^ ^aHOTltEBLY AGREEMENT. 183 

<^*y *5^ tl^« obildren of pride. Away with lelf-teekhig, 

^jpcil lAt^rests, your own fish-ponds, as the orator 

^; they mre tbe children of baseness. You have, at 

^^ of tile tieiLty the obtestation of an apostle ; you have, 

^^ otiber end 9 the example of a Saviour. He emptied, 

^^jeSAed VkimAelf for your good : do you so, for the good 

AtMi^ ^Yko liflL^e entrusted you. He was a peace-maker 

(Qi^Qa\ be yon so for them ; — true Mordecaies, accepted of 

3Qir\ictAifen, seeking their wealth, and speaking peace unto 

1 oondude cJl with this one enthymeme»— There is conso- 
hdoQ in Cbrist, comfort in love, fellowship of the spirit, 
bowds and mercies. There are prayers to be sealed, the joy 
of thousands to be fulfilled, three great nations to be comfort- 
ed and established, dangers to be removed, flames to be pre- 
vented, tuis to be repelled, enemies to be disappointed, a 
dear Saviusr's example to be imitated, gospel to be advanced, 
name to be glorified. Therefore it is necessary, simply ne- 
ciewsfy» for this noble Convention to mind the same things, 
to have the same love, to be of one accord, of one mind ; to 
do nothing through strife, or vain-glory ; to be lowly minded ; 
to look every man not on his own things, but on the things 
of others; to let the same mind be in them, which was also 
in Christ Jesus. That we may enjoy so great a blessing, and 
diat you may be so great a blessing unto the people, let us 
cdl opoo God, 8cc. 



A SERMON preached at St. Paiil*8 before the Lord Mayor, Aldermeiiy 
and Companies of London, on November 5, 1659. 

ZECH. ill. 1, 2. 

And he shewed me Joshua the high Priest^ standing before the 

angel of the Lord, and Satan standing at his right hand to 

resist him. And the Lord said unto Satan, The Lord rebuke 

thee, O Satan : even the Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem^ 

^ rebuke thee. Is not this a brand plucked out of the fire t 

This chapter is a collection of comforts for the church. 
Gomforts present in the type,. Joshua the brand : comforts 
promised in the substance, Jesus the branch. Comforts to 
Joshua, the comfort of protection against adversaries, ver. i. 
2. The comfort of honouring and adorning him for his mi- 
nistry and office, vet. 4, 6. The comfort of remuneration for 
his fidelity, ver. 6, 7. 

The words of the text are a promise of protection, revealed 
by the angel, published by the prophet,— two excellent wit- 
nesses to a promise. And indeed we seldom find the church 
in affliction, but we find an angel * with them. With Israel, 
when Pharaoh and his host pursued them ; when they were 
in the hands of the Midianites ; when they were in the hands 
of the Philistines ; when they were in Babylon, in the bottom 
amongst the myrtle-trees ; with the three children in the fur- 
nace ; with Daniel in the lions^ den ; with Paul, in the ship- 
wreck ; with Elisha, when beset with an army at Dothan ; 
with Lot, in the midst of Sodom* The angel of the Lord is 

* Ezod. xiv. 19. Judges vi. 11. xxxiii. 3. Zcch. i. 8, 11. Dan. iii. 28. vi. 22. 
Acts xsvii. 13. 2 Kings vi. 17. Gen. xiz. 1. 

^tiU- XVl."} THE BRAND PLUCKED. 185 

lOQiid ^boat those that fear him, to deliTer them. (Psalm 

" He tkttted me Joihua.'*] Israel returned but from two 
ofd^tiea, from Egypt, and from Babylon ; and in both we 
find a Joshua employed ; one, to pogsess them of Canaan ; 
anodieT. to re-edify the temple. It was not without a ^reat 
mystery, to note mito us that there is no deliverance without 
a Jesus: no name but that under heaven by which we can 
be saved. (Acti iv. 12) He alone delivered us from the 
wrath to come. (1 Theu. i. 10) 

**Jaihua the High-Priett!^] He is seldom mentioned 
alone without Zerubbabel. (as Ezra iii. 2, 8, and iv. 3, and 
▼. 2. Sekem. zii. 1. Hag, i. 1, 12, 14, and ii. 2, 4) As in 
their return out of Egypt, they were led by Moses and Aaron ; 
{PuLbm Ixxvii. 20) so in their return out of Babylon, they 
were led by Zerubbabel and Joshua ; and being returned, 
these two were to engage themselves in the work of building 
the temple. (Ezra v. 2) And indeed temple-work doth 
nsrer go prosperously on, but when the ministry of the 
priest i« backed and encoura<^c<i with the authority of the 
magistrate : — as it was by Nehemiah, Hezekiah, and other 
good princes. 

And, therefore, they are enemies to the building of God's 
house, who go about to persuade the magistrate that he hath 
nothing to do with matters of religion ; that it belongs not 
either to his power or duty, to take care that purity of truth 
and worship be preserved within his territories : of whom 
notwithstanding it is prophesied, that they should be * nurs- 
ing fathers' to the church. (Itai. xlix. 23) And truly they 
are none of the best nurses, that suffer their children to have 
poison as freely offered them, as milk or wholesome meat. 

There is soaiething in it, that we find Joshua here alone. 
Satan would do mischief to any one, whom God honours and 
employs : but his notable malice is against religion, and the 
building of (he temple. If there be any more special instru* 
ment of that than other, hiai in special manner he opposeth : 
the more spiritual the service, the more resisted by the devil. 
The troe Jesus, whereof our Joshua was a type, was no 
sooner called by God to build his house (for it was said of 
him that he should do, Zech. vi. 13) but we find him assaulted 
by the tempter. {Matth, iv. I) Of all works, this is the 


work which Satan most desires to oppose, as the apostle io- 
timates. (1 Thess. ii. 18) 

*' Standing"] Both ^ taDquam Servus/ and ' tanqoam 
Reus/ 1. As a servant to minister unto the angeL So 
much the word standing frequently importeth, attending upon 
a ministry ; {Deut. x. 8, and xvii. 12. 1 Kip^s xvii. 1. Heb. 
X. 1 1) whereby is noted, (1) reverence to the Lord whom he 
served. (2) readiness to receive his commands. 2. As a de- 
fendant, who, being accused, stands up to answer for himself: 
the judge sat, and the people stood, Exod, xviii. 13. Actor 
and Reus were wont to stand together before the judge. 
'' Who will contend with me ? Let us stand together ;** 
(/mi. 1. 8) to intimate possibly in either the confidence of a 
just cause : therefore it is said of the ungodly, that they 
shall ' not stand in judgement' (Psalm i. 5) 

Joshua was in filthy garments ; yet God employed him, 
and Satan accused him. How low soever our condition be, 
Ood thinks not scorn to use us in his service. " Out of the 
mouths of babes and sucklings he hath ordained praise.** 
He will be seived as well in rags as in robes. And how low 
soever our condition be, Satan would have us lower, from 
robes to rags, from rags to nakedness. His malice is like 
hell, without any bottom. The truth is, it is not robes or' 
rags that trouble him ; but that whether in the one or the 
odier, we do any way stand before the Lord and minister 
unto him. 

^* Before the angel of the Lotd;'**] namely, the 'angel of 
God's presence ; ' (Isai, Ixiii. 9) the * angel of the covenant/ 
{Mai. iii. 1) He is the Lord of the house, and Joshua his 
servant. (Heb. iii. 6. Mattlu xxiv. 45) He is the Judge over 
the house, (Acts x. 42) and Joshua his subject. And, in both 
capacities, he stands before him, to execute the commands 
of his Lord, to answer the accusations of his adversary. 

*^ And Satan standing at his right hand,''*] The right hand 
seems to have been the place of the accuser. (Psalm cix. 6, 
7) And it is the hand of action. A wise man^s heart is at 
his right hand ; (Eccles. x. 2) he doth what he doth, heartily, 
as to the Lord. Satan hopes, if he speed not at accusing, be 
shall at resisting ; that he shall prevail either as an adversary 
or as a tempter. But here is Joshua^s comforts ; though 
Satan be at his right hand to tempt, God also is at his right 


Jauid to support him. {Psalm xvi. H) He is an accuser at 
pur right hand, and Christ an advocate at God's right hand. 
ilJohtii. 1,2) 
" I'o resitt hint,""] or to accuse him. To resist him in his 
aoistry, to accuse him for his failings. What these failings 
ere, we may guess by the story. 1. He ministered not in 
te priests' robes, but in filthy garments, cer. 3. 2. He de- 
lyed the huilding of tlie Temple, till pressed thereunto by 
le prophets. (Exra v. 1) 3. His sons were, some of them* 
4efiled witbstrauge wives. {Ezra x. 18) 

What n white devil have we here I Satan transforming 
ilfinto an angel of light; zealous for God's worship; 
rbicb ia the thing that he chiefly maligneth. £ven the 
kters of religion will pretend zeal for it, so they may do it 
lUscliief : and when they rejoice at the failings of good men, 
will yet seem greatly offended for them. They did so here : 
they would fain have hud a hand in building the Temple, the 
building whereof they most earnestly maligned. {Ezra iv. 1, 
2) Delilah will take Samson on her knee to cut oHhis hair. 
Judfta will kiss his master, that he may betray him. Christ's 
enemies will court him, that they may entrap him ; {Matih. 
Kxii. 16) and Paul's enemies will preach Christ, to add afflic- 
tion ttnto him. {Phil. i. 16) We 6nd Satan one while 
lemptiog Christ ; another while, confessing him ; denying 
him in tbe Pharisee; (Johu vii. 52) acknowledging him in 
the man possessed ; {Mark i. 24) but with a mischievous pur. 
poie in both ; as if it were learning to deny him, as if It were 
madness to confess him ; — one while leading him to the 
Temple, Another while shewing him the world. He hath Tem- 
{ile-tempUtions, and secular temptations. It is all one to 
liim, the serpent's skill or Samuel'ij mantle, so he may, either 
loy, be doing mischief. 

" And the Lord said unto Sataii:"] the Lord Christ; the 
itngel before whom Joshua stood the mediator and iuterces* 
^or for hts servant. 

" Tht Lord rebuke ihee, O Sutiui.^] Restrain thy pride; 
&(Ieuce and muzzle up thy mouth ; cast out thy bill of com- 
jiUint ; throw thee over the bar, that thou mayesl not rise 
igaiMt bis servant any more : and if thou be still clamour- 
uf, then once again, 
" Tht Lord that hath chosen Jernsalem, rebuke thee.''] 


Must God's holy tribunal be still troubled with the obstre- 
perous malice of a common barrater ? Canst thou hinder tbe^ 
adoption, or alter the immutable election, of God? — ^We see 
hereby the rage of Satan : he never gives over accusing, till 
God silence him. And we see the love of God : be Satan 
never so clamorous, God never gratifies him with a hearing, 
but answers all his accusations with his own free love, and 
gracious election. — *^ The Lord that hath chosen Jerusalem, 
rebuke thee.^ 

'' Is not this a brandy plucked out of the ^re 7**] Hath he 
not suffered enough already, except he be quite burnt up 1 
Have I begun to deliver him, and shall I not perfect it f Did 
I bring him out of the furnace of Babylon sore against thy 
will, that I might gratify thy malice in destroying him here? 
Can I be weary in shewing mercy, when thou art unwearied 
in doing mischief? I have delivered him to build my temple, 
and to set up my worship ; and the mercy begun, I will fi- 
nish, maugre all thy malice. 

The words contain a vision of a special mercy to Joshua, 
set forth in the. manner of a juridical process. Wherein we 

1. Joshua'^s ministry and defence. He stood CServus. 

tanquam .... (.Reus. 

2. The adversary, Satan and his work against rResist. 

Joshua, to . . (^Accuse. 

3. The advocate. The Lord. 

4. The victory over Satan. • The Lord rebuke thee.** 

5. The foundation thereof. God's election of Jerusalem, 

and (lis compassion to Joshua. 

" He shewed me Joshua.'*] That which the prophet saw, 
was only in a vision and representation, not really and in ef- 
fect. For where was the priest to minister, but in the Tern- 
pie and at the altar ? And these things were yet but in 
consultation, nothing finished : yet, in a vision, the prophet 
seeth it all done. ' 

With God, promises and threatenings give a kind of be- 
ing unto things, before they are produced 1. They exist in 
* Decreto Dei,^ in God's decree ; and so are known only unto 
himself (Acts xv. 18) 2. They exist in ' Verbo," in the 

IsEBU. XVI.] OUT OK THE FlltE. l89 

■ word ; and so are known only to faith, which is uiro'iFTao-if ray 
BlMi(afMytin>. the very present subsistence of things, which to 
E^^ope are but future. (^Htb. xi. 1-) 3. They exist really in 
KXopere et eSectu,' in the work done, visible to the sense of 
K^ beholdere : and bo wicked men know the works of God 
■W execution, which they knew not in denunciation : as our 
ISaviour tells us, (Maltk. xxiv. 38, 39) though Noah had 
Pfbieatened the deluge, yet they " knew not till the flood 
B«kme and took them all away." When there was no Temple, 

■ the prophet sees Joshua ministering. When Ahab was not 
ft^.jret gone to Ramoth Gilead, the prophet saw all Israel scab- 
li'tered; (1 £iA^xxsii. 17) When there was no natural strength. 
BAbrabam saw Sarah conceiving. (Rom. iv. 19, 20, 21) 
■Whatever the faith of a prophet can see in a. vision, the faith 
Kvf a believer can see in a promise. 

r When therefore we have God's promise, bow cross soever 
it may appear to sense or reason, we should, with David, 
" encourage ourselves in the Lord our God," {1 Sam. xxs. 6) 
and rest upon his name, i am, who calleth the things which 
are Dot, a» if they were. He that gave being to the world 
out of nothing, to make good his decree of creation, can give 
to any man comfort out of nothing, to make good a promise 
of mercy and deliverance. He can command his loving-kind- 
Mw; {Psalm xUi. S) He can create peace, (ha. Ivii. 19) 
Wbeb all second causes, vines, olives, fig-trees, fields, herds, 
■talis, do wholly miscarry, we may rejoice in God, and glory 
in his salvation. (Habak. ili. 17, IS) When our flesh and 
(Mir heart Ikil, we have him for our strength, and our portion 
for erer. (Psalm Ixxiii. 26) 

We live in failing times : we have found men of low degree 
rinity, and men of high degree a lie: We have leaned on 
oor house, but it did not stand ; we have leaned on our stafi^ 
ind it hall) gone into our hand.'' We trusted too much in 
parliaments, and they have been broken ; in princes, and 
they bave given up the ghost : ' Nee vitia nee reraedia t'erre 
poMamus.' Wc have been afflicted both with our diseases 
lad with our remedies ; fear, and the pit, and the snare '' have 
been upon as ; we have been changed from vessel to vessel'', 
ind we break every vessel we are put into. Our ships bave 


been broken, our trade broken, our estates broken, our go- 
vernment broken, our hopes broken, our church broken; 
nothing but our hearts and our sins, unbroken. A sad thing, 
that a people will be quite fatherless % before they will think 
of going to God ; that they will have their way hedged up 
with thorns ', before they will resolve to return to their first 
husband ; that they will be brought to husks, before they 
will come to themselves, and go to their father * ; that they 
will be brought to such extremities, as not to know what to 
do, before they will have their eyes upon the Lord.^ Well; 
it hath been our sin, and our folly, to trust in broken reeds ^ 
in dying and perishing comforts : let it, at last, before the 
Ephah be sealed *", before the decree bring forth ', be our wis- 
dom, and our faith, to trust in the living God ; and, by re- 
pentance and humiliation, to remove our sins from between 
God and us ; and then no other impossibilities can obstruct 
the passage of mercy unto us : nothing can any more hinder 
the fulfilling of an Evangelical promise, than of a propheti- 
cal vision. 

Well ; whether in a vision, or really, he saw Joshua Miami* 
mg. And he stood, 

1 . Tanqtiam Servus ; To minister before the Lord. Where* 
by we learn, 1. That as the ministers of the Lord iiave their 
mission from him, {Rom, x. 15. Heb. v. 4) so they ought to 
receive instructions from him, to do all in his temple accord- 
ing to the pattern he gives them; (I Cor. xxviii. 11. Heb. 
viii. 5) to speak nothing but according to his prescription 
and direction ; his words, {Ezek. ii. 7) his counsel, {Actsxx. 
27) what they have received in command from him. (1 Cor. 
xi. 23) A servant is op/avov ?jui4w;^oy, a living instrument"; 
and instruments must be led by the guidance of the princi- 
pal cause. Semper agatne rogat, nee nisi jussus agit Wo 
be unto us, if we speak any thing in God'^s name, which he 
hath not commanded us. {Deui. xviii. 20) 

2. Having received instructions, they ought with all rever- 
ence and readiness to obey them. ° We cat] not but speak 
the things <" which we have heard and seen ; no dignity, no 

• Uo8. ziv. 3. f Hos. ii. 6, 7. f Luke xv. 16, 17, 18. 

It 2 Chron. xz. 12. Msai.zxzvi. 6. ^Zcch. v. 8. 1 Zeph. 

ii. 2. m Aristot, Politic, lib. 1. cap. 4. " Depositum custodi, quod 

tibi creditam est, non quod k te invcntum ; quod acccpisti, non quod cxcogitasU ; 
rem non ingenii, scd doctrinae. Fincent, Lirinensis. * Acts iv. 20. 

ftSEM. XVI.] OUT OF THE FIU£. 191 

excellence, is a supersedeas to duty. Joshua , and other 
pffiesU; Paal, and other elders; angels, and other ministers, 
aie all fellow-labourers in the service of. Christ. (Zech. iii. H. 
CoLir. 11. Rev.xix. 10) 

3. That they are always in the eye of God, to counsel them 
hi their duties, to search them in their performances, to hear 
them in their petitions, to tender them in their sufferings, to 
protect them in their fears and dangers. The anointed ones 
do ever stand before the Lord ; (Ztch. iv. 14) and since they 
do so, 

1. They must learn to walk fearfully and humbly ; to dis- 
diaige their ministry heartily as to the Lord ; to consider 
die weight of their pastoral office, as men that must give an 
acooont. {Heb. xiii. 17) 

2. The people must learn to pray for them. Their duties 
are many, their temptations many, their enemies many, their 
infinutics many, their discouragements many ; the infamies, 
conteapls, reproaches poured out upon them, the devilish 
BMchioatioDs and contrivances against them, many, more 
than aaany ; and therefore they have the more right unto, 
the greats need of, the people^s prayers. When enemies 
threatened, then the church prayed, '* Lord, behold their 
direatenings, and grant unto thy servants that with all bold- 
Bcaa they may speak thy word.*^ (Act$ iv. 29) When 
d^ apostle knew he should meet with enemies at Judca, 
Aen he earnestly besought the church to pray for him. 
jBoffk XV. 30, 31) When he was an ambassador in bonds, 
then he moves the church to pray, that he might open his 
month boldly. (EpAes. vi. 19, 20) Thus lie stood in a )>os- 
tore of service. 

11. Tanquam Reus ; As a defendant, as one accused, to 
answer for himself and others. The sins of the age then were 
general: I. Neglect of building the temple: {Hag. i. 2) 
2. Marrying strange wives. (Ezra. ix. 1, 2. x. 13) Yet 
bringeth his accusation against the priest only, who 
to warn the people. (Ezek. xxxiii. 8) Ills plot was 
against Israel; but his practice was upon David, to number 
the people. (1 Chron. xxi. 1) If he can overthrow public 
persons, cast down a Joshua, blow up a parliament, make 
contemptible and insignificant, the great ulFicerh in church 
Of state,— the rest he hopes to have presently in his power : 


tpuig mww^i^ mas oaf^p ^XiCrrM. Cut the tree up by the 
roots, and you may easily lop off all the branches. Thus we 
find him sifting of Peter, and hindering of Paul. (LMke xxii. 
31. 1 Thes. ii. 18) Therefore in the law, as great a sacrifice 
was required for the priest, as for all the people. {Lev. iv. 3, 
13, 14) Their sin is of a diffusive nature ; from them pro- 
phaneness goes into all the land ; (Jer. xxiii. 16) they are 
the snare of a fowler, by which others are entrapped. {Has. 
ix. 8) The sin of him that hath knowledge, emboldeneth 
others. (1 Cor. viii. 10) The priests^ sin brought contempt 
upon the very offerings of the Lord. (1 Sam. ii. 17) 

And therefore all public persons, magistrates, and minis- 
ters, should be so much the more vigilant over themselves, by 
how much the more Satan is busy both to tempt and to 
accuse them. Plutarch hath written a book of * profiting by 
enemies.' Certainly next unto this, that they stand before 
the Lord, and have his eye over them, — there can hardly be a 
more profitable consideration for men in office, than to re* 
member that Satan is at their right hand, to tempt, to accuse, 
to observe, and to resist them. They say. Those roses are . 
sweetest, which have stinking weeds grow near them. The 
nearer we know that Satan is to us, the more holy and pure 
should our lives be. 

We have seen Joshua standing : Let us now see Satan 
standings and Satan standing at his right hand to resist him, 
to accuse him. If we do our duty, Satan is at our right 
hand to hinder us : If we do not our duty, Satan is at our 
right hand to implead us. Whether we be conscionabie, or 
whether we be careless, he will have some design upon ua, 
something to do against us. 

1. He withstands us as a tempter. No sooner was Christ 
called out to his office and ministry, but Satan present- 
ly sets upon him to tempt him; (Matth. iv. I) and usu- 
ally the more work, the more temptation. He stands at 
the working hand. And the more public the work, the 
more sharp and eager the temptation. None more ex* 
posed to Satan's opposition than a Zerubbabel and a Joshua, 
a conscionable magistrate, and a zealous minister. When 
magistracy and ministry are most opposed, we may con. 
elude Satan is most busy. Their office is most against his 


kingdom, and therefore liis malice is most acrninst their 

2. He oppoaeth as an accuser, (Rrv. xii. 10) Aa the 
young man said unto Joab, '* If I should have done as thou 
sayest, thou thyself wouldst have net thyself against me" 
(2 Sum. xviii. 13) is most true of Satan : if he can, by any 
means, tempt us into siu, he will be the first to accuse ua 
of it. ' 

But how did Satan resist Joshua ? No other way that we 
know of, but by stirring up the Saniarituns to hinder the 
building of the temple, by hiring counsellors, writing accu. 
sations, and procuring an edict against them, which they 
hastily put in execution. ( Ezra iv. o, 6, 23) Satan, as the 
general and chief captain, useth wicked men as liis drudges 
and instruments in all his oppositions against the church. 
All the worid are under two heads "* ; in their peaceable capa- 
city, under two princes : Holy men, under Christ, the King 
of Saints'; and wicked men, under Satan, the Prince of this 
worJd% that worketh effectually in the children of disobe- 
dience. (Ephes. ii. 2) And in their military capacity, holy 
men, under Christ, the Captain of our salvation'; (Ileb. 
iL 10) and wicked men, under Satan, the great dragon", 
who are taken by him at his will. (2 l\m. ii. 2()) And 

1. Believers must, accordingly, arm themselves with the 
whole armour of God, when they give their name to Christ, 
and provide for sharp trouV)les from principalities and powers, 
eqiecially the ministers of Christ in the service of his 
church. No life more comfortable, more honourable ; but a 
warfare belongs unto it. '' The weapons of our warfare,^ 
laith the aposde, *^ are mighty through God ;^ (2 Cor. x. o) 
and, ^ Endure hardness,^^ saith he to Timothy, '^ as a good 
soldier of Jesus Christ ** (2 Tim, ii. 3) Every good sermon 
rtorma some or other strong-hold of Satan, and mortifies, at 
Ittst aimeth at mortifying, some T)ne or other lust, that is 
sabaervient unto his kingdom. There will be continual 

f lapti diaboium habenc priin& tusgeitorem, Dd tortorera. Cyprian de Jeju- 
■» ct Tentat. « Uom Civitas ct una Civitas, Babylonia una, Hienisakm 

an; iUa Rcge Diabolo, uta Regc Chriito, &c. ylug. in Psalm til. ' Rcy. 

ZV.3. 17. aiv. 19, 16. • John aii. 31. Juth. v. U, 15. * Hcb. 

•-10. ■ Rev. xii. 7. 

VOL. v. O 


temptations': we must labour and pray for gracci to over- 
come them. And there will be continual accusations : 4fe 
must labour and pray for faith, to answer them. 

2. Wicked men may see, in opposing Joshua in building 
the temple, in withstanding the ministers and work of Christ 
in his church, what master they serre, and whose interest 
they promote. They are but vassals of Satan, acted by the 
same principles of enmity and malignity which are in him. 
<' He that committeth sin, is of the devil.*" (1 John iii. 8) 
And whereas men may be of the devil two manner of vrByn, 

1 . ' Per modum servitutis/ as obeying his commands ; 

2. ' Per modum imaginis,' as resembling his disposition ; 
opposing of the work of Christ in his church, is of this last 
and worst kind, wherein men shew themselves not his ser- 
vants only, but his children. As when Elymas the sorcerer 
withstood Paul, and would have turned the deputy from tke 
faith, the apostle thereupon called him * the child of the 
devil.' {Acts xiii. 10) Whoever sow tares in the Lord% 
field, do the work of him who is the Lord^s enemy. {lilaUk, 
xiii. 25) O how many workmen hath Satan amongst us at 
this time ! when the Lord's husbandmen are so decried, and 
mischievous doctrines so boldly, and with open fiatce, {>«b- 
lished. The Lord grant that we may not be so long smit> 
ten with blindness, till we be led even into Samaria, t 

But here is the church's comfort. That there is a Lord 
our advocate with the Lord. As the Lord said to the Lord^ 
*^ Sit at my right hand,*^ {Psalm ex. 1) so here the Loid> 
saith to the Lord, ** Lord, rebuke Satan.*^ The Lord sent 
Christ the Lord to conquer Satan ; and Christ the Lord prays 
unto the Lord to rebuke Satan. 

1. When Satan is the church's accuser, Christ is the 
churches advocate. '* We have an advocate with the Fatbeiv 
Jesus Christ the righteous.'^ (1 John ii. 1, 2) When Satan 
is an adversary to resist, Christ is a captain to defend. (ffeAu 
ii. 10) He was for this purpose manifested, that be miglil^ 
destroy the works of the devil. (1 John iii. 8) And he bmdl'' 
destroyed Satan three manner of ways; 1. ^ Per viam sapien* 
ties ;' he hath outwitted Satan, and made his own devices to 

s Subsecuturis tentitioiubut munimenta prsestruimus, TerL de Bapttsmo, Cb 
20. \\d,Aug.tpmt.US. ^ 


KRV. XVt.] 



MfD upon his own head. By malice, Satan brought Christ 
a iiii cross ; and on that cross Christ spoJlc^d principalities 
■d powers, and triumphed over Satan. (Col. ii. 16) He 
vailowed the bait of hia humanity, and was caught by the 
fcook of his divinity. 2, ' Per viam polentiw," in a way of 
v and combat ; being stronger than the strong man, he 
rercopaes btm, takes from him bis armour'', divides the 
Kiila, (_Luke xi. 21, 22) makes his people set their feet upon 
te neck of Satan ; as Joshua did call the captains of Israel, 
pt tread on the necks of the kings of Canaan. (Josh. x. 24) 
Be Tanquished him in a single combat of temptation himself, 
D that Satan was fain to leave the field ; (Matth.iv. 11) and 
■ vanquished him ia his war against the church, so that he 
nd Ilia angels are cast out. (Rev. xii. 9) 3. ' Per viam 
•dicii,' in a way of juridical process. He bringeth Satan to 
is tribunal, as a Prince of Peace, as Judge of the World j 
toakes him accountable for all his temptations, for all his 
^raecuiions, for all his usurpations and tyrannies, over the 
*i of men; pronounceth judgement upon him, and casta 
Um out, and casts out all his accusations against the bre- 
Ihfen. (JoA/jxii. 31,andxvi. 11. Rev. nil 10) 

This is a ground of great comfort,— -though Christ suffer 
Salui to tempt and to oppugn liis church, to put out hi» 
teoooi, and power, and policy agniust it, yet he will still be 
avail of fire round about it. If Satan go to and fro to de- 
vwor, {Job i. 7) Christ hath his angels going to and fro to 
{MOtflCt. {Zech.i. 11) If Satan have four horns to scatter 
lite ctnucfa, Christ bath as many carpenters to fray them- 
away. iZceh. i. 18, 19. 21) Whatever poison there is in 
■Stun, there iit an antidote in Christ against it. He a de< 
rtioyef. Christa Saviour; he a tempter, Christ a Comforter; 
Ite an enemy, Christ a Captain ; he an accuser, Christ an 
Advocate ; he a prince, and god of this world ; Christ a King 
af Sainta, and Lord of Glory. Three names Satan hath given 
bn fiDui his three most active principles: a ' Serpent," for 
his cunning ; {Gen. iii. 1) a ' Lion,' for his strength ; (1 Pel. 
1. ti) and a ' Dragon,' for his malice. {Rev. xx. 2) And 
_ CWist hath a name which meets with every one of these: 
k ' Counsellor *,' no subtilty of the serpent can deceive him: 


ifjf.,.— llumi 


a ^ Mighty God/ no strength of the lion can overcome him : 
an ' Everlasting Father/ no malice of the dragon can out- 
act him; and he is ' wonderful' in all these, ordering and im- 
proving his wisdom, his power, and his love, unto the peace 
of his people, against whom Satan warreth. 

II. And further we may here note, that when Satan ac- 
cusethy Joshua doth not stand upon his defence, nor plead 
his own cause ; but he answers by his counsel, his advocate 
pleads for him. When we are tempted and assaulted by 
Satan, we must put off our adversary to Christ If we go 
against him in our own strength, he will certainly be too 
hard for us. Paul was buffeted by a messenger of Satan; 
he doth not buffet Satan again, but cries to the Lord to help 
him. (2 Cor. xii. 7, 8) No name to oppose to the accusa- 
tions and fiery darts of Satan, but the name of Christ. We 
know not what to do against principalities and powers, but 
our eyes are upon him. Satan brings in his charge to con- 
demn. What is the answer ? Christ died, Christ is risen, 
Christ is at the right hand of God \ Christ is our advocate 
with the Father^ ; Christ hath a plenitude and sufficiency of 
grace ; Christ can save to the uttermost those that come un- 
to God by him ; Christ is stronger than the strong man ; 
Christ hath exceeding abundant grace to save the chief of 
sinners ; Christ ascended up on high, and gave gifts unto 
men, even unto the rebellious. ^ If God will not hear the 
blood of his Son, if Christ will not hear the cry of his ser- 
vanty if Satan can outbawl the intercession of Christ, if 
Satan can pluck Christ from the right hand of his Father, or 
can pluck away the compassions of Christ out of his bow- 
els ; — then, never till then, shall penitent sinners that trust 
him with their souls and salvation, be cast in their suit, and 
put to shame. We see by what weapons Satan is to be over- 
come ; not by human counsel or power, but by the increpa- 
tion of God, and by the intercession of Christ. He only is 
able to succour those that are tempted. (Heb, ii. 18) In hit 
name alone, we must go out against this Goliath. Though 
Satan be trod down under our feet, yet it is the Lord alone 
that doth tread him down. {Rom. xvi. 20) Stand before him, 
appeal to him, implore his rebuke, and you are safe. 

• Rom. viii. 33. • 1 John ii. 1. d 2 Cor. xii. 9. Hcb. Tii. 25. 

Lukexi. 21. 1 Tim. i. 14. Psalm Ixviii. 18. 

SEttM.XVI.] OUT Ot Tllh KIllK. 197 

One thiogmore the apostle Jude teacheth us from this * Incre- 
pet,^ " Not to despise dominion, not to speak evil of dignities,'* 
since Michael the arch-angel, contending with the devil, 
durst not bring against him a railing accusation, |^ut said, 
'Tbe Lord rebuke thee/ {Jude viii. 9) This as it is severely 
forbidden by God, '^Thou shalt not revile the Gods, nor 
carae the ruler of thy people ;** {Exod. xxii. 28) so is it noted 
by the apostle as an evidence of walking after the flesh, of 
uicleaoness, presumption, self*willedness, to despise govern- 
ment, and not to be afraid to speak evil of dignities. (2 Pel. 
iL 10, 11) How careful were the apostles, in their day«, to 
caation Christians against this sin ! ** Ijet every soul be kuI). 
ject to the higher powers ; they that resist, shall receive to 
diemaelves damnation ; ye must needs be subject, not only 
for wialh, but also for conscience-sake." (Rom. xiii. 1, 2, 5) 
'* Pat them in mind to be subject to principalities and 
powen^ to obey magistrates.**" {Tit. iii. 1) Inculcate it upon 
tfaem, they are apt enough through pride and arrogance to 
forget it, — ** Submit yourselves to every ordinance of man for 
the Lord's take, to kings, to governors ; use not your liberty 
fnr a cloak of maliciousness, but as the servants of God.** 
(1 Pef. ii. 13, 16) And yet the princes in whose time they 
wrote, were monsters of men for wickedness. Christian re- 
ligion doth ratify and bear up, — it doth not despise or destroy, 
magistracy ; but owneth it to be of God, as his ordinance and 
iostitation, " By whom kings reign ;" who putteth his name. 
Hid an impress of sacred authority upon them, {Prot\ viii. 15. 
Pialm Ixxxii. 6) and setteth them as his ministers, to be eyes to 
the blind, and feet to the lame, and fathers to the poor, and 
sanctuaries to the afflicted. * Great therefore the wickedness 
of those that despise them; horrid and execrable the enter- 
prises of those, which would blow them up, and destroy them. 
If Korah, or Sheba, or Absalom, or Zimri had peace, such as 
may look for it too : but Solomon assures uh of tliese 
k, that *' their calamity shall rise suddenly, and who know- 
clh the ruin of them T {Prow xxiv. 22) 

Lastly, From the double incrcpation we may draw, 
1. Matter of caution, not to think ourselves secure, at any 
time, against th^ assaults of Satan. He is like the flics, of 

* Job iiix. 15. 



which he hath his name, impudent, and importunate. When 
he 18 beaten off once, he will come on again ; when he hath 
been foiled and rebuked once, he will venture a second io« 
crepation : there is no truce to be held with him : when he 
was infinitely overmatched, yet be departed from Christ bet 
'* for a season.^ (Luke iv. 13) 

2. Matter of comfort, Tbet we should not despond under 
the assaults of Satan. When he multiplies temptations^ 
Christ will multiply inerepations ; he will deliver a second 
time ; (Isai. xi. 11) in six and in seven troubles ; (Job v. 19) 
from the terror by night, and the arrow by day. (Psalm xcj. 
6) Christ is never less active and vigilant to help, than 
Satan is to hurt the church. If where sin abounds, grace 
doth superabound, and God doth multiply to pardon ; (Ronh 
v. 20. IsaiAf. 7) much more when the rage of Satan abounds^ 
succour shall superabound, and God will multiply to rebuke. 

Repetitions and ingeminatipns in scripture, note 1. Car* 
tainty ; as the dream of Pharaoh was doubled, because of 
God's fixed purpose concerning i|. (Gen. xli. 32) Satan, ia 
al} his oppositions against the building of God^s housed, 
shall certainly be disappointed. 2. Constancy; ^Tbou 
shalt follow justice, justice,^ (Deut. xvi. 20) thou shalt never 
give over following it. The Lord will, constantly and per-*^ 
petually, rebuke Satan in all his assaults against Joshua and 
his fellows. 3. Vehemency and ardency of affection ; it ixv- 
tends the sense^ and makes it superlative. ** O earth, earthy 
earth," a p^thetical excitation ! (Jer. xxii. 29) " Holy, 
holy, holy :^ an ardent expression of the infinite boUnese off 
God. (Isai. vi. 3) The Lord will vehemently, and with much 
zeal and earnestness, rebuke Satan in his hostility agaijdst 
the church. 4. Consummation and completing of what te 
gone about, *'l will overturn, overturn, overturn." (Ezek* 
xxi. 27) When I begin, I will make an end. God ipiUb 
n^ver give over rebuking and opposing Satan, till he hatb 
wholly subdued him, and brought him under Christ and hiA^ 
people^s feet. 

And since Christ doth thus certainly, constantly, eamestjy, 
completely rebul^e him, let us keep our ground, oppose hin^ 
with treble and i)nwearied prayers ; (2 Cor. xii. 8) resist him 
with steadfastness iu the faith, (1 Pel. v. 9) with patient 
continuance iu well doing. (Rom. ii. 7) Let us stand, and 




■taod, ind Stand ; pruy with all prayer, pray with all perae- 
Terance in prayer in tliis spiritual combat. (Eph. vi. 11, 13, 
14, 18) Christ rebukes and rebukes again ; let us resist and 
iftsitt again. 

There remains only the double foundation of this victory; 
I. Ood^ gracious election ; ' the Lord which hath chosen 
Jerusalem, rebuke thee.' The doctrine of adoption by free 
grace is the strongest weapon that we can wield against the 
lalice of Satan. "Thou art my God from my mother's 
belly;" and therefore since bulls, and dogs, and lions do 
compass, and beset, and gape, and roar upon me, "do thou 
deliver and save me ; be not thou far from me." {Psnim xxii. 
10, 13, 20, 21) God will admit no chaise against his elect. 
[Ram. viii. 33, 35) If I were to be saved by merits of my 
, want of merit would condemn me : but where all is of 
^^ e and free gift, no guilt can condemn him who halli the 
fighteousness of another, freely bestowed upon him. It is 
s times together called " the gift, the free gift, the gift of 
righteousness.'' (Rom. v. 16, 1 6, 1 7 ) O thanks be unto God, 
(banks for ever be unto Qod, for his unspeakable gifts, tbe 
gin of the righteousness of Christ bestowed upon us. 

2. The next foundation of this victory, is Joshua's padt 
deliverance ; " Is not this a brand plucked out of tbe fire P" 
Whence we learn, 

1. That past mercies are pledges of more. The work of 
~ d id perfect, especially his work of mercy. {Deut. xxxii. 

If he snatch out of the fire, he will bring unto his tem- 
if he lay a foundation, he will bring forth the head- 
»ae. (ZecA. iv. 9) He will perfect that which he bath 
laght : if he begin a good work, he will finish it. {Psalm 
iii. S. PhiL i- 6) He who will not have us be weary 
Vwdl-doing, will not be weary of well-doing himself. " His 
Krcy is from everlasting to everlasting upon those that fear 
" iPtalm ciii. 17) Satan can no more hinder the con- 
iiaoance of it unto eternity, than he can cause it not to have 
bfen from eternity. 

2. No condition is so sad or desperate, out of which the 
lord cannot rescue his people. He carries them through 
tbe fire; (Zech. ziii. f)) he preserves them in the hre ; (Dan. 
ill. 2u, 27) he brings them through fire and water into a 
TMlthy place. (Psalm Ixvi. 12) And this he doth suddenly. 


in the very nick of danger. In the mount will the Lord be 
seen, (Ge». xxii. 14) and hastily laying merciful hold on us 
while we linger. (Gen. xix. 16) He repenteth concerning 
his servants, when he sees that their power is gone; (Deut. 
xxxii. 36) and when they are as very outcasts, whom no man 
looketh after. (Jer, xxx. 17) In our greatest perplexities and 
fears, if we*could glorify God by believing, and stand still 
without sinful doubts, disquiet murmurings, and diverting 
unto sinister and perverse means, carnal sanctuaries, &nd a 
refuge of lies, — we might comfortably expect to see the sal- 
vation of God. 

3. This brand God will not only save, but honour, turn it 
into timber to build bis house withal. When the Lord 
rescueth a great and good man out of great troubles and 
temptations which were ready to consume him, usually he 
maketh. him an instrument of great and special service. 
Moses drawn out .of the water, Joseph out of prison, Daniel 
out of the lions' den, David from a world of persecutions and 
dangers, Mordecai out of the pit of Haman's malice, and 
here Joshua out of the furnace of Babylon; and all afterwards 
eminent instruments of great and honourable services for the 
church of God. 

This is a worthy fruit of afflictions, when they season and 
prepare us to be beams in God^s house; as the greatest 
timber hath the most seasoning. Luther was wont to say, 
that ** prayer, meditation, and temptation, are excellent pre* 
parations for the ministry.^' 

4. God can use weak, improbable, despised instruments 
unto great and excellent works. He that could make one 
loaf of bread enough to feed thousands, can make one brand 
timber enough to build temples. He that drew the prophet 
out of a pit with rotten rags, can erect a glorious temple out 
of the dust with burnt firebrands. He blew down the walls 
of Jericho with rams* horns; discomfited a huge host of 
Midianites, with a few broken pitchers ; converted the world 
with twelve fishermen, and chooseth the weak, and base, and 
foolish things, things which are not, to bring to nought things 
that are. (1 Cor. i. 27, 29) He hath more regard to the low- 
liness of those that are weak, than to the abilities of those 
that are proud ; to teach us not to despise truth, or comfort, 
or any mercy, by what hand soever brought unto us ; no 


more than the prophet did his meat, when God sent it unto 
him by ravens. (1 Kings xvii. 5) God hath purposely put 
rich treasures in earthen vessels, that the excellency of his 
power might the more shine forth in the infirmity of his in- 
stromeHts ; ^' that no 6esh might glory in his sight.*^ 

And now, as on this day, hath this scripture been exactly 
paralleled in this nation, in the glorious deliverance we now 

Jushua'f work was to build a temple ; Satan^s, to hinder 
and oppose it He is an enemy to all such building, but that 
which Tertullian calls, * .£dificatio ad ruinam i* he is all for 
polling down work. 

And are not religion and laws the best part of a structure* 
the foundation ? Are not princes, peers, nobles, fathers of 
their conntry, choice stones in a building ? Demosthenes tells 
us, *Ai4{f( wvffoi et ''Ai^H wiXttg, xci w rifp^. That men 
were towers and cities, and not walls. Doth not the apostle 
B9J of the church, '« Ye are God's building T (1 Cor. iii. 9) 
Of this temple it was that these wicked men said, " Rase it» 
nuse it to the very ground ; down with it, down with it into 
ashes; up with it, up with it into fire."*' They would have 
tamed things upside down ; (Isa. xxix. 16) down with laws, 
up with confusion : down witli Jerusalem, up with Babylon : 
down with the Ark, up with Dagon : down with religion, up 
with superstition : make princes, and peers, and gentry, and 
ministry, the 6ower of a nation, who were wont to be like 
polished sapphires, very firebrands, blacker than a coal. 
{Lam. iv. 7, 8) Tell me, whether any but heads and hearts, 
filled witli the devil, could ever have invented or executed so 
bloody a design. 

King and parliament, peers and people, were standing be- 
fore the Lord : for " God standeth in the congregation of 
the mighty, he judgeth among the Gods."" (Fsalm Ixxxii. 1) 
And Satan will be thrusting in to withstand them. No place so 
tacred, whither he will not intrude. He cmwis into paradise ; 
we find him standing before the Lord amongst all the host of 
heaven, in the midst of an angelical assembly. (1 Kings xxii. 


Bot be can do no good at the hand to hinder that from 
working; he cannot introduce su|>cr8tition and i^^norance at 
that door. He tries therefore what he can do under the feet. 



He crouchetb ; he digs through a wall ; he springs a minei 
and gets a den ; finds oat a hell from whence to murder the 
innocent {Psalm x. 8, 9, 10) 

And this not to resist or accuse only, but utterly to de- 
stroy ; to turn head» and hand, and feet, and the whole body, 
into very firebrands. 

And he Bath been at this work once and again. This was 
not the first time he had been resisted or rebuked. He tried 
by water in that Invincible Armada in 1688. Ai|d now by 
fire more terrible than that of Babylon ; which would not 
have left so much as a brand remaining; which, in the 
twinkling of an eye, would have done more mischief, than 
three score and ten years^ captivity in Babylon. 

But God be blessed, we were not as a brand in this fire^ 
but as Moseses bush, not consumed ; as the three children, 
not so much as singed by it t-^-^that out of this fire, liot a 
few brands, but many goodly cedars, and the vine, the weak- 
est of trees, the poor church of Christ amongst us, was not 
plucked up, but preserved from it ; God's mercy preventing 
Satan*s malice, and making their own tongue to fall upon 
themselves, and by that little mercy which was in one of 
these bloody men, to snatch one brand out of this fiie^ 
quenching the flame which would have devoured all the rest : 
so inconsistent was this villany with a dram of mercy. 

And all this not for our worthiness, but for his own free 
grace, because be loved England, and chose it for a place to 
set his name in. And blessed be his name, that notwitb.. 
standing all Romish attempts and machinations, we have had 
his presence, and the true reformed religion, in the midst of 
this nation, for now a full hundred years; for so long it is 
from November 17, 1588, since Queen Mary died, and that 
glorious princess Elizabeth, succeeded in her throne. In 
this nK>ndi, were her fires quenched ; and in this month was 
this fire quenched; .the eyes of the Lord running through the 
earth, to shew himself strong in behalf of this poor nation. 
And now what remains, but being thus delivered, and yet 
through God^9 mercy in the possession of the reformed reli- 
gion (the Lord knows how long thatye^ may last) we should 
betake ourselves to the duties here mentioned by the pro- 

1. To ' stand before the Lord,' to have our eye still upon * 

S£fiff. ZVI.] OUT OF THE FIRE. 203 

him. to attend his will, to listen to his commands^ to wait on 
his worship, to aim at his glory, to have our mouths and 
hearts filled with the praises of his name ; who hath made ua 
not as firebrands plucked out of the bumiogi {Jmoi iv. 11) 
but preserved us from it. 

2. To put off our ' filthy garments/ to bewail the woful 
prorocatioQS of all orders of men amongst us; to make haste 
sod be sealous to purge the house of Ood of those sad cor- 
raptiQoa which have defeced it, and of that woful leaven of 
heresy, which threatens to sour the whole lump. 

3. To get ' change of raiment,^ to be clothed with the 
garments of praise, with the long white robe of Christ^s 
ligfateoasness, that our nakedness be not discovered ; to wor- 
ship the Lord in the beauties of holiness. 

4. To walk in * God^s ways, and to keep his charge -^ to 
be aeakms and conscionable in all our peculiar duties ; to 
bold fittt those wholesome truths, which the Lord hath so 
loog eoatinned unto us. We know how busy foreign emis- 
saries are, who are said to swarm among us, under a disguise^ 
and, in a mysterious way, to infuse their doctrines into the 
minds of credulous and seduced people. We see what hide- 
one errors are every where broached; what contempt is 
poured oat upon a learned and fiiithful ministry ; what dis- 
honour is cast upon magistrates, as if it belonged not either 
to their power, or duty, to take care either of the truth, or 
worship of God in their territories; what immense and 
boundleas license men take to write, print, publish the most 
horrid opinions without check or controul ; what sad effects 
this infinite liberty hath produced, in some atheism, in others 
scepticism, in others apostasy, in others sad divisions, jea- 
lousies, animosities ; scarce any face left of that Christian love 
and holy communion, which heretofore shinedin the assem- 
blies of professors : what woful symptoms we have of God^s 
threatening to remove our candlestick and his glory from us ! 
calling home to himself many eminent ambassadors in the 
church ; laying aside many worthy and religious patriots in 
the state ; exercising his ministers that remain, with the re- 
pffonehes and defiunings of many : our leaving our first love, 
ind former zeal for the truths of God ; the doleful confusions 
sod changes in the state ; guvcrnnicnts changing, as it were, 
with the moon; up one month, and down another. Certain- 


ly, it is through the wrath of the Lord of hosts that a land 
is darkened ^ : it is for the transgression of a land, that many 
are the princes thereof. < It was a forerunner of a final 
wrath amongst the ten tribes, when God left them to pull 
down one another. 

Oh what need have we to be awakened, to lay these things 
to heart, to prepare to meet the Lord ^, to do our first works ', 
to revive the ancient communion of saints, to awaken the 
spirit of prayer ; and to cry mightily unto God, to spare his 
people, and not to give his heritage unto reproach ^ ! To 
receive the truth in love ^ and to contend earnestly for the 
faith % once delivered unto the saints ; to use all holy en- 
deavours in our places and stations, to keep the glorious 
presence of the Lord still amongst us ; to prove all things % 
and hold fast that which is good ; to try the spirits, whether 
they be of God ® ; to provoke one another p, to speak often to 
one another ^ ; not to forsake the assembling of ourselves to- 
gether. It may be, the Lord will return and repent, and leare 
a blessing behind him. ' 

That so we, whom the malice of Satan and wicked men 
would gladly make brands, may, by God's blessing, be> trees 
of righteousness *, the planting of die Lord ^ ; that the spirit 
blowing upon our garden ", the spices thereof may flow out \ 
and our beloved may delight in us, and eat his pleasant fruit* 
So shall the enemies of the church always find, that he whose 
name is the ' Branch y,' will still be too hard for the furnace 
of Egypt % for the staff of the oppressor. * That he who is 
a ' stone^ with eyes ^ will make his church a burdensome 
stone to all % that set themselves against it. That he will so 
watch over this land, while it continues Emmauuers land ^, 
that we shall still, as the prophet Isaiah speaks, (Chap. xxv. 
15) * Glorify the Lord in the fires, even the name of the Lord 
God of Israel, in the Isles of the sea.' 


f Itai. is. 19. S Pro?, zxviii. 2. ^ Amos iv. 12. * Rev. ii. 5. 

k Joel ii. 17. 1 2Thes8. i. 10. m Jude vcr. 3. » 1 Thets. 

T. 21. o 1 John iv. 1. p Heb. x. 24. q Mai. iii. 16. 

r Joel ii. 14. • Isai. Ixi. 3. t isai. v. 7. • Ezck. xlvii. 12. 

s Cant. iv. 16. 7 Zech. iii. 8. « Deut. iv. 20. • Isai. 

ix. 4. xiv. 5. I> Zech. iii. 9. c Zech. xii. 3. d Isai. viii. 8. 



Opened in a SERMON prouheil at St. Paiir*, iNsfore tlii* liord Mayor, AUt^. 
men, and CtimmoQ-Coiinril, Dvccinlier 2. lii^J. IWiii^ a iluy vi aoleuin hu- 
wiliation bjr them appointed. 

ROSEA ix. 12. 
'^TeOj wo alio to them when I depart from them. 

We find ID the law of Moses, thtt, in several cases, the 
of the Lord were to sound the trumpets unto the 
people, to summon and awaken them unto the special duties 
which God called for. (Numb. x. 1 — 10) And, in like man- 
mer, the Lord commandeth his prophets ** to lift up their 
▼Oice like a trumpet, and to set the trumpet unto their 
oumth.'" {Imo. Wiii. L Ho$. viii. 1) One end of blowing the 
tnunpet, was to give warning to the people of any approach- 
ing danger, that they might timely prevent and escape it 
(Joe/ii. 1) ^*Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an 
alarm in mine holy mountain : let all the inhabitants of the 
hod tremble ; for the day of the Lord cometb, for it is nigh at 
hand.^ This is one special duty of spiritual watchmen. {Jer, vi. 
17) '' I set watchmen over you, saying, Rearken to the sound 
of the trumpet '^ '* Son of man,*^ saith the Lord to the prophet, 
*' I have set thee a watchman to the house of Israel, therefore 
thou shalt hear the word at my mouth, and warn them from 
se." (See Ezek. xxxiii. 2 — 9) As Eliaha gave the king of 
Israel vrbming of the king of Syrians counsels against him. 
(2 Kings vi. 9) This charge Jehoshaphat gave unto the 
priests and Levites, that they should *^ warn the people not 
to transgress/ lest wrath come upon them and their brethren. 
(2 CAron. xix. 10) 

When ruin was hanging over Nineveh, Jonah is com*' 


manded to cry against it. {Jonah i. 2) Crying sins call for 
crying preachers ; and when he slept in that terrible tempest 
which was upon the ship, the master of the ship awakened 
him ; " What ailest thou, O sleeper ? Arise and call upon 
thy God/' (Jonah i. 6) We have had amongst us the con- 
fused noise of the battle of the warrior, and garments rolled 
in blood *; the noise of the rattling of wheels, and of the 
prancing of horses, and of the jumping of the chariots, of 
the bright sword, and the glittering spear ^ And this should 
have awakened us to return, and to seek the Lord. For cer- 
tainly, it is through the Lord^s wrath, that the people of a 
land are as the fuel of fire, no man sparing his brother.* 
But his anger is not turned away, his hand is stretched out 
still. And if our ears were well awakened, I fear we should 
hear a more dreadful noise than that of the warrior, the 
noise of the wings of the liTing cveaturea; (Ezek. i 24) the 
glory of the Lord in his church, threatening to depart from 
cm; aa he did firom his people Judah. (Ezek. ix. 3, and x. 18, 
l^ and xi. 22, 23) I have therefore made choice of Ihess: 
wwda of this trumpet-sounding prophet Hosea, that we 
mmy be awakened to cry mightily unto God, and lK> hold 
him fas*, and not let him go ; to repent, and do our fliat 
wotks, lest he come quickly and remove our candlestick out 
of hia place; as he threatened to do unto the churchi of 
EphesuB. (Rev. iu 4, 6) 

In this chapter, we have an enumeration of several sins of 
ihsit people^ and several judgements denounced against the' 
same. The sins are, 1. Idolatry, going from God, ascribing 
their plenty to their superstition, (ver. 1, 10, 15) 2. EnCttP. 
taioing and believing fiilse prophets, (ver. 7, 8) 3^ Proluii. 
dity of desperate wickedness, as that of Gibeah. (Judges 
xix. 9) 4^ Carnal confidence and security, (ver. 1, 13) 

6. Wickedness of prophets, who should teach others, (oer. 

7, 8) Of princes, who should punish others, (ver. IS) and 
,Qf the people, (ver. 17) And all these sins aggravated by 
Qod^s ancient love unto them. (ver. 1 0) 

The punishments denounced, (ver. 9) and now presently 
impending, (ver. 7) 1. Scarcity of corn and wine, which 
they promised themselves by their idolatiy. (ver. 1, 2) 2. 

• Isai. is. 15. ^ Nahum iii. 2, 3, <* Isai. iz. 19. 

SBKll. ZVIK] deserted PEOPLE. 207 

Expulsion from the Lord^s land, inlo the land of enemies 
aad idob, which they loved more than the Lord. (ver. 3) 
3. Eating polluted and interdicted meats, as they had poL 
lotod the land. (ver. 3) 4. Ceasing of sacrifices, and im- 
parity of them, displeasing to God as the bread of mourners^ 
which was not to come into God's house, (oer. 4) 6. No 
celebrity, or solemn festivals, (ver. 6) 6. Horrid vastation, 
iighty deaths burial in Egypt, 8cc. (ver. 6. as chap. x. 8. 
Im. zzziv. 11—15) 7. Slaying of children, from the con- 
etpCioo to the birth« from the birth to the youth, educated 
for mnrderors. (ver. 11, 12, 13, 14, 16) 8. God's departure 
tnm them, hating them, loving them no more, driving them 
from his house and presence, casting them away. (ver. 12, 
16, 17) 

With all which there is a double prolepsis, or prevention 
of an objection. 1. They were at this time joyous, and in 
great prosperity under Jeroboam, who flourished more than 
nay of the Kings of Israel. Tliis vain security he removeth, 
bj tssnring them that the days of visitation and recompense 
wmt cx>me. (ver. 1, 7) 2. They were strong like ,Tynis, 
and their place was secured by the impregnableness of it : 
bol this should not prevent the judgement ; the murderer 
ahooU find out their children, the beloved fruit of their 
womb. (ver. 13, 16) 

The words of the text contain the sorest of all tliesejndge- 
QMmtn. God may love and adopt a people, own them for 
his, TOQchsafe his presence to them, be a sanctuary for them^ 
ia a wilderness, in Babylon, when he feeds them with bread 
of affliction, and water of afliiction. (Dent. viii. 15, 16. 
Exod. uxiii. 14. Ezek. xi. 16. l$a. xxx. 20, 21) But this 
ia the uttermost misery which a people can be exposed unto, 
have the Lord hate them, love them no more, drive and 

It them out, and depart from them : a comprehensive 

jodgement, a doleful epi phoneme ; though they have famine, 

and banishment, and desolation, no sacrifices, no festivals, 

no children, yet the wo never comes till God cast them away, 

and depart from them : ** Yea, wo also to them, when 1 

depart from them C* or, '< when 1 remove my glory ,^ or di. 

vine majesty firom them, by which 1 have dwelt amongst 

them, or been near unto them. So the Chaldean reads it. 

The Seventy, and Theodotaon render it, " My flesh is from 


them :" which the Greek expositors understand as a miti- 
gation of the wo, Though their own children should cut off, 
yet he would be bom in the flesh of them. And Petms Oa- 
latinus*' chargeth the Jews with a false punctuation of this 
word ' besuri' for ' besari/ out of a hatred of the great 
mystery of the incarnation. But learned interpreters do ge- 
nerally reject this version, and render it, *^ Vee etiam ipsis ia 
recedendo me ab eis," or, '^ cum recessero ab eis ;*^ which 
the sense of the context evidently requires, by comparing it 
with verses 15, 17. For though the middle letter be Shin for 
SamecK yet that mutation is very frequent, for letters of the 
same sound and organ, to be put one for another ; as learned 
men have observed. 

The words then are a prediction and denunciation of God^s 
departure from his people for their sins. Wherein are visible 
these two parts : 1. The judgement threatened, God's depai^ 
ture from them. 2. The misery consequent thereupon. 
"Yea, wo also unto them, when I depart from them. ^' It 
is a miserable thing for men's children to flee away and de- 
part from them ; or after they are brought up, to be pre- 
served for the murderer : but if God continue his presence, 
all their comforts are comprised in that. Job could bless 
God when all was gone, because the Lord had not forsaken 
him. {Job i. 21) And the Apostle, '^ all men forsook me, 
but the Lord stood with me,*^ and strengthened me. (2 Tim. 
iv. 16, 17) But when com and wine, sacrifices and obla- 
tions, country and dwelling-places, tabernacles and delights, 
children and the beloved fruit of the womb, the glory of that 
people, are all gone, then for God to go after them, and 
depart too, and to withdraw his Majesty and presence from 
them, to hate them, to love them no more, to cast them out 
of his sight ; — This is accumulated wo, ' etiam VBsi* a wo 
that doth consummate all the other woes, that leaveth no 
room for another, or a greater; " Yea, also wo unto them, 
when I depart from them.^' 

Here then, that we may rightly understand both, what it 
is for God to depart from a people, and how great a wo and 
judgement it is, it will be necessary to enquire what it is for 
God to be present with a people, and how great a mercy 

d Gulatin, dc Arcan. Cathol. ?ir. lib. 1. c. 8. 



L Aatis: for contraries do notably open and illustrate one 

There ia a twofold presence of God : the one general, by the 
mensity of his nature, as he filleth all places ; {I'mlm 
TiLXTi. 7—12) the other special, gracious, comfortable, as 
e is in his church. This presence of his hath been various, 
:ording to the dilferent ages and states of the church. 

1. Typical, in shadows and lepresenlation^. The ark, an 
imblem of God's presence, who is said to dwell between the 

iherobims. {Psaitn Ixxx. I) Tliere he promised to meet 
with them. (Ernd. xxix. 43, 45) it is called his dwelling- 
, {Psalm Ixxyi. 2) his place, his presence. (1 Chron. 
hri. 27) 

2. Bnergetical, in powerful and mighty operations: the 
hush burning and not consuming, the opening of tiie Red Sea, 
the thunders and lightnings on Siuai, the mighty works be- 
tween Egypt and Canaan, were all evidences of God's pre- 
sence with Israel. (Psalm Ixviii. 7, 8) 

3. Bodily, manifested in tbe llesb by the incarnation of the 
^on, who was the image of the invisible God. (Co/, i. 15. 

XTim. iii. 10) 

i 4. Spiritual, by sending forth the Moly Spirit after the 
uiBiOD of Christ, as another Comforter upon the church. 
|j[J»Ajixir. 18, 19) 

And thus he is present with his church by spiritual ordi- 
■ lucn, and by spiritual operations. 1. By spiritual ordinan- 
I'tet, in which God is said to be ; (1 Cur. xiv. 26) and Christ 
1 lepreach, {Eph. ii. 17) and to be evidently set forth, {Gal. 
W&. I) to be with his messengers to the end of the world. 
|(M<i/M. xxviii. 20) 

2- By epiritual operations, which are of three sorts, v'v/.. 
f Providence, 
Morks of "S Grace. 


I 1. In works of Providence ', by his power, authority, and 
■dom, ordering and reducing all the contingencies, com- 
BotiooB, and events of the world to the good of his church, 
>d (obversion of tbe kingdom of darkness, (/sut. lix. 19. 
I. ir. 6) 

■s n nc»ciiniM,qui>di5«i- 


2. In works of grace, whereby Christ dwells in believers, 
illightening their minds, bending their wills, subduing their 
lusts, erecting a tribunal and judgement-seat in their hearts, 
giving access unto, and communion with, the Father and the 
Son: (Gal. ii. 20. Eph. iii. 17) for the work of the Spirit is 
to bring God and Christ unto the soul as his temple, wherein 
he delighteth to dwell. (Isai. Ivii. 15) 

3. In works of peace and comfort, in which respect he is 
called the Comforter ; (John xiv. 16, and xvi. 7) and the 
reports which he makes of God and Christ to the soul, are 
called the ' Comforte of the Holy Ghost.' {AcU ix. 31) 

Now the Spirit doth bring the consolations of God to the 
soul of a believer, as a witness, a seal, an earnest, a seed. 

1. As a witness, he testifieth our adoption, and the truth of 
the promises, causing the heart to acknowledge Qod^B 
fidelity in them. (Rom. viii. 16. 1 John v. 6, 8) 

2. As a sea], he ratifies our title and God's grant to those 
promises so attested. (Eph. iv. 30) God, by his spirit 
sealeth and marketh his own children for himself ; (Itai. xliii. 
21. Ezek. ix. 4) and so secureth their hearts, that he is theira. 
(1 John iv. 13) 

3. As an earnest and pledge of those glorious things; the 
truth whereof he witnesseth, and the property whereunto he 
sealeth to believers, giving livery, and seizin, and, in pait» 
possession ' per primitias gloriae,' unto them. (Rom* viii* 23. 
Eph. i. 14) 

4. As a seed of God, or vital root of grace and comfort, 
when through corruption grace may be abated, or comfort 
overclouded. (Psa/m xcvii. 11. IJoAnii. 9) In these thingi 
standeth the presence of God in his church. 

The greatness of this mercy to have the Lord thus gra- 
ciously present with a people, is more than the tongue of a 
man or angel is able to express. These are some few of 
those unspeakable benefits, which usually come along with it 

1. Manifestation of himself, and of the secrets of his love 
and counsel to the church. (John xiv. 21) He shews unto m. 
soul the salvation of God ; (Psalm I. 23) comes and sups willit| 
it ; (Rev. iii. 20) brings it into the banqueting-house, (Camti^ 
ii. 4) unto a feast of fatted things. The ordinances makat] 
the church an Eden, a paradise ; no tree of life, nor means G 
salvation out of that garden. 'J 



2. Cohabitation and g;racioua converse with ttic souls of 
men, having his abode in them. {John xiv, 23) It is a rich 
nercy, as Galeacius eaid, to have but one hour's communion 
■ilh God ; but when he dwells in his church, as in a settled 
'|>lace,(l Kingivm. 13. Pialm\%v'u\. 16) and makes a eout or 
;|)eople his temple, this is truly the glory of such a soul or 

Jeople. (I Sam. iv. 21) 

3. Protection and defence. If God be with us, who can be 
[ainst us P If he be in the midst of us, we shall not be 

(lioTed. (Psalm xlvi. 6) The Lord will cover his people all 
tile day long ; the beloved uf the Lord shall dwell by him in 
tafely. (Deut. xxxiii. 12) 

4. Intimate dehght and dearnesa. Where the Lord dwelifl, 
M delights. He taketh pleasure in those that fear him ; his 
Itsire IS towards them. (r»j/)ncxlvii. U. Prov.s.]. 20. Cmtl. 
IB. 10) 

&. Supplies of grace, strength, ability, and assistance unto 

hties. Christ comes not to naked walls; he beautifies the 

place of his abode, and makes it glorious; {Psalm cxlix. 4. 

Itai. xi. 10) and makes us strong in the power of his might 

{Eph. vi. 10) 

I 6. Victory. He comes to the soul as Joshua to Canaan, to 

^■fapOBsess the ancient inhabitants. {Zeck. xiv. 21. Eifk. 

Hbriii. 24) 

^P We have briefly considered the glory and honour of » 
[leople, who have God thus with thein as their God, owning 
ihem, comforting, blessing, defending, encamping about 
Ibem : for it is nearness nnto God, and the enjoyment of 
ri:;hteonB laws and holy ordinances, which makes a nation 
.;reat and honourable. {Deut. iv. 7, 8. Isai. xliii. 4, 5) 

Let OS now proceed to consider, what it is for God to 
iepart from a people, and how great a wo it bringeth along 
.ilh it. 

1. We must remember that the Catholic and Universal 
diofch is deficient, though not in its own nature, (for by the 
e reason that any particular church may fail, all may) yet 
iMi^ard of the promises which are made unto it. That the 
« of hell shall not prevail against it; {Matt/u xvi. 18) 
il Christ will be with it to the end of the world. {Matlh. 
20) Of the kingdom of Christ there shall be no end. 
E i. 33) Christ will always have a people on the earth 
p 2 


to serve him. His throne shall be as the sun, and as a faith- 
ful witness in heaven. {Psalm Ixxxix. 36, 37) These are 
promises made to the universal church, and to all who 
should throughout the world believe in Christ, as Chrysostom, 
Austin, Prosper, and others have expounded them. ^ 

2. We say that particular churches are defectible ; they 
may fall from God, and God may depart from them. He 
hath not, to any particular church or nation, made an abso- 
lute promise of abiding with them for ever. No church ever 
did challenge this privilege but the Roman church ; which 
yet the apostle warneth to take heed, lest God spare not 
them, as he spared not the natural branches, but brake them 
off. (JBom. xi. 20, 21) This truth we find verified in the 
examples of the ten tribes, who were at last Lo-ammi, quite 
unchurched and cast off by God ; (Hos. i. 9) and of the 
Jewish church, the natural branches, from whom the kingdom 
of God hath been taken, and wrath come upon them to the 
uttermost, {Matth. xxi. 43. 1 Thets. ii. 16) according as 
God threatened, if they forsook him, he would forsake them. 
(2 Chran. xv. 2) And in those famous churches of Asia, 
from whom the candlestick is removed, and they swallowed 
up in the deluge of Mahometanism. 

3. For opening this sore judgement, of God's departing 
from a people, we may observe,— That the scripture setteth 
forth desertion unto us three manners of ways : in a way 
of propitiation : in a way of probation : and in a way of 

1. In a way of propitiation. So God the Father forsook 
Christ in his agony and passion, when his soul was made an 
offering for sin ; not because he ceased to love him, or de- 
light in him,— -there was no solution of union, nor substrac- 
tionoflove or favour s, — ^but a withdrawing and hiding of 
vision and comfort, whereby Chiist was to make an atone- 
ment for us, by bearing for us the weight and sense of divine 
wrath. {Matth. xxvii. 46. Isai. liii. iv. 5) 

2. In a way of probation ; when the Lord in some particu- 
lar case departs from a man to try him, and discover his own 
weakness unto him. For if God never so little turn away 

f Chryi, in Mat. ▼.1,2. et in Mat. 28. 20. — Aug, Epist. SO,— Prosper, de vocat. 
Gent. 1. 2- c. 1. S Subtractio visionis, non solutio unionis. Leo, Aug. 

Ep. 12. c. 11. 


... , . . ■ 

his face and supportance from us, and suspend the operations 
of his spirit upon us, we quickly find by sad experience, that, 
of ourselves, we have no sufficiency to think or do any thing 
that is good. (2 Cor. iii. 5) Thus the Lord left Hezekiah in 
that one particular of the Babylonian ambassadors, that he 
might have trial of his weakness, and learn to ascribe all his 
other standing to the grace of God. (2 Chron. xxxii. 31. 
Psalm XXX. 7) 

3. In a way of punishment. When the presence of God 
having been undervalued, and his spirit grieved, and his 
grace turned into wantonness, he doth in anger depart from 
those who put such affronts and indignities upon him. And 
thus God forsakes us^ when we forsake him ; (2 Chron. xv. 2) 
and when we behave ourselves ill in our doings, he will hide 
his face from us. (Micah iii* 4) It is a hiding wrath; {Isa. 
Ivii. 17, and lix. 2, and Ixiv. 7) for the Lord threateneth 
darkness to those, that walk not in the light when they 
have it {Johi xii. 35) 

This penal desertion is either personal, or public. Perso^ 
nal is, when the Lord, having endured with much long-suf- 
fering, the provocations of evil men, and finding his grace 
sUll abused, doth at last depart from them, as he did from 
Saul ; (1 5a?7i. xvi. 14) and because they will not be purged, 
doth resolve that they shall not be purged ; but seals them 
up under this doleful judgement, that he will strive no more 
frith them, but let them alone to be filthy still. (^Gen. vi. 3. 
Hot. iv. 17. Rev. xxii. 11) So the Lord forsook Judas, when 
he withdrew his restraining grace from him, and left him to 
go quickly about his wickedness, to do that now which he 
had before withheld from doing : {John xiii. 27) and Balaam, 
when he left him to run after the wages of iniquity, — ^in wrath, 
u it were, granting him to do, what he had forbidden him 
to do before. (Numb. xxii. 12, 20, 36) When the soul of a 
wretched sinner hath so long outfaced the lights and with- 
Uood the wrestlings of the word, that at last it contracteth 
tbrawniness and senselessness of it, — then the Lord fre- 
<peotly cometh in with penal induration, as the consequent 
<^ voluntary and contracted induration ; and as to any spiri- 
tid awakenings and excitations, wholly departeth from such 
tsoul. This is the sorest judgement next to hell itself. 
Public desertion ; when the Lord forsaketh a people^ and 


withdraws his presence from a whole church or country ; a9 
when he threatened to remove the candlestick from Ephesus ; 
(Rev. ii. 5) to strire no more with the old world ; (Gen. yi. 
3) when he calls the ten tribes Lo^Ammi, and will own them 
for his people no longer. (Ho$. i. 9) 

This is either partial ; as when the Lord forsook Shilo, 
but did not cast off all the people, but made that place an 
example to warn Jerusalem. (Jer. vii. 12, 14) When he 
threatened to scatter his people, he said he would leave a 
few men, a tenth from the sword, 8ic. (Ezek xU. 15, 16. Isa, 
vi. 12, 13) Or total ; as he is said to have cast off the whole 
seed of Ephraim. (Jer, vii. 15) 

Again ; It is either desertion temporary, when the Lord 
doth return with mercy to a people^ and make them as though 
they had not been cast off; maketh her who had been term- 
ed forsaken and desolate, to be Hqphzlbakj and Beulah : (Ita. 
Ixii. 4. Zeck. x. 6) as in Queen Mary's days, he seemed to 
forsake England, and in a few years returned to us again. 
Or perpetual ; as when he called the name of the ten tribes, 
Lo-Ruhamah, resolving to take them away utterly, and to 
have mercy on them no more. {Hosea i. 6) 

Now that we may understand what this penal desertion is, 
we must note, that it is not every pubMc affliction, which the 
Lord brings upon a nation or people. He had not forsaken 
Judah, when he had sent them into bondage : {Ezra ix. 9) 
the Lord was a sanctuary unto them in Babylon. (Ezek. xi. 
16) They may be in a wilderness and have God with them. 
(Exod. xxxiii. 15) Paul was persecuted, but not forsaken. 
(2 Cor. iv. 9) 

Neither doth every spiritual judgement of ignorance or 
corruption in worship amount to a divine desertion. The 
ten tribes, a long time after the calves of Dan and Bethel, 
had prophets sent unto ihem, and were not presently called 
Lo'Ammi, or forsaken by God. 

Butthe Lord is then said to depart from a people, when he 
giveth them a bill of divorce, and breaketh off the conjugal 
relation which he had with them ; owns them not as members 
of his family ; withdraws his presence from them^ his care 
of them, and thrusts them out of his house. It is a solemn 
renunciation and dismission, resolving to have nothing more 
to do with them. (Jer. iii. 8) " Res tuas tibi habe, redde 


1,^ uPkutus ^ exprcBseth the form amongst the Romans. 
^ CoUige sarciniilas^ dicit libertus, et eii.*' Take that which 
is youn, leare that which is mine ; and get you gone out of 
my family. ' 

It denoteth, 1. A subduction of peace and comfort, with 
tirawing the evidences of God's favour from a people. God^s 
Church is precious and honourable in his sight ; (/mt. xliiL 4) 
but when he casts off a people, and gives a bill of divorce, 
he rensores from them the covenant of his peace. A rejected 
woman hath little sense of comfort from her husband, when 
he tOTDs her out of his doors. 

2. A subduction of his visible presence in his ordinances ^, 
which are the glory of a nation: as when a man forbids 
soy senraot of his family to wait upon the woman whom he 
repudiates. So when the ark of God's presence was taken, 
the glory is said to * depart from Israel.' (1 Sam. iv. 22) 
When the Lord said to the prophet, ' Thou shalt not be a re- 
prover to them ;' {Euk. iii. 26) and to the apostle, ' Depart, 
I trill send thee to the Gentiles ;' (Acts xxii. 21, and xiii. 46. 
Ads zzviii. 28) when a people ' see not their signs, have not 
a prophet left;^ {P$alm Ixxiv. 9) when the glory of the Lord 
is upon the ' wing, and the wheeF in motion ; {Ezek. x. 18) 
this is a dangerous evidence that God is forsaking a people: 
for his ordinances are his presence. 

3. A subduction of gifts and graces ; as God withdrew his 
spirit from Saul. (I Sam. xvi. 4, and xxviii. 15) When a 
nation is darkened, the wisdom of tlie wise, and understand- 
ing of the prudent, is hid * ; (/m. xxix. 14) or the Lord, in his 
severe providence, is pleased to lay wise and prudent men 
aside, that their wisdom shall not be believed or made 
use of"* ;— this is a sore degree of divine desertion. When 
men are left to despise the very callings and persons that 
are eminent for gifts, and cry down the comfort8 annexed 
anto those gifts, and the seminaries \%here they usually are 
acquired ; — these are steps of God's dcpartings £rom a 

^ Pi4ui. m Ampbitruo. Acts 3. Sc. 2. Marhai. 1. 10. Ep. 4 1 , 5 1 . > JuienaL 

SttjT. 6. Cuius 1. 11. sect. 1. de Dtvort. et Repud. k 0«ia xdjM ip* ii»»h 

tffMkvnu, 4 Hikm Ktl m vp^fifrai. BasiL in Itai. 16. p. ll'iO. I). ' ^oh 

xvii. 4. • Tanc etUm Hx\% aperic Camndrm fuiaris Ora» Dei Juuu non 

anqMm cicdica Tcucris. yir^. i&i. ?. 


4. A svibduction of defence and protection : when a nation 
is smitten, and there is no healing, but God takes away his 
peace from them ; {Jer. xiv. 19, and xvi. 6) and they in dan- 
ger of being given into the hands of enemies, and are as a 
* speckled bird,' a gazing-stock, and a * Ludibrium,^ to the 
birds that are round about them. (^Jer. xii. 7, 9) 

6. A judiciary tradition**, or leaving men to the vanity of 
their own minds, and the lusts of their own hearts, to a gid- 
diness of spirit, and delusion of judgement. A sad step this 
of divine desertion, when men are given up to walk in their 
own counsels; (Psalm\xxxi. 12) and are captivated to strong 
delusions to believe lies. (2 Thess. ii. 11) We have seen 
what this judgement is for God to depart from a people. It 
is the unchurching of them, sending them Wck into Egypt 
again, as our prophet her« expresseth it, verse 3, 6. 

Let us now consider, what a fearful wo this is for God 
thus to leave a people. ® It is of all other the most compre- 
hensive, eminently containing in it all other woes, as God^s 
presence doth all other comforts. This the most comprehen- 
sive promise in the covenant of grace, ' I will be their God :' 
and this the most comprehensive threatening, ' I will depart, 
I wilMove them no more.^ The apostle calls it ' wrath to the 
uttermost.^ (1 I'hes. ii. 16) The prophet wants words to ex- 
press it, and veils it over with this black and dismal inttma- 
mation, — " Thus will I do unto thee." {Amos iv. 12) When 
they scornfully asked the prophets, what burden they had 
from the Lord to deliver unto them, the Lord gives them this 
as a burden of burdens, a curse of curses, — *' I will forsake 
you, saith the Lord.**' (Jer. xxiii. 33) 

1. It cuts off our relation unto God : ** Ye are not my peo- 
ple; I will not be your God." {Hos. i. 9) It is the unfran- 
chising of. a church, cancelling their charter, reversing and 
extinguishing all their privileges, making them very Gentiles, 
a people without God or covenant 

2. It consequently cuts off our communion with God. He 

. n Vid. Aug. cont. Julian. PcUg. 1. 5. c. 2. Greg. Mag. 1. 25. c. 9. • Rom. 

xi. 12, 15, 17. P UtTiraanthes, cum in Ipbigeniae Iromolatione 

pinxisset tristem Chalcantom, tristiorem Ulixera, addidtsset, Menelao qurni turn* 
raum pocerac ars cfficere, mcerorem : consuniptis aftectibus, non rcpcriens qno 
digne modo patris vultum posset ezprimcre, velavit ejus caput, et suo caique 
animo dedic aestimandum. QuintUian. Instit. 1. 2. c. 13. 


delights not in us, nor we in him : for though this be the 
grcfttest judgement in the world, yet there is this further mi- 
sery in it, — ^Tbat wicked men choose it, and are well pleased 
to be without God. They say unto God, " Depart from us.*" 
(Job xxi. 14) They are contented, that the Holy One of Is- 
rael should cease from before them, (fsa, xxz. 11) 

3. It cuts off the glory and renown of a people, which 
stands not in their seas and rivers, in their wealth, or power, 
or plenty, or trade, or other outward accomplishments, but 
in haring * God nigh them/ {Deut. iv. 6) Christ is the 
fiches of the world. (Rom. xi. 12) God'^s favour the honour 
of a people: (Xta. xliii.4)when he forsakes them, 'their 
glory is gone.** 

4. It cuts off the comfort of all our enjoyments, the pure 

use whereof we have from the favour of God alone ; bringeth 

thoTDB and briers in our palaces ; maketh our table a snare, 

oar riches the fuel of our Iusts« our quails the harbingers of 

oor cones, our plenty nothing but the matter of our pride 

mnd our perdition. Wicked men eat their meat as swine do, 

mingled with mire and uncleanness ; they eat in darkness 

and sorrow; their riches are their hurt. (Ecc/et. v. 13, 17) 

Vanity and vexation, emptiness and affliction, are the total 

sum of all their worldly abundance, of all the sparks which 

they have kindled ; after which they shall lie down in sorrow. 

(ImlI. 11) 

fi. It seals us up under wrath and judgement, is the talent 
of lead which is cast on the mouth of the Ephah. (Zech. 
▼. 8) It is the last judgement before the last of all ; the 
rery outward court or portal of hell. For when the pre- 
tence and ordinances of God are gone, men are in a remedi- 
less condition, sick to death, without either physic or phy- 
sician. " O,^ saith Saul, *' I am sore distressed ! the Phi- 
listines war, and God is departed."" ( 1 .Sam. xxviii. 15) Sin 
woundeth, Satan accuseth, law curseth, death pursueth, con- 
science roareth, hell flameth, and God is departed. 

6. It shuts out our prayers. When God^s back is turned, 
and his presence removed, then his ear is stopped : when ho 
shuts us out, he shuts out our prayer likewise. Tiiey who 
are Lo-Ammi, are certainly Lo^Ruhamah. If no people, no 
mercy. There will be a time, when the worst of men who 
now despise it, will cry aloud for mercy ; but all in vain ; God 


will not bear them, because tbey refused to bear bim. {Prov. 
i. 28. Jer. xi. 14. Ezek. viii. 18) 

7. It sbuts out tbe prayer of boly men for us. When God 
casts a people out of his sight, he will not bear a prophet for 
them ; (Jer. vii. 16) nay, not an assembly of prophets ; such 
as were mighty in prayers^ as Moses and Samuel ; (Jer. xv. 1) 
such as have had experience of most glorious deliverances, 
as Noah, Daniel, and Job. {Ezek. xiy. 14) 

8. It opens an inlet for all other miseries and troubles, lets 
loose the sluices; and, as in Noah's flood, breaks up the foun- 
tains of the great deep. Many evils and troubles shall befal 
them, saith the Lord, and they shall say, '^ Are not these 
evils come upon us, because God is not amongst us ?^' (DetU. 
xxxi. 17) When God is with a people, none can be against 
them to hurt them. He sweetens all their sorrows, makes 
their very enemies at peace ; but when the glory and the wall 
of fire is departed, there is a free approach for all calamities ; 
a people are then ripe for destruction. 

Now to clear both the justice and goodness of God in this 
sore judgement, we are to understand, 

1. That the Lord doth not in this manner forsake a nation 
or church, until, 1. They forsake him : our mercies are from 
God, our miseries from ourselves. {Hos. xiii. 9. 2 Chron. 
XV. 2) 2. Not until all remedies have been by them reject- 
ed, and he wearied with repenting, so that he can no longec 
bear being pressed, as a cart full of sheaves. (2 Chron. 
xxxvi. 16. Jer. xv. 6. xliv. 22. /so. xliii. 24. jimos ii. 13) 
3. Nor without first giving solemn warnings, both by his mes- 
sengers, and by his more moderate chastisements ; as we find, 
Amos iii. 7, and iv. 7 — 12. Afnoi vii. 1 — 7. 

2. That when he doth forsake a people, he doth it, 1 • Un^. 
willingly ; it is his strange work ; he can scarce bring his 
mind to resolve upon it ^* How shall I give thee up, Eph- 
raim ? How shall I deliver thee, Israel r Sec. {Hos. xi. 8) He 
speaks against them, and then remembers them again. {Jer, 
xxxi. 18) 2. Lingeringly and gradually, and, as it were, 'cum 
animo revertendi,' if his people would hold fast and not let 
him go. So he did in the deportation of the ten tribes : first 
in the days of Pekah, he carried the land of Napthali away 
into Assyria; (2 Kings xv. 29) and after, in the days of 
Hosea, upon violation of the conditions of service and tri- 


SSRM. ZVIl.] D£8£RT£D PEOPLE. 219 

bate to tlie Anyrians, he carried the rest away, and remoTed 
them out of his sight. (2 Kiugi xvii. 6, 18) 3. Not till he 
hftfe marked his own select people in the forehead, and have 
provided a Zoar, a Pella, some hiding-place and chambers of 
refoge for them ; {Ezek. ii. 4. Isa. xxvi. 20. 2 Ckron. xxx. 
1 1) or at least fitted them for the external pressure of such a 
judgement, and comforted them with the promises belonging 
unto the remnant according unto the election of grace ; of 
whicb we find many in this our prophet. For either ** the 
meek of the earth shall be hid**^ in the day of the Lord's an- 
ger; {ZqJk, ii. 3) or, though involved in the outward judge- 
ment, yet it ^ shall go well with them.^ {lia. iii. 10) 

Now from all this we learn, 1. To bless God for the glo- 
riooa benefit of his presence yet amongst us now for above 
a himdred years ; for the possession of his oracles, the mi* 
nistry of his word, the seals of his covenant, the liberty of 
his ordnances, the mysteries of the gospel, and unsearch- 
able riches of Christ set forth before us continually ; which 
things the angels look into, which kings, and prophets, and 
righteous men have desired to see, and have not seen them, 
is so great a mercy, that the scripture calls it by the 
of ' Salvation' itself. {John iv. 22. Acts xxviii. 28. Ileb. 

2. To walk worthy of this glorious mercy, to adorn the 
doctrine of the gospel by lives answerable unto it ; as those 
that have avouched the Lord for their God, and Christ for 
their King. {Phil. i. 27. Tit. ii. 10, 14) It was a pious and 
devout meditation of Picus Mirandula*', who professed him- 
self amazed at the studies, or rather frenzies of men, both to 
be wondered at and lamented : for if it be a great madness 
for men not to believe the gospel, the truth whereof hath 
been confirmed by the witness of apostles, the blood of mar- 
tyrs, the power of miracles, the attestation of elements, the 
confession of devils; — it is certainly a greater madness, " Si 
de evangelii veritate non dubites, vivere tamen quasi de ejus 
falsitate non dubitares C* to profess to believe the toroicuts 
of hell, and the joys of heaven ; and yet so to live, as if we 
feared nothing less than hell, or desired nothing less tlian 

4 Jomm, Piau MirandiUa, Ep. 1. <id Kiuiciscufn Nc|iutcin, upcfiim to. 2. 
p. 342. 



heaven. Certainly, our plagues will be answerable to our 
talents, if we have not improved them.- {Luke xii. 47) 

3. To tremble at the judgement here threatened of God's 
departing from us, and giving us a bill of divorce, and cast^ 
ing us out of his family, and removing our candlestick, as a 
very preface to, ' Go, ye cursed.* If we have ever duly 
thought of the horrors of Cain, the bowlings of Esau, the 
distress of Saul, the despair of Judas, we may pass some 
judgement what it is to forfeit God, and to have him no 
longer for our God. What great reason we have to fear this 
judgement, and lay this matter close to our hearts, may ap- 
pear, if we consider, 

1. The sins which provoke God^s departing from a people. 
Amongst others such as these: 1. Divers and strange doc- 
trines, which corrupt the truth of God. Heresy in the 
Eastern churches, made way for Mahometanisro. And there- 
fore, when the apostle makes mention of the days of apos- 
tasy, when God was in great measure departed from the 
church, we find him still mentioning ^' delusions, lies, doc- 
trines of devils, resisting the truth .^ (2 Thess, ii. 11. 1 Tim, 
iv. 1. 2 Tim. iii. 8) 

2. Incorrigibleness under former judgements: for the Lord 
will not always strive, either by his spirit, or by his rod, but 
" will overcome when he judgeth.*** (Amos iv. 12) Though 
he repent once and again, yet he will at last take the plumb- 
line into his hand. {Amos vii. 1 — 7) 

3. Contempt and scorn of his messengers and their mes- 
sage, which he hath sent, rising early and sending them. 
(2 Chron. xxxvi. 16) When the servants were beaten and 
stoned, and the son slain, then quickly after the kingdom 
was taken away. {Matth. xxi. 33 — 43. Matth. xxiv. 34, 38) 
Certainly, since the reformation of religion, the ministers of 
the gospel have never been under more reproach and con- 
tempt (and that by a generation of men that think themselves 
perfecter than others) than in this age they are : heretofore 
they were the song of drunkards ; now, of such as own them- 
selves for saints. 

4. Remissness and backsliding from our first love; {Rev. 
ii. 6 — 7) falling away from that high esteem which once we 
had of the ordinances of Christ, of the communion of saints, 
and earnest zeal for the faith, once delivered to the saints. 


5. Neglecting the day and season of grace, the voice of 
Christ in the gospel; playin^r the wantons with so great a 
depositom, as the Jews did ; not '' considering in this our 
dmy, tbe things which belong unto our peace.*^ {Luke xix. 
42, 43) When men will not receive instruction, God threat- 
eaeth to depart. {Jer. vi. 8) 

2. If we consider the symptoms of God^s threatening to 
depart from us, besides the forementioned sins : as, 

1. Loosing the joints of government, and making con- 
tinoml changes in a state. It is a sign of sickness in the 
body, when it knows not how to rest, but is in perpetual agU 
tation ; from chamber to chamber, from couch to couch, from 
bed to bed. And so it is in a state : when a parliament doth 
not please, we try a piece of it : then down with that once 
and again, and try new experiments; a certain sif^n of a sick 
nation. It was, in the ten tribes, a forerunner of this judge- 
ment threatened by our prophet, i%hen they so often pulled 
down one another; and it may justly make England tremble 
when tbey compare their condition, and that of the ten 
tribes before their deportation, together. 

2. Divided interests and intestine disitensions amongst the 
people; Manasseh Ephraim, and Ephraim Manasseh, and 
both against Judah ; this the prophet makes an evidence, 
that God's an;nrer would not turn away from Israel. (/«£i. ix. 
21) These kind of doleful intestine commotions were sad 
forerunners of tbe fatal destruction of Jerusalem, of which 
we read in Josephus. ' 

3. Confusions and divisions in the church : brethren biting 
and devouring one another, and thereby opening a wide door 
for the common enemy to enter in at ; for union strengthens 
the interests of those united, and divisions betray them. Je- 
rusalem is a city compacted ; the coat of Christ a seamless 
coat ; and therefore the apostle bids us " mark those which 
cause divisions and oiTences," and avoid them, as men that 
drive an interest, and do not serve Jesus Christ. {Rom, xvi. 

4. Multitudes of seducing spirits, and emissaries of Satan, 
who go up and down without controul, sowing tares, and 
laying leavens, shaking the minds of credulous and simple 

r Jotepk. <k Bello Jodaico, lib. 2. c. 19, 20, 21. lib. 5. c. 1 , 2, 9. lib. 6. c. 1 , 4, 
11, 14,15. lib. 7. dp. 7, S. 


people, who are apt to be tamed about with every wind of 
doctrine ; and slily insinuating, under disguises and other 
shapes, such doctrines as, in their own proper colours, would 
be rejected. 

5. The uselessness of many men eminent for piety and 
prudence, by whose great perspicacy and grave wisdom 
dangers might be discovered, breaches healed, difficulties 
removed, expedients offered, paths restored to walk in. A 
sad providence, when the Lord maketh the tongues of such 
men to cleave to the roof of their mouth, and lays them, in 
bis displeasure (not to them, but to the nation) aside, as 
rejected stones, unfit for the building. 

Lastly, The general senselessness of judgements past, or 
present ; the sleep of slumber and security which is upon 
most of us, as upon Jonah in the tempest; few awakening 
themselves to cry unto Ood, or to pour out their confessions, 
complaints, or supplications at the throne of grace. 

The Lord open our eyes, and persuade us, in this our day, 
to lay to heart the things which belong unto our peace, to 
prepare to meet our Ood, to hold him fast with strong cries, 
and love of his truth ; and not to let him go till he preserve 
three sinful nations, and snatch them as brands out of the 
burning ; or at least that we ourselves may be hid in the day 
of the Lord's anger. 

I shall conclude with a few words of exhortation, both 
unto the people in general, and unto you who are magis- 
trates of this great city in particular, unto such things as 
seem necessary remedies of our great danger, and means to 
keep our glory in the midst of us still. First, to the people. 

1. Repent, and do your first works ; else iniquity will be 
your ruin. Even after a bill of divorce, God allows an aduU 
terous church to return unto him. (Jer, iii. 1, 22. Hos. ii. 
2, 19) In a day of darkness and gloominess, of horses and 
horsemen, of fire and earthquake, of armies and terrors, the 
Lord calls on his people to turn to him, with intimation of 
a gracious answer; (Joe/ ii. 12, 13, 14, 18, 19) with a per- 
ad venture of mercy. {Zeph. ii. 3) This means God prescrib- 
eth unto Ephesus to preserve their candlestick amongst 
them. {JRev, ii. 5) If this be neglected, no people nearer 
unto cursing, than those who have enjoyed the light and 


prefleoce of God, ripening only thoras and briers. (Heb. 
▼L 8. Amos iii. 2) 

2. Wrestle mightily with God ; be not refnsed nor re- 
jected; let the Lord know you are resolved to hold fast, 
and not to let him go without a blessing. {Gen. xxxii. 2G) 
Lord, rather no Canaan, no milk, no honey, no houses, no 
Tiaeyards, no herds, no flocks, no angel, than no God. 
{ExoiL xxziii. 14, 15, 16) Lord, whither shall we go to 
mend ourselves ? Thou only hast the words of eternal life. 
(Jokn vi. 67, 68) Will changes in government mend us ? 
will a democracy, or aristocracy, or any other form of polity, 
mend us, if God be going away from us ? Ask the prophet 
Now,' saith be, ' they shall say, we have no king, because 
we feared not the Lord ; what then should a king do unto 
uaT {Hat. x. 3) If we fear not the Lord, if we swear 
ftlady in a covenant, if we be an empty vine, and if our 
heart be divided, and we are found faulty, the best govern- 
ments can do us but little good. 

3. Resolve every man with Joshua, '^ As for me and my 
house, we will serve the Lord.*' {Josh. xxiv. 16) I will tread 
in the steps of my father Ab*aham» *' I will command my 
diildren and my household to keep the way of the Lord," 
{Gem. zviii. 19) as David did Solomon. {Prov. iv. 3, 4) If 
they be my children, and my servants, if they expect from 
me the love of a father, or the care of a master, " My God 
■hall be their God ;^ I will shew the love of a father and 
gOTemor unto them, in not suffering their souls, by any neg- 
lect of mine, to be poisoned or endangered by any perverse 
or heretical doctrine. The way to keep God in a nation, is 
for every man to keep God in his own heart, and in his own 
fiunily first. 

4. Prize highly the presence of Christ in his ordinances, 
the communion of saints, the assembling of yourselves to- 
gether. {Heb. X. 24) Contend earnestly for the faith. {Jude^ 
ver» 3) Buy the truth, sell it not. {Prov. xxiii. 23) Let no 
interest, no party, no policy, make you willing to part with 
my truth of God, for promoting any design of man. If any 
man speak disgracefully of the scriptures ; if any man tempt 
you to forsake the ordinances, or to beget any low or base 
esteem of them in you, say unto him, as Christ to Satan, 


*'Oet thee behind mer Christ will not forsake those, to 
whom he is precioas. The more value we set upon him, 
the more careful we will be to keep him, the more willing 
he will be to continue with us. 

5. Pull off the rizard, and look through the disguises that 
are put upon false doctrines, to render them the more plau- 
sible. Heretics will bring in their opinions privily, and, by 
fair words and good speeches, will deceive the hearts cf the 
simple. They have mystery on their foreheads*, {Rom- xvi. 
17. Ephes. iv. 14. Col. ii. 8, 18. 2 Thes. ii. 3. 2 Pet. ii. 1. 
Rev. xvii. 5) When Agrippina poisoned Claudius, she min- 
gled the poison with the meat that he loved, as men gild 
over bitter pills; and, as Lucretius speaks, tip the cup, 
wherein there is a bitter potion, with honey. Satan knows 
how to transform himself into an angel of light ; and, under 
pretensions of higher perfection, like painted sepulchres, 
to veil over and palliate rotten and unsound opinions, 

6. Judge of ends by the means which are used to compass 
and promote them : there never wants good means to advance 
good ends. We shall never need to do evil, that good may 
come of it {Rom. iii. 8) The wife in the law was not to do 
an undecent thing in the defence of her own husband. {Deut. 
XXV. 11, 12) If you see men revile ministers, decry ordi- 
nances, broach heresies, foment divisions, disrespect and lay 
aside wise, and religious, sober, serious, grave, orthodox 
patriots, *' latet anguis in herba :^ certainly, the ends may 
justly be suspected, that make use of such expedients as 
these to promote them. 

2. To you, that are magistrates in this great city : 
1. Study your character, your authority, and your duty ; 
carry yourselves like God's ministers, to be a terror to evil 
doers; be men of courage, loving truth, &c. {Earod. xviii. 21. 
2 Sam. xxiii. 3, 4. Rom. xiii. 4) Beg wisdom of God, as 
Solomon did, that he may shew you the right way, that you 
may have him, his house and glory nearest to your heart. 
If you intend God^s house, he will preserve and build yours. 
(2 Sam. vii. 11) If you appear for him, he will engage for 

• Rcccns Yistatio vinea vulpem indicat affuisse : sed nescio qua arte fingendi 
ita suaconfundit vestigia callidissimum animal, ut qua vel intret vel exeat, baud 
fiictle queat ab homine apprehendi : cumque pateat opus, non apparet auctor, 
&c. Bernard, in Can. Ser. 65. 



yoo. If you ask wtHdom to Herve him in your places, he will 
ghre hoDonry and other good things without your seeking. 

2. Be zealous and valiant for the glory, name, worship, 
interests, truth of God ; as Phinehas waH^ His zeal for God 
pot a stop to the wrath, which was gone out against Israel. 
A Moses, a Phinehas may stund in the breach, and turn away 
wrath, when God seemeth a departing. (Sumb. xiv. 12, 17, 
20. Pial. C¥i. 23, 30) Put forth yourselves, be willing to 
shew yourselves nursing- fathers to God's church": nurses 
will do all they can to keep poison from their children : do 
you, in your places, labour in preserve the church of Christ 
in this city, from the leaven of dangerous and pernicious 
doctrines. When you are clearly satisfied and convinced, 
that this is your duty to own God and his truth, to promote, 
protect, encourage, countenance orthodox religion, to with- 
stand and counterwork the projects of seducers, resolve as 
IVehemiah did, that "no fear shall weaken your hands.^' 
(^NeA. vi. 9, 11, 13) Shew yourselves God^s vicegerents, in 
publicly owning his truth and ordinances to all the world. 
This is our God whom we resolve to serve ^; this is his wor- 
ship and religion which we own ; this the truth we will live 
and die in ; these the dangerous doctrines we resolve in our 
- places and stations to withstand, and, by all righteous means, 
in God'^8 way, to prevent the urowth und progress of them. 

What an honour would it be for such a famous city ua 
this, to be a president to all these nations, in letting the 
world see and know their zeal for God, and love to his truth 
in these backsliding days, %vhen many religions do threaten 
the extirpation of all ; how highly th(*y value, how steadfastly 
they cleave to the unity and purity of that religion, under 
which they and their fathers flourished in piety, in peace, in 
plenty, in tranquillity, in prosperity, in honour, for above 
fourscore years together, maugre all the power and policy of 
adversaries; till of late years we ourselves, by our sins, have 
loosened the joints of religion and government, and done 
that with our own hands, which our c nemies, by all their ma- 
chinations, did in vain attempt. O that now, when the 
Lord saith, ' Seek my face,' we would all say, ' Thy face. 
Lord, we will seek.* When the Lord saitli, * Turn, ye back- 

» Numb. ZXT. 1 1, 13. " Isai. xWx. 23. Iz. 16. > Iwi. xiv. 9. 

VOL. V. Q 


slidiog children, and I will heal your backsliding ;' we would 
all with one heart, with one soul, with one shoulder, answer, 
* Behold, we come unto thee, for thou art the Lord our God.^ 
If prayers, if tears, if strong cries, if reformed lives, if zealous 
purposes, if united counsels, will get a reprieve, and keep 
our God amongst us ; we will stand in the gap, we will hold 
him fast, we will give him no rest till once again he make 
these nations a praise in the earth, and this city a ' Jehovah 
Shammah,^ the Lord is there. 

3. Believe not those Donatistical and Pontifician spirits, 
who go about to persuade you, that magistrates have nothing 
to do with religion. ^ Nothing to do with religion ? What 
then made David think of building God a house, (2 Sam. 
vii. 2) and to set in order the courses of the Levites, (1 Chron. 
xziii. 6) and priests ? {Chap, zxiv) How came Solomon the 
Wise to build a temple for God's worship, which he had 
nothing to do with ? (2 Chron. 6) How came Asa so bold 
to command Judah to seek the Lord God, and that in order 
to the quietness of his kingdom, and victory over enemies ? 
(2 Chron. x\v. 3, 4, 6, 6, 11) How came Jehoshaphat so 
much to mistake, as to take away high places and groves, 
to provide that the people might be taught, (2 Chron. zvii. 
6 — ^9) and to command the Priests and Levites to do their 
duties? (2 Chron. lix. 8, 9) How came Hezekiah to be so 
zealous to purge the temple, to command the Priests and Le- 
vites, (2 Chron. xxix. 4 — 11, 27, 20) to proclaim a pass- 
over, (2 Chron. xxx. 1 — 6) to appoint the courses of the 
Priests and Levites, {Chap. xxxi. 1, 2) to command the 
people to give them their portions, (and not, as we endeavour 
in this age, to take them away) that they might be encouraged 
in the law of the Lord ? (ver. 4) How came young Josiah 

7 Dooatnt, solito furor* succentot, in hac verba pronipit, *' Quid est impe- 
ratori cum Ecclesia ?" OptaU lib. 3. Furorem hunc paMim refutanint viri mag- 
ni ; Calvin, Intdtut. lib. 4. cap. 20. sect. 9. Beta, Opusc. to. 1 . de pun* He- 
ret. Breni, to. 8. p. 175—198. Pet. Mart. loc. co. clas. 4. c. 13. sect. 31 — 33. 
Gerard, lo. com. to. 6. de Magist. polit sect. 16. Rivet in decalog. p. 258. B 
Jewel, defence p. 557 — 566. SantU, Ser. 2. sect. 13 — 20. Bilson of subjection 
part 2. 124—129, 145, 151, 159, 178— 191, 212, 249. et part 3. p. 530-^4i 
Andrew. Tor. Torti, p. 364—382. Raynold. Confer, with Hart, p. 586, 58 
CgrletoHf of Jurisdiction c 3. Davenant, de judioe et norm, fidei. c. 14. p. 71, A 
16. p. 91. Zanch. in 4. pracep. 1. 1. c. 5. fVUlet Synops. contn 
7. qu. 2. 


to tftke to mnch ptint in refonning religion, (2 Cknm, xxzir. 
1 — 7) to canfle all ike people to stand to a corenant, (ver, 
32) to command and encourage the Prietts in the work of 
the paiaoTer ? (2 Ckwn. xxxv. 2) How came Nehemiah to 
aeftl a corenant, (Nehem. x. 1 to 8) enter into an oath to 
keep the sabbath and maintain religion, (per. 29) to take 
care of the portions of the Levites, (Chap. xiii. 10) to 
threaten the violators of the sabbath, {ver. 21) to command 
the Lerites to cleanse themseWes, {ver. 22) to contend, and 
curie, and smite those that had married strange wires ? {ver. 
23, 30, 31) To say nothing of the laws and edicU of 
Christian Emperors, to restrain heresies and idolatry; of 
which we read in St Austin. * Was it zeal and dnty in these 
men to lake care of religion, and to purge corruption out of 
the church, and is it not so now ? Was it a fault in the 
church of Thyatira, to sufier Jezebel to teach and seduce unto 
idolatry; {Rev. ii. 20) and is it holiness now, to leare all 
men Iree to write, proclaim, publish, without control, doo- 
trhiea whoUy contrary to the interests of Christ, and the 
troths of religion f It were no hard matter to shew you the 
liae, end to dire to the bottom, of this dangerous opinion. I 
shall only give you a marginal note in Baronius *, ** Nulla 
facoltas Imperatoribus de rebus Ecclesie decemendi,^ {juBt 
the language of Donatus,) that emperors have no power to 
determine any thing in church-matters; and elsewhere. That 
nothing is ralid which a king ordereth in churches, without 
the bishop of Rome. 

4. Rererence the oaths of Ood which are upon you. They 
are not, as Lysander profanely said **, to be played with as 
boys do with skittle-pins. It is the character of good men 
to fear an oath. {Ecdes. ix. 2) And a most severe punish- 
ment was brought upon Zedekiali, for violating an oath. 
{Ezek. xrii. 13—19) How observant was Joshua of his 
oedi, though fraudulently procured by the Gibeonites f 
{Josh. ix. 19) It is not safe to distinguish ourselves out of 
the obligation of solemn oaths, or, after vows, to make en- 

> Epiit. 48, 50. et 166. contn Crescoo. Gfiin. 1.3. c. 51. de Civ. Dei. 1. 1. 
c 36. • Btron. An. 528. tecc. 7. An. 681 . sect. 78. b Plutarch, 

Apopk. Oi ydp M i^iUvn von^ Z^^s Uv^T igmy6r *AAA* Owwf v^- 

r. nkd. 4. 335. Vid. Bxcnpl. Philip. Maccd. acgit, PHas. 1. 8. p. 4S5. 


quiry. (Prov, xx. 25) A good man, though he swear to hia 
own hurt, changeth not. {Psalm xv. 4) How muoh more 
when he swears to preserve the laws, and other the great 
interests and privileges of a city or nation, as you magis- 
trates do ! 

Lastly, Consider in this our day, what are the things which 
belong to our peace. {Luke xix. 42) It is a great wisdom in 
evil days to ' redeem time.' {Eph. v. 15, 16) It is noted of 
the men of Issachar that they had understanding of the times 
to know what Israel ought to do. (1 Chron. xii. 32) As 
Mordecai said to Esther, ' Who knoweth whether thou art 
come to the kingdom for such a time as this Y {Esther iv. 14) 
Surely in such a time as this, a day of trouble and rebuke, it 
is necessary for every man to beg of God to shew him his 
way, to advise with the word of God, what wisdom, or coun* 
sel, or help he may put in to keep God with us, and to pre- 
vent this dismal wo of God's removing our candlestick, and 
departing from us. Must I write? mu3t I speak? must 1 
counsel? must I pray? must I do judgement' amd justice? 
Lord, we seek of thee a right way ; be thou entreated of us t 
{Ezra viii. 21, 23) In evil and dangerous days, as all men, 
so especially Moses and Phinehas, magistrates and ministers, 
are, by their fidelity and zeal, to stand in the gap, and to ob- 
viate those judgements which are impendent over us. 

I conclude with the prophet Zechary. (Zech, ii. 5) *' The 
Lord is a wall of fire round about, where be is the glory in 
the midst of a people. He will encamp about his house.^ 
{Zech. ix. 8) Upon all his glory there shall be a defence ; 
{Isai. iv. 5) in token whereof the cherubims were on the 
walls of the temple, to note their protection about Gkkl's 
people. (2 Chron. iii. 7. Psalm xxxiv. 7) But if we do not 
resolve to hold God fast; if the glory of his truth, worship, 
and presence be once gone from us ; if we once come to know 
the difference between the service of God ^, and the king- 
doms of the countries ; we shall with horror subscribe to the 
truth and dreadfulness of this dismal threatening, ' Wo also 
to them, when I depart from them !^ 

« 2 Chron. xii. 8. 



A SERMON prMched in St. PauTt Churrh, Londoiu bcfort Uw R%lit 
Honmirmble the Lord Mayor, Lord General, Aldermen, Oommoo- CqudcU, 
and Compaiiifli ci the Honourable City of London, Fcbniary S8, 1650L 
Beii^ a day of Solcnm Thanlufn^ng unto God, for reatorinf the Ptt- 
Hament and Common-Council, and for preienring the City. 




Right Honourable, 

Amongst all the exceeding great uiid preciouR promi 
which the Lord liath made unto his people, these are of a 
▼ery radiant lustre and special magnitude— That he would 
appoint a place for them, and plant them, that they should 
dwell in a place of their own, and move no more, neither 
should the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as 
before time: That he would build them, and not pull them 
down ; and plant them, and not pluck them up ; and give 
them a heart to know him, and to return unto him with 
their whole heart. Whereby we understand, that stability 
and sanctity, healing and holiness, are two most eminent and 
signal mercies of God unto a people, who have been long ex* 
ercised with breach upon breach, and emptied from vessel 
into vessel. How sad the condition of those discomposed 
and dilacerated nations hath been ! how doleful the earth, 
quakes and concussions both in church and state! how 


daring the insolences and attempts of men of unstable 
minds, destitute of solid and steady principles, acted by the 
various and quotidian conduct of changeable and domestical 
interests, have been against our Jachin and our Boaz, autho- 
rity in our parliaments, and ministry in our churches, — hath 
been so well known both at home and abroad, as to render 
these nations a shame to themselves, and a ludibrium to the 
world ! What the great works are which the Lord by the 
wonderful series and vicissitudes of Providence is doing in 
the midst of us^ the hearts of his servants, hanging in sus- 
pense between hope and fear, do tremulously attend upon^ 
and labour to understand. When we consider the maturity 
of our mighty sins, we have great reason to fear his wrath ; 
and when we observe the progress of his wonderful works, 
we have some comfortable encouragement to hope for the re- 
ward of his mercy: and that so much the rather, because he 
hath stirred up your hearts in this great city to return unto 
him the glory due unto his name, for his goodness to these 
nations, in restoring the parliament, and unto yourselves, in 
restoring your council, and healing the wound inflicted on 
the honour of this renowned eity. That the Lord will be 
graciously pleased to crown and consummate the mercies 
which he hath begun, in guiding the hearts of the people to 
choose for this next parliament, men of eminency for piety 
and prudence ; who may come with healing spirits, and make 
it their business to repair our breaches, and be the restorers 
of paths to dwell in ; who may lay to heart the interest of 
Christ and his church, and promote purity of doctrine and 
worship, due administration of holy ordinances, and what- 
ever may conduce to the power of godliness and the comfort 
of all that love the Lord Jesus in sincerity ; that he will be 
pleased to set his eyes and his heart upon this city for good, 
and to dwell in it night and day, to be a wall of fire about it, 
and the glory in the midst of it, to appoint salvation for 
walls and bulwarks unto it, is and shall be the hearty 
prayer of. 

Your most humble and faithful servant in the Lord, 

Ed. Reynolds. 
March 14, 1659. 


ZECH. ii. 5. 

Fwt /, with the Lordj will he unto her a mall of fin roumi 
alnmty and will be the glory in the nUdst of her. 

Two gracious visioDs the Lord giveth our prophet in the 
fonner chapter : one, of a * man riding amongst the myrtle 
trees* in the bottom ; Christ in his despised church at Baby- 
lon ; — the other, of * four carpenters/ sent to fray and cast 
oat the horns, which had scattered the church: — by both, 
giTiog an assurance, that he would disappoint the enemies of 
bis afflicted people. 

We have here, in this chapter, another vision, of a man 
with ^ a measuring line in his hand,^ to shew that the Lord 
was now in a readiness to build and restore the city and 
temple ; the former, we find accordingly done by the care of 
Nehemiah, Chap, iii, and Chap. vi. 16; the latter by Joshua 
and 2^rubbabel, Ezra vi. 14, 16. 

Now whereas it is here said, ver. 4, That Jerusalem should 
be inhabited * as towns without walls,* which may seem, 1. 
to cross the history, Neh. vi. 16, where we find that the wall 
was finished ; — 2. to discourage the people, who having such 
potent and malicious adversaries round about, as they had, 
should by that means be exposed to all the assaults and im- 
pressions which they should make upon them : — The mean- 
ing is, that though the city within the walls were very spa- 
cious, yet the people should return in so great abundance, 
(as Josephus * reports they did) that multitudes should be 
constrained to lie without the walls, unto whom the Lord 
promiseth to be himself a wall and defence.*' 

They were now called to build the city and temple ; two 
great discouragements they meet with in that enterprize, 
danger and scorn. {Neh. iv. 8, and i. 3, 7, 8, 9. Neh. vi. 1, 
10. Ezra iv. 4, 6) The Lord here, by a gracious promise, 
fortifieth them against the fear of both ; against the fear of 
' danger,** by promising to be their protection ; and against 

• Antiq. L U.c4. ^ Isai. U. 22. Jer.xui. 27. 


the fear of * scorn,^ by promising to be their glory. — " When 
they are without walls, I will be their wall ; when they are 
without gates, I will be their gate; my salvation will be a 
bulwark unto them ; they shall call their walls salvation, and 
their gates praise." (Isa. xxvi. 1, and Ix. 18) 

The words set forth the Lord opposing all the enemies, 
removing all the fears of his people, by a double promise, 
of * protection,' against all powerful oppositions, of ' honour' 
against all reproachful insultation;*. 

In both it is considerable ; 1 . The author and substance of 
it, ** I, saith the Lord." 2. The subject of it, * Jerusalem/ 
I will be ' unto her.^ 3. The description of it. 1-. Of the 
protection, by the metaphors of a ' wall and of fire,^ and the 
place of that, * in circuitu, round about.^ 2. Of the honour, 
and the place of that, ' I will be for glory/ or ^ the glory in 
the midst of her.' 

A weak people met together about a hated and invidious 
enterprise, opposed by strong, subtle, vigilant, active, mali- 
cious adversaries, had need to have a help to defend them. 
** I, saith the Lord, will be a help, a wall unto them." 

But potent enemies can batter walls and scale them: 
iEzek. xxi. 22. Prov. xxi. 22) " Nay,'' saith the Lord, " I 
will prevent that fear, * I will be a wall of fire,' which the 
enemy shall not dare come near or touch." 

^ut a wall may have gaps and breaches in it; the gates 
may be pulled down and consumed, as we find they were, 
Neh. i. 3, and vi. 1 : and then whatever the wall be, the 
breaches will let in the enemy. The poor church is never 
without some breaches or other, called the breaches of the 
city of David, Isa. xxii. 9. Some gates pulled down, to lay 
them open to danger. But every work of God is perfect. 
{Deut. xxxii. 4) Where he is a wall, he will be a wall, ' in 
circuitu,' round about ; no breach, no gap ; no gate or port- 
cullis pulled down, by which danger may enter in. 

But if the wall be fire, what will become of the houses of 
the city ? — " I will, saith the Lord, be a wall unto her," not 
a wall against her. ^' It is ' dativus commodi ;' a beneficial 
fire to the city, a consuming fire to the enemy that assaults 
her: A fire for the three children to walk in*; a fire for their 

« Dan. iii. 25, 22. 

S£RV. XVUI.] or J£HU8AL£U. 233 

enemies to perish by ; a fire in the bush to ^ Moses ; a fire in 
brimstoae to Sodom * ; a destroying fire to the captaias of 
Abazmh ' ; and a triumphal fire, a chariot of fire to the Lord^t 
prophet. * 

But a wall may shut men and their misery in together; 
the wall of a prison or dungeon is no great comfort to those 
that are shut within it. It may be sad enough ' iu medio»* 
though there be a wall ' in circuitu.** 

We have a relief against that too : As the Lord is ' a wall 
of fire round aboui^ to keep out the enemy, so he is ' The 
glory in the midst of Jerusalem,* to comfort his people. 
Prorideoce is expressed by a circumference with an eye in 
the centre. God is here both in the circumference and in 
the centre of Jerusalem : a severe providence * in circuitu/ to 
keep off the enemy; a gracious providence 'in medio/ to 
honour and revive his people : ** Ignis et eiitium hostibus, 
gloria et subsidium ecclesiae.'' 

The poor church was miserably opposed and oppressed 
by the potency of their enemies on every side. But against 
them all they have a God to put into the other part of the 
balance : God alone is eminently unto his people, whatever 
good thing else they want. In widowhood, he is a hus- 
band;—*' Thy Maker is thine husband.'*' (/m. liv. 5) In 
orphanship, he is a father;--'* A father of the fatherless is 
God in his holy habitation.^ (Psalm Ixxxviii. 6) In dark- 
ness, a sun, — in danger, a shield; (Psalm Ixxxiv. 11) a re- 
fbge in trouble, a river in drought; (Psalm Ixvi 1, 4) a safety 
where there is no wall, a praise where there is no gate, a 
light where there is no sun; (Isa. Ix. 18, 19) a God of saU 
ration in whom his servants can triumph, where all other 
comforts in the world are wanting. (Hab. iii. 17, 18) 

Let us hold fast our God, and we need not fear our enemy. 
'* If God be for us, who can be against us 7*^ (Rom. viii. 31) 
If he justify, who can condemn ? If he love, who can sepa- 
rate ? Many will be against us to hate us ; but none can be 
against us to hurt us. Many will gird and gird again ; many 
will take counsel, and make a decree ; many will rant it with 
Pharaoh, " 1 will pursue, I will overtake, I will divide the 

^ Exod. iii. 2. • Gen. six. 24. ^ 2 Kings i. 10, 12. 

I 2Kiiifiii. U. 



Bpoil, my lust sliall be satisfied, I will draw my sword, mine, 
hand shall destroy." {Erod. xv. 9) " Agam, ruam, rapiam, 
tundani, prostemam," as the proud confident in the Come- 
dian ; — but if he be Emmanuel, God with us, — they shall be 
broken; their counsels shall not stand; their decrees shall 
come to nought; he will strengthen, be will help, he will 
uphold with the right hand of his righteousness, (ha. viii. 
9, 10. xli. 10) Let the name of your city be ' Jehovab 
iSbammah,' ' the Lord is there ;' be zealous for his truth and 
worship, for bis name and glory : let him be ' in medio,' in th« 
midst of your hearts, to fear him, — of your counsels, to fol- 
low him, — of your houses, your trades, your conversatioa, 
to walk with bim. Provoke bim not by yaur impieties against 
him, by your unrighteousness against men : and then, if there 
be any help or comfort against danger in heaven or earth, he 
can command it ; if there be none, he can create it : wbaterer 
is wanting, he can supply and make it good out of himself} 
" I will be a wall."'' 

1. A wall of partition to separate the church from the 
world ; as tlie land of Canaan was divided by the Mediterrfr^ 
nean sea westward, by the inland seas, and the river Jordan 
eastward, and at each end north and south with mountaiDB 
80 the church of God ' is severed and shut up from the rest of 
the world. Israel dwelt alone, and was not 'reckoned 
amongst the nations.' (Numb, xxiii. 9) They are chosen 
of the world.' (JohnxY. 19) 'A garden enclosed, a spring 
fihut up, a fountain sealed,' (Caril. iv. 1*2) their laws diverge 
from all people ; {Esther iii. 8) they are not to conform to 
the world, {Rom. xii. 2) nor to walk xar' cdanu. {Eph. ii. 2) 
The world knows them not ; [ 1 John iii) but looks on ibem 
prodigies, and men to be wondered at. {Zech. iii. 8) 

2. A wall of conjunction, uniting the parts together in one 
k^mmon interest, as the brain is walled in by the skull, the 
VTital parts by the ribs and the breast, to keep them firm and 

se together, that they may not be scattered nor divided. 
Though the membere of the church are called out from the 
world, and are to separate from that ; yet they are to be 
compacted and united within themselves; (Ptalm cxxii. 3] 
to be of one heart, and of one soul ; (Actt iv. 32) to hold 

■> PHlml1iv.4. Isai.iT.a. 

I Atie- dc B»p. I. S. c. 27, a 


vmty of the tpirit, in the bond of peace ; to have a coagmeo- 
tmtion and joining together. (Eph. iy. 16) Factions and di- 
▼itions in the church, are usually the fruits of the flesh : when 
€Xie is of Paul, another of Apollos, are ye not carnal? (1 Cor, 
ill. 4) The apostle warns us to take heed of such as cause 
dirisions and ofiences, contrary to the doctrine received, as 
those that serve not the Lord Jesus, but their own bellies* 
(1 Cor. iii. 3. Rom. xvi. 17, 18) We have seen, by very sad 
experience, when there hath been no wall nor enclosure to 
boond and keep within some principles of unity, the wild and 
eieoffbitant spirits of men, who, either acted by interest, or 
driving on designs, or possessed with prejudice against re- 
ceived doctrines, have departed from sound truth and bro- 
therly love, — what flames and confusions have overspread 
these nations, once famous for unity in orthodox troth ! what 
forsaking of ordinances, what magnifying of deceitful lights, 
what rage against ministry, what violations of magistracy, 
what bleeding of princes, what breaking of parliaments, what 
phieoetick and furious extravagances and disorders have 
stained the glory of the reformed religion amongst us ! The 
evidence of these doleful effects should now, at last, awaken 
the spirits of all wise, godly, and sober persons, to close in 
■ome healing and uniting counsels ; not to foment animosi- 
ties, nor cherish jealousies one against another, but studying 
every man his own failings, to be the more renuss in cen- 
suring, and the more inclinable unto closing with, their 
Christian brethren. Why should we shut any out of our 
love here, whom we dare not exclude from the common sal- 
vation hereafter ? And, indeed, when the Lord is pleased to 
send a spirit of unity and agreement amongst a people, to 
make them tender of each other^s safety, and to look on the 
welfare of the parts, as the common interest of the whole ; 
they are hereby a wall unto one another, as NabaPs servants 
said of David and his men. (I Sam. xxv. 26) Every thing is 
best preserved, when most united. It is easy to break the 
stacks of a fagot, when the bond is loosed, and they severed 
each from other ; but while they are bound together, they 
mutually preserve each other. Love is a *bond/ {Col. iii. 
14) The integrity of the body is preserved by the love of 
the members unto one another. Therefore nature hath 
taught weak cattle to keep together in flocks, and fishes in 


shoals, and birds in flights ; whereas beasts of prey live com^ 
monly alone, as lions, whales, eagles, kites. '^ A kingdom, 
divided within itself, cannot stand f therefore as Christ is 
not divided, (1 Cor. i. 13) would not have his bones broken, 
nor his garment parted ; so neither should his church. Site 
is never so terrible, as when she is an army with banners, 
united and compacted into one body. 

3. A wall of protection and defence. As the Lord pro- 
miseth to encamp about his house and to defend them. 
(Zech: ix. 8, 15) He is a rock, a tower, a shield, a chamber, 
a sanctuary, and here a wall, to preserve and protect his 
pe6ple. ^ Ghreat hath ever been the care of states, to keep 
the walls and gates of cities inviolable ; in the Roman law \ 
they are called * Res Sanctse et Divini Juris,' sacred things, 
and in no case to be injured,- and it was a capital crime to 
climb over them. We read in Diodorus Siculus "*, what care 
Tbemistocles took to build a wall about Athens; because 
walls are a great defence and protection to the cities, to 
which they belong. 

The Lord doth thus, as a wall, protect his church. 1. In 
a way of promise, '* I, saith the Lord ;'' his saying it, is doing 
it. His word is operative and efficacious. God's promises 
are the walls about his church. Every thing is preserved by 
the same word whereby it is created. " He upholdeth all 
things by the word of his power.**' {Heb. i. 3) His servants 
count themselves safe under his promise ; they trust in his 
word. {Psalm cxix. 61) 

2. In a way of power, making bare his arm in their cause, 
then when all second helps fail and are at a stand. Such a 
defence he was to Israel at the Red Sea, when death was before 
and behind, and on every side of them ; so that they were 
able to do nothing, but only to ' stand still, and see the sal- 
vation of the Lord.'" 

3. In a way of Providence. 1. By creatures, with whom 
he maketh a covenant in behalf of his people, that they 
shall * not hurt in all his holy mountain.' Of this league we 
read. Job v. 23. if cm. ii. 18. Exek. xxxiv. 26. 2. By ene- 
mies, making * Moab a covert for his outcasts ; {Isai. xvi. 

k Psilm xviii. 2. cxliv. 2. Dcut. xxiiii. 29. Isai. xxvi. 20. viii. 14. ' Jus- 

tin. liutit. I. 2. Tit. 1. sect. 10. « Lib. 1 1. n Exod. xiv. 13. 


4) as dead thorns are a fence about a garden. He doth 
sometimes not only restrain the wrath of e?il men, as he did 
Laban and Esau^s from hurting Jacob ; but doth make them 
helpful and bene6cial unto them, as the dissension between 
the Pharisees and Sadducees was to Paul : {Acts xxiii. 6, 7) 
ms the Egyptians lent their jewels unto Israel, to hasten them 
away. {ElxocL xii. 35, 36) 3. By casualties, ordering con- 
tingent erents, and various incoherent emergencies to the 
protection of his people ; as the noise in the mulberry trees ; 
(2 Sam, T. 24) the shining of the sun on the waters ; (2 Kingt 
ill. 22) the sodden ii.cursion of the Philistines; (1 Sam, xxiii. 
27, 28f the chain of fortuitous erents, which we may observe 
in the history of Joseph, and in the book of Esther. 

4. In a way of grace, the Lord planting such beauties and 
imys of spiritual majesty upon his servants, as causeth their 
▼ery adrersaries to reverence them, and fear to annoy them ; 
am Herod did John ; and Felix, Paul ; for ' wisdom maketh a 
man^s face to shine.' {Eccles. viii. 1) There are flowers 
which they call wall- flowers; and there are graces, which I 
maj call walUgraces, which have a special protecting virtue 
in them : Innoctncy^ whereby we put to silence the fro- 
wardness of foolish men : (1 Pet, ii. 16) Wi$dom, which God 
hath given for a defence. {Fjccles. vii. 12) By this, Abigail 
diverted the ruin intended agaiiiHt Nabal and his family. 
Meekness and humiliti/: for the lowest things are safest. A 
tempest breaks an oak, but not the ears of corn which yield 
onto it. A cannon-bullet battereth a lofty tower of marble^ 
which is deaded by a raw mud-wall. ^ A soft spirit tumeth 
away wrath.' (Prov, xv. 1) \lo\y fort itu(ky which is a fence 
against terror. (Prov, xxviii. 1) Spiritual 'peace and joy/ 
which is a garrison to the heart. {Phil, iv. 7) The joy of 
the Lord is the strength of his servants. {Nehem, viii. 10) 
The invincible power of faith, which is a shield against Satan, 
and our victory over the world. (Kph, vi. 16. 1 John v. 4) 
Hope, the anchor of the soul, the whetstone of Chribtian 
courage : the more we expect for the future, the securer we 
are for the present against the fear of evil. Lastly, The 
spirit oi supplication f which flies to the name of the Lord as 
a strong tower; which wrestles and prevails with God; 
' Vincit invincibilem, ligat omnipotentem ;' and therefore is 
a principal part of the Christian |>auoply. {Eph, vi. 18) And 


thus 18 the Lord a wall of protection to his church ; in a way 
of promise ; in a way of power; in a way of Providence ; or- 
dering creatures, enemies, casualties to the defence of his 
people ; and in a way of grace. 

And his protection is like that of a wall, in these two 
respects: 1. He is a near, present, ready defence.® Evil 
may be at hand, when help is too far off to come seasonably 
in. But the wall joins, and is near unto the city : such a de- 
fence the Lord is ; a present help in trouble. {Psaim xlvi. 1) 
A God near at hand, not in a journey, or a sleep, or out of 
the way, when he should help us. {Jer. xxiii. 23) Nigh unto 
his people, in all that they call upon him for. {Deut. iv. 7, 
Psalm Ixxxv. 9) 

2. An adequate and proportionable defence. A wall de- 
fends a city on every side. As the enemies compass the 
church about with danger, (Psalm xxii. 12, 16, and cxviii. 
10, \2) so doth the Lord compass it with mercy. {Psalm 
xxxii. 10) 

But the strongest walls, though of iron or brass, (for such 
we read of, Ezek, iv. 3. Jer. xv.20) may, by military engines, 
be scaled, battered, or demolished. Therefore the Lord, to 
shew that he is an impregnable protection, saith, that he will 
be *^ a wall of fire,^' which cannot be scaled nor broken down ; 
which consumes all engines that attempt any thing against 
it; as the flaming sword kept the way of the tree of lifeP; 
the pillar of fire secured Israel « ; fire in the bush kept any 
from coming near to cut off the boughs, and yet did not 
itself consume them. He is a fire in the enemy^s wall, to 
overturn it; {Jer, xlix. 27) but to Jerusalem, he is a wall of 
fire to defend it. He once defended the church with a wall 
of water ; {Exad. xiv. 22) and still defends it as a wall of a 
fire,-— by himself, who is a consuming fire*^; (Heb, xii. 29) 
by his angels, who are a flaming fire. {Psalm civ. 4) There- 
fiore Solomon carved chembims on the walls of the temple, 
(2 Chronl 3, 7) to signify, that angels are the walls of the 
church. The angel of the Lord encampeth round about 
them that fear him, to deliver them. Psalm xxxiv. 7) 

o Ezempla dmna costodia in praesentissiinis pericttlis. — Vide in Philippt Ca- 
meniii ' Horis Subsecivtt,' put. 2. cap. 7. p Gen. iii. 24. 4 Exod. 

zi?. 19, 20. r eto^f voXd trv^o^t vocat Plato. Diog. Laert. in Platone. 

Vid. Raynold. Lect. Apocryp. Lect. 47. 


And bU protectiou is like fire in these four respects. 

1. It is terrible and conspicuous, which, in a wonderful 
vmwn^, doth strike fear into his enemies ; as he promised to 
go before bis people as a ^ consuming fire.^ {DaU. ix, 3) 
The prophet describes the terrible majesty of the Lord by a 
* throne of fire* f (Euk. i. 26, 27) and the glorious coming 
of Christ by ' flames of iire.' (2 Tke$s. i. 8, 9) We are bid 
to ' praise him in the fires,' (Isa. xxiv. 15) for those conspi- 
cuous mercies, whereby he hath shewed himself a ' consum- 
log fire^ in behalf of his people. He answereth his people by 
terrible things ; {Psalm Ixv. 5) things which they looked not 
for; {ha. Iziv. 3) to make his name known unto his adrer- 

2. It is an impregnable and invincible defence. Other 
waUs, though high, though broad, by battering rams hare 
been demolished, and by mounts scaled. The walls of Ba- 
byloo were two hundred feet high, and fifty feet broad, as 
IHodorus Siculus, Pliny, and Herodotus report*; yet even 
tbeie were broken down. {Jer. li. 58) But no man dare 
climb, no engines can be applied against, a wall of fire ; it 
will devour the batteries^ that are made against it 

3. It is a constant and perpetual defence : for this is not a 
wastiog, but a fixed fire ; like that in the bush, which did 
not consume it, but dwelt in it. (Dent, xxxiii. 16) He is a 
son and a shield ; his protection is an enduring thing, as the 
file of the sun. {Psalm Ixxxiv. 11, and Ixxxix. 36) The de- 
fiance which is over his glory, upon the assemblies of Sion, 
Tiz. the pillar of the cloud, and of fire, is * never taken away.' 
(/so. ir. 5. Exod. xiii. 22) 

4. It is an active, an offensive, an efficacious defence. 
Other walls are defensive only, to prohibit and hinder as- 
saolts : but a wall of fire doth fight for those whom it doth 
defend. It is not only a wall, but a magazine ; not only a 
fience, but a weapon ; not only a muniment, but an army. 
As Israel's wall of water did drown Pharaoh; so the three 
children's wall of fire, did devour those that threw them into 
it Tlie protection of God about his church, is a most oper- 
sttTe and a most efficacious protection. 

We have taken a view of the wall : let us consider the city 

• Job julztU. 22. t Diod. Sicul. lib. 1 . cap. 4.— P/tn. Hist. Nat lib. 6. 

a^ 3S .r— HrrcNfol. lib. I. p. 74. bdit. Grsco-Lat. 


thus walled, the subject of this defence. I will be vnto her^ 
unto Jerusalem, the city of the great God. Where his dwell- 
ing is, there is his defence ; as men used to mound the places 
of their habitation. The more a people have of God's pre- 
sence, the more they have of his protection. His covering is 
upon his glory, (/sn. iv. 5) His angels guard us ' in viis, 
non in praecipitiis.' {Psalm xci. II) When we go to appear 
before the Lord, the enemy shall not desire our land ; (Ejtod. 
xxxiv. 24) but if we have our back upon Jerusalem ^, we are 
out of his protection : as he that went from Jerusalem to 
Jericho. (Luke x. 30) 

Consider, in the church, property, and preciousness ; they 
are God^s own. ' Judea was called Emmanuel's land ; Zion, 
his rest. (Psalm cxxxii. 14) They are in special manner his 
people. (Isa. Ixiii. 19, and Ixiv. 9. Ezek. xvi. 8) And they 
are his precious and ' peculiar treasure, his jewels.'^ (Mai. 
iii. 17) And property in precious things, will certainly pro- 
cure protection. Consider, in the Lord^ his love and his 
promise ; his grace and his fidelity. His eyes and his heart 
are perpetually upon his church. (1 Kings ix. 3) She is 
graven on the palms of his hands. (Isa. xlix. 16) They that 
touch her, touch ' the apple of his eye.' (Zech, ii. 8) He 
will never suffer his beloved to be unprotected ; especially 
having engaged his promise, that ' the gates of hell shall not 
prevail against iV (Mat. xvi. 18) 

And that they may not prevail against it, the protection 
must be complete ; a wall must be round about it ; the de- 
fence must be answerable to the assault. The church in the 
wilderness marched in a four-square body, with the tabemn- 
cle of the congregation in the midst of them, and their 
standards on every side, as we find Numb. ii. The standards 
were as a wall of fire', ' Jehovah-Nissi/ and the tabernacle 
the glory in the midst of them. The enemies of the church 
are on every side. * Impius in circuitu,' (Psalm xii. 8) 
' Satan in circuitu ;' (Job i. 7. 1 Pet. v. 8) to devour the 
church : and therefore, here, * Ignis in circuitu, et Deus in 
circuitu,' (Psalm cxxv. 2) to defend the church. * Angels 
in circuitu.' (Zech. i. II) The eyes of the Lord run to and 

^ Au$. Quast. Evtng. lib. 2. qu. 19. x Enirrat. in Psalm 60. Hy- 

pognostic. lib. 3. c. 8. J Psilm cxzzv. 4. > Exod. irit. 15. 


ho, in erery place, to behold the evil and good. (2 Chron. 
jnri 9. Pro€. xt. 3) When there are four homt on the four 
•idea of the church to acatter it, there are four carpentera in 
« like proportion on every aide, to fray them away and to 
rescue it. {Zeck. i. 18, 21) Our protection ia ever suitable 
to our danger: the atronger the aaeault, the greater the as- 
Mlaoce. With every temptation, the Lord opena an escape, 
that we may be able to bear it. (1 Cor. x. 13) 

We aee all ia well about the church, a wall of fire round 
mbont it If all be well within it too, it muat needs be a 
Ittppy body : and so certainly it is, for he who is * Murua in 
circttita,^ is likewise ' gloria in medio i* I will be the glory 
ia the midst of it 

Glory, passively. In nothing, is God glorified so much aa 
in building, restoring, protecting his church ; glorified in all 
his creatores, but * admired in hia sainta.' (2 Tktu. i. 10) 
Ho where is his name so great as in Israel. (Ptalm Ixxvi. 1) 
'* When he buildeth up Sion, then it ia that he appears in 
his glory .^ (P$alm cii. 16) 

Glory, actively ; by making hia church ' honourable and 
glorions;' aa he saith, he will do, /lo. xi. 10, and xliii. 4, 
nod Ix. 13. 

Erery nation hath aome one or other good thing, which 
reod^reth them considerable in the eyea of others, and ia es- 
teemed their glory. Some famous for gold and ailver, aa 
Opbir ; aome for spices and precioua fruits of the earth, aa 
India ; aome for corn, as Bgypt ; some for balsama, as Pa- 
lestine; aome for valour and justice, aa the Romana; aome 
lor arta and learning, as the Greciana ; but the auperlative 
gkxry of Jeruaalem is, that ** their God is their glory."' 
(/j0.1x. 19. Jer. ii. 11) 

It is true, worldly glory is in much more abundance 
other men. The great monarchies of the world 
been amongat Assyrians, Chaldeans, Persiana, Greciana, 
; and therefore Symmachus, a heathen, useth this aa 
an argument, why we should adhere to the old Roman 
heathen religion, because that flourished, but Christianity waa 

But thia external glory, though it dazzle the eye, and tickle 
the lancy, hath no solid and permanent goodness, or propor- 
tioned to immortal souls. It cannot remove the guilt of one 

VOL. V. B 


sin ; it cannot give one grain of qaiet to a troubled condc^ 
ence; much less replenish the soul in the latitude of its 
desires. God alone brings * fulness^ with him. {Bpkks. iii. 19) 
All other people of the world have the glory of his works ; 
and so he is not far from any of them ; XAch xvii. 27) 

PrsBsentemque refert quaelibet herba D^utn. 
And yet they are said to be without God in the world; 
{Ephes, ii. 12) but the Lord is in the midst of his church ;*- 

1. By his spiritual residence, and gracious presence with 
them. Moses prays, '^ I beiseech thee, shew mb thy' glory.** 
{Exod. xxxiii. 18) And God answers, ** I will make all my 
goodness to pass before thee :'' he shews his glory, when he 
Broclaims his goodness. In Israel is the perfection of glory. 
\Pudm I. 2) To Israel pertains the adoption, and therefbre 
the glory. (JRom. ix. 4) Of the church only, are glorious 
things spoken. (Psalm Ixxxvii. 3) The church is his throne ; 
the world, but his foot^stool. (Jisr. xvii. 12) In the church, 
is the splendor of his royal majesty principally seen : eviden- 
ces whereof in the tabernacle and temple, were, the cloud 
which filled the house, (1 Kings viii. 11) and the voice which 
q>ake from ofi* the mercy-seat. (Numb, vii. 89) 

2. He is the glory in the midst of his church by his holy 
ordinances, the means of life and salvation. The a);)o^tle 
calleth it, * a glorious gospel;* (1 Tim. i. 11) and frequently 
maketh mention of the riches of the glory thereof, (RomAx. 
23. Ephes. iii. 8. Col. i. 27) to take ofi* the scandal and con- 
tempt, which ignorant men might be apt to cast upon it. 
Therein all divine excellencies are more radiant and resplen- 
dent, than in all his other works. He hath '^ magnified his 
word above all his name.** (Psalm; cxxxviii. 2) Therein is 
conspicuous his manifold wisdom, in contriving a way to 
punish the sin, and yet to save the sinner ; to reconcile the 
seeming cross demands both of justice and mercy, that the 
one may be satisfied, and the other magnified: (Ephes. iii. 10) 
His free and glorious grace, so superabounding above mil the 
abundance of our sins: (Ephes. i. 6. Rom. Vw 20, 21) His 
mighty power, in rescuing us out of the kingdom of darkness, 
in changing our wills, subduing our lusts, captivating our 
thoughts, cleansing our consciences, pulling down strong- 
holds and imaginations, and every thing that exalteth itself 
against the knowledge of God: (2 Cor. x. 4, 5. Ephes: i. 19, 

sfesiir. mii.] ov jerusaleit. 243 

20) Hui glorious hoKnets, tnmsforaiing as into the image 
of his dear Son : (2 Cor. iii. 18. Lvke i. 74, 75) His eternal 
blessednesSy who in the gospel is set forth, as the hope and 
treasure, the life and salTation, of those that trust in him. 
(CM. i. 27, and iii. 3, 4) For glory, arising from a manifeiw 
tation of excellencies, all the divine virtues and excellencies 
of God are more conspicuous in the gospel of grace, than in 
all other his works or dispensations. The saving light of 
•operoamral mysteries, the hearenly beauties of spiritual 
worship, the shining lustre of evangelieal obedience,—- all set 
forth the glory of those ordinances, wherein they are disco- 
vered and prescribed. 

3. As by his gracious presence, and his divine ordinancM^ 
•o by the most happy state wherein to we are translated, is 
die Lord the glory in the midst of his church. That state 
standeth in glorious relations, glorious habits, and glorious 

There are two glorious relations, belonging to this happy 

1. A relation of righteousness, the guilt of sin being Re- 
moved ; and the sinner by the gift of the righteousness of 
Christ reconciled unto Ood, and so enabled to glory, though 
not in hiitiself, yet in the Lord. (1 Cor, i. 31) 

2. A relation of Sonship, whereby we are estated by gnu 
cious adoption, in a heavenly nobility, and have right to a 
glorious inheritance ; ( 1 John iii. 1 ) are a kind of first-fruits 
of the creatures; {James i. 18) fellow-heirs with Christ; 
{Rom. viii. 17) princes of the people ; {PsaL xlvii. 9) nobles 
of men. {Acts xvii. 11) All the world is not able to heap 
so much honour upon a man, as this one l^ooo-ls or dignity, 
of being ' the sons of God.' 2. In glorious habits ; whereby 
we are transformed into the image of Christ, who is the glory 
of God ; for God doth most notably express his glory in any 
creature, by fashioning that creature to the likeness of his 
SOD. This image standeth in these three things : 

L In holiness. {Ephes. iv. 24) Holiness sets forth God^s 
own glory; he is glorious in holiness. {Exod. xv. 11) The 
angels are honoured with the title of ' saints;' {Deut, xxxiii. 
2) and our primitive condition, wherein we were created 
after the image of God, is called a 'state of honour.' (Pm/. 
xlix. 20, and cxlix. 9) 

R 2 


2. la peace and spiritual joy ; for faith in the promises 
of salvation, giving a kind of preexistence unto the glory 
to come, and causing a believer to wait with quiet assurance 
in the hope thereof, doth, thereupon, fill the soul with *' the 
peace of God, which passeth understanding,^ and causeth 
it *' to rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory .^' 
(I Pet. i. 8) 

3. In blessedness ; which is the consummation of holiness 
and peace in the presence of God, which is, x«r* ^o^^v 
called by the name of ' glory.' (Col. iii. 4) 

3. In glorious privileges and immunities belonging to the 
citizens of Jerusalem *; liberty from the tyranny of Satan, 
and powers of darkness ^ communion in the love and pray- 
ers of all saints ; (1 John i. 7) boldness to come unto the 
throne of grace ; {Ephes. iii. 12. Ueb. iv. 16) victory over 
enemies and temptations ; nothing being able to separate us 
from the love of God, the spirit of glory resting upon us, 
even in our sufferings, and enabling us to glory in them. 
{Rom. V. 3. Ads v. 41) As the cloud in the temple is called 
' the glory of the Lord,' (1 Kingi viii. 10, 11) so the Lord 
is the glory of his people, even when they are filled with 
clouds of affliction. It is a great glory to suffer honourably 
as well as to do so ; ^* et facere et pati fortia, Romanum 
est." The lily is as beautiful in the midst of thorns, as in a 
bed of spices. 

We have seen how the Lord is a defence and protection 
to his people ; a wall of separation from the world, of con- 
junction within themselves, of protection from danger by his 
promise, by his power, by his providence, by his grace ; a 
present defence, a proportionable defence. ' A wall of fire,' 
by a terrible and conspicuous, an impregnable and invin- 
cible, a constant and perpetual, an active and efficacious 
defence. A wall of fire to Jerusalem, his most proper and 
most precious resting-place, unto which be is by choicest 
love and fidelity engaged. A wall round about to prevent 
enemies which are round about : the protection suitable to 
the danger. 

The ' glory in the midsf of it, by his gracious presence, 
by his holy ordinances, by the happy state of the church, in 

ft Ephes. ii. 19. b Joha Yiii. 36. 


tfie gkyrioot relmtions of justification and adoption in the 
l^orioos habits of holiness, peace, and blessedness. In glo- 
rious pririleges, of Christian liberty, communion of saints, 
boldness in piayer, Tictoiy orer temptations and aflSictions, 
with many other the like. I shall add but a short word of 
application, and suddenly hare done. 

1. We learn hence, what a folly, as well as wickedness, 
it is for Samaritans to oppose the building of Jerusalem, or 
tiie temple ; for any enemies to set themselres against the 
chorch of God ; — as great a madness as for briers to contend 
with flames ; for stubble to wage war with fire ; for a sheaf 
(as the prophet makes the instance, Zech. xii. 6) to enter 
into battle with a flaming torch, (ha. xxvii. 4, 5) The 
whale may swallow Jonah, but it shall not digest him ; the 
graTe may devour Christy but he will kill death in its own 
dominion*, as Benaiah did the lion in his own pit ' A man 
may drink down a cup of poison *, but it will suddenly be 
rerenged on him. It is madness to proToke the Lord, being 
weaker than he. (1 Cor. x. 12) ''Wo unto him that striv- 
eth with his Maker.^ {I$a. xlr. 9) 

2. We need not make use of carnal wisdom, and sinftil 
means for protection against danger; for God can be alone 
a wall of fire unto his people. Use not oppression or vio- 
lence to help yourselves ; for power and mercy belong unto 
God. (Psalm Ixii. 10, 12) David was advised by those 
about him, once and again, to kill Saul when he was in his 
power, and so to secure himself; but he answered, * God 
forbid that I should touch the Lord^s anointed :' he trusted 
in God, and would not use carnal wisdom for his own safety. 
(1 Sam. xxiv. 47, and xxvi. 8, 11) This wall of fire can 
better protect us, than all the broad or high walls of Jericho 
or Babylon. It is good keeping in Jerusalem : in God'is 
presence, in his way, so long we are within a * wall of fire.' 

3. This is great comfort unto holy men, that the very ter- 
rors of God are their protection. The terrors of God at 
Sinai and in the wilderness, were for the salvation of God^s 
people. {Hab. iii. 13) As the mercy of God will not save 
those that despise it ; so the fury of God will be a defence 

« Acts ii. 24. 1 Cor. xy. 57. d 2 Sun. uiii. 20. • Zcch. 



uDto those, that tremble at it No attribute of Qqd, but 
faith, can suck comfort from it 

4. Envy not the glory of the world, nqr the pomps and 
pleasures thereof, to those whose portion is in thi^ life ; but 
rest abundantly satisfied with the glory of God^s presence 
shining in the face of Christy and those unsQarchahle riches 
wherewith he endoweth his church ; in comparison whereof, 
all the glories of the world are but dross and dung. If God 
would have the honour of his church to stand in outward 
lliings, — ' The silver is his, and the gold is his;' {Hag. ii« 8) 
* the cattle on a thousand mountains his.' {Psal. 1. 10) But 
as Abraham gave portions to his other children, but the in- 
heritance to Isaac, even all that he had; {Get^. xxv. 5) as 
princes, at their coronation, give wine and money to the 
multitude^ but honour to their favourites ; so the Lord giveth 
earthly things many times more liberally to the men of the 
worldj but bestoweth himself for a portion and exceeding 
gr^t reward unto his own people : — and they esteem him 
precious, (I Pet. ii. 7) and his promises precious, (2 Pei^ 
i. 4) and his redemption precious, {PsaL idix. 8) and. the 
rery afflictions which they suffer for bis sake^ precious. 
(1 Pei. i. 7) 

6. Above all things, hold fast God and bis presence. A 
city is never without walls or gates, without glory and splen^ 
dor, till they are without God. Your glory departs, when 
bis ordinances are removed. You may confidently promise 
yourself his protectiop, while you make his habitaition in the 
midst of you your greatest glory. .And therefore^ as be hath 
a long time been a ' wall of fire' about you ; in all tb^ con- 
fusions of a bloody war, no alarm hath startled or stormed 
you, though there were angry men, who shook their arm 
against London, as the Assyrian against Jerusalem. {I$a. x. 
32) That said ^' It would never be well with England, till 
London were in a flame ;^ yet you have had no flame about 
you, but ' a wall of fire,* and chariots of fire, as the prophet 
had. (2 Kifigs vi. 17) As therefore the Lord hath protected 
you, and been the glory in the midst of London ; (for I am 
persuaded it is a sober truth, that no city in the Christian 
world hath had a more glorious presence of God by the light 
of his word, and the purity of his worship and ordinances, 
than London hath had,) so make it your business, in an an- 


•werable proportion^ to bring glory to God, by zeal for the 
iTQt^, by love to the ordinances, by comforting the ministers, 
and encourBging them in the work of the Lord, by executing 
justice and judgement, reforming all abuses, setting up the 
oanie of God in your families ; preserving those that belong 
ubIq yoo, from the contagion of dangerous and dividing 
doctrines. God will be with you, while you are with him ; 
lia Mver breaks with a people first ; do you give glory to 
Ima^ and be will b^ glory to you. 

Utflly; If God be thus your glory » let your glorying be 
m btm alone. Gl^ry not in your strength, or wisdom, or 
wealth, or splendor, in your ships or trade, or in the harvest 
of Ike river. Glory only in your * wall of fire/ and in this, 
•^Diai the I#ord bath been hitherto so nigh unto you. And 
tndy you have great reason to bless the Lord, and to make 
jonr boast of him all the day long, as Sot remoter mercies 
wbickyon must not forget, though I cannot now recount 
tfien, so for those signal mercies, for the celebration whereof 
yoo are met together at this time. 

What a deluge of confusion these poor nations were run- 
ning into ! how deep the discontents of the people ! how 
ready the tinder of unsatisfied spirits, in all parts of the na. 
tioD, to take fire and break out into a flame ! in what danger 
the function of a learned and orthodox ministry, and the 
flsaintenance thereof, was to be devoured ! how desperately 
the ordinances were despised, the truths of religion rejected 1 
wkatdangerousdivulsionsd/Biilymore and more made from the 
unity of the church of God amongst us ! how near we were 
brought unto the brow of the precipice ! It is now our com- 
fort that we can, with thankfulness, recount, as surviving, 
so great dangers, as well as with sorrow bewail our exposed- 
ness unto them. 

How should our hearts be enlarged, and our mouths filled, 
and our lives acted, with the praises of the Lord ! what me- 
morials, and monuments, and Ebenezers should we every- 
where erect of those wonders, and terrible things which we 
looked not for; which the Lord hath wrought for us in a 
kind of parallel and proportion to those, which he wrought 
for Israel at the Red Sea ! 

That then, when force after force, and breach after breach, 
had been made upon the solemn conventions of the nations. 


and the ancient honour of the English parliaments had been 
ravished and prostituted to the will and passions of therr 
own servants ; when the licentiouGmess of the times made 
way for men of corrupt principles and daring confidence, 
* tantdm non' to spit in the face of magistracy and ministry, 
and all sobriety of judgement amongst us ; then for the Lord 
io stir up the spirits of all the people of the land as one man, 
solemnly to own their native liberties^ and with united affec- 
tions to implore the vindication of them ; then for the Lord 
to awaken an honourable instrument to assert the privileges 
and dignities of conculcated parliaments, and to restore the 
many grave and eminent members thereof to their long- 
interrupted right, and to the administration of their trust 
again ; to stand by this famous city, who had cheerfully, 
with their treasures, their swords, their lives, their counsels, 
aided and asserted the public engagements; — that then, 
when your hearts were ready to sink at the demolishing of 
your city gates, immediately they should be revived with 
the opening of your parliament gates, that those worthy 
patriots, lovers of truth and righteousness, might enter in ; — 
as we ought with great love and honour to respect the instru- 
ments, so ought we to ascribe the whole glory unto God 
alone, who only doth wondrous things ' ; at whose presence 
the mountains have flowed down and become a plain': 
who, if we follow on to know the Lord ^ if we provoke him 
not by murmuring against instruments, or by deifying of 
them, but second their endeavours with our prayers, and 
God'*s mercies with our praises, — will perfect what he hath 
begun. And as he hath laid the foundation, will so con- 
summate the whole structure of our settlement, that we shall 
at last bring forth the head-stone thereof, with shouting and 
acclamations, crybg, '< Grace, grace unto it i*^ ^ 

f Pulm lizii. 18. fflsai.lxiY. 1. iZech.iT. 7. 



8m tedi la A 8KRMON pradbdl Iwftn tlM Rifirt HgwrnnUt tlM 
Hmant of Engtuid, u St. Margartc's Church In W<tinintMr, on W( 
4mj^ April 25, 1000, being the Ant day of their AiMmhly. 

MAL iv. 2, 3. 

Btii unto you that fear my fMtme^ thall the Sun ofRigkteou$' 
neu ari$e with healing in hi$ wings ; and ye shall go forth, 
and grow up as cahes of the itaU: and ye shall tread doum 
the wicked. 

OuK prophet was the last of all the prophets of the Old 
Testament ; after which they were not to look for any other, 
till Elias the forerunner of the Angel of the Covenant (who 
was the great prophet of all) should come unto them. The 
church appears in his time to have been wofuUy corrupted, 
by those sharp reprehensions of priests and people, for cor- 
ruption of worship, for violation of covenant, for contumacy 
against God, for reproaching his ways, and passing a hard 
and false charge against his services, as if they were vain 
and fruitless. In the midst of this hypocritical people, the 
Lord had a holy remnant who feared his name, and spake 
often to one another. Both these seemed to call for the 
coming of Christ, and seemed to delight in the promise of 
the Angel of the Covenant, Chap. ii. 17, and iii. 1. And 
accordingly here is a promise of his coming speedily. But 
though desired by both, he should come with great differ* 
ence to the one and the other ; to the one after a terrible 
manner, ' with refining fire, and fuller's soap ; with fan and 


sword % with a spirit of judgement and burning ^, to con- 
sume the stubble, to gather the body of that wicked people 
into Jerusalem, as into an oven and furnace, and there with 
a final and absolute vavoXeSpta, to dissolve the Judaical 
polity, and leave them neither root nor branch, no visible 
hope of restitution again, Chap. iv. 1 : which was done by 
the army of the Romans under Titus. To the other, with a 
promise of comfort and reviving. (Chap. iii. 17) ''They 
shall be mine, in that day when I make up my jewels ; and 
I will spare them, ^as a man sparetb his own son that serveth 
him.'' And that so remarkable, that the reproach, cast by 
the wicked hypocrites upon the ways of God, ver, 14, 1& 
^ Ye have said. It is in vain to serve God : what profit 
is it that we have kept his ordinance, and that we have 
walked mournfully before the Lord of Hosts ? And now 
we call the proud happy/' 8cc. should be clearly con- 
futed, by the conspicuous difference which the Lord would 
make between the righteous and the wicked, verse 18: the 
one,t jewels and sons to be preserved and spared ; the other, 
stubble to be burnt and dissolved : the one, to be healed and 
restored ; the other, to be trodden down and despised. Con- 
cluding all with an awakening precept, that ''since they 
were not to expect any other prophet, till Elijah and Christ 
should come, they should therefore remember the law of 
Mo3e3, and thereby fit themselves for the entertainment of 
tjbaii) Messiah.^' 
.,7^6 words contain a gracious and discriminating mercy 
unto a holy remnant that feared God^s name, for their sup- 
po^rtance and comfort against the terror of the foregoing 
threatening, that unto them the ' Sun of Righteousness,^ the 
promised Messiah, should arise in his incarnation, with 
' falling in his wings ;' and when gross darkness did cover 
the people % and they did sit even in the shadow of death "*, 
QOt only veiled over with the shadows and ceremonies of the 
law, but miserably misled by the corrupt glosses of S^cribes 
and Pharisees, sold and devoured by their own shepherds % — 
wpfully oppressed under Alexander, Janneus, Uyrcanus, Aris- 
tobulus,— -subdued by Pompey into the form of a Roman 

• Match, iii. 12. x. 34. b i^i. jv. 4. e isai. U, 2. * isai. 

Y. 2. • Zecb. xi. 5. 

SeiiM. XltX.} HKALIKO IN TH£ CHUttCH. 25t 

pi^yiDcey and then sorely a£9icted under the tyranoy qf An- 
tiipter .and Herod ; that, aflter such a night of darkness and 
distress, the promised Messiah should came to break the 
yoke and rod of their oppressor ', and assert his people into 
light and liberty again. That be should come as the warm 
and welcome beams of the sun^ after a dead winter, or a 
^oomy and tempestuous night, to heal and remove all the 
sins and sorrows of his people. 

In the words, we have these particulars considerable) 
The discriminating grace of God between a remnant that 
feared his name, and the body of a corrupt and pro&ne pec* 
pie. 2. The supposition of a state of sickness and soreness, 
of sin and sorrow, under which even this holy remnant did 
lie ; with a gracious promise of ' healing* unto them. 3. The 
author of this healing, expressed metaphorically by the name 
of ' the Sun of Righteousness/ as, before, by the name of 
* the Angel, or Messenger of the Covenant.' 4. The means 
of deriving this healing from this Sun of Righteousness. 
(1.) His * rising.* (2.) His ' wings," or beams, which are the 
vehicula of all the light and virtue, which floweth forth from 
bioL 5. The proper and peculiar sabject of this healingv 
singled out by way of gracious compellation ; '•' Unto you that 
fear my name.^ 6. The effects and fruits of this healing, 
and they are three; (1.) Going forth, as recovered men used 
Co do, out^f their bed or chamber, when the sun shineth in 
a warm and beautiful day, to take the air and refresh them^ 
selves. (2.) Growing up, in stature, in strength, speedily, 
as iatted calves luxuriating in a full and pleasant pasture. 
(3.) Treading down and crushing the wicked as grapes in 
the press, as ashes under their feet, in a full and triumphant 

I shall handle the words thus distributed, after a double 
manner. 1. In the spiritual, proper, and theological sense 
of them, as they are apromii^ of Christ, and healing by him 
to an afflicted remnant of men that fear God^s name. 2. In 
an applicatory and particular sense, as they are suitable to 
the present solemnity and occasion. 

1. The church of God was, at this time, in a most defaced 
and corrupted condition : God's worship profaned ; his name 

t Isai. ix. 4, 10, 27. ' 


blasphemed ; his treasuries robbed : his jadgements qaes* 
tioned ; his reproofs despised : yet, in the midst of all this 
mbbishy there is a remnant according to the election of grace. 
Though the church be not always visibly glorious, yet, in 
the most collapsed state thereof, in the worst times, it is 
never without visible professors, who have stood up to bear 
witness unto persecuted truth. The Lord hath seven thou- 
sand in Israel > that had not bowed the knee to Baal. When 
our adversaries challenge us to shew where our church was 
before Luther, we answer, that *' In the midst of the greatest 
darkness and superstition^ there were such fundamental 
truths of faith, and repentance, and holy life retained, as the 
Lord no doubt did sanctify to the salvation of many, who 
lived in the body of the Roman church, and were, by their 
very ignorance, preserved from the dangerous superstnic- 
tions which the doctors of that church built upon that foun- 
dation; as the renowned Bishop Usher hath observed.^ 
2. There were, in no age, wanting holy and zealous men, 
who did boldly appear against the prevailing errors of the 
times ; as our learned men have largely proved in their His- 
torico-polemical writings; and large volumes have been 
written of the catalogues of such witnesses in every age of 
the church, who have declared against many corruptions of 
the times wherein they lived. But that there hath always 
been a visible conspicuous glory in the main 4ody of the 
church, is evidently disproved by the persecutions which 
prevailed from time to time against it. How did the Arian 
heresy overspread the worid, when such glorious lights as 
Athanasius and Hilary were persecuted for professing the 
truth !** " Ingemuit totus orbis,'' saith Jerome'^, *' et Arianum 
se esse miratus est.^ It is not less easy for us to find out 
our religion, and the professors thereof, in the corrupt ages 
of the church, than for them to find out theirs in the pure 
and primitive. 

Sure we are, in the worst times the Lord hath ever bad a 
people that feared his name ; whose hearts he hath by select 
promises and comforts supported, against the terror of those 
curses which he hath denounced against the corrupt body 

ff 1 Kings xix. 18. ^ Sermon, of the unity of the church. * Jnomt 

idvertus Luciferianos. 



of the people. " Say to the rifrhteous, It aball be wril with 
them." llia. iii. 10) " Bind the testimony; seal the law 
unong my disciples." (lui. viti. 113) "There ii a remnant 
•ccording to tJie election of grace," when the rest are blmd- 
ed. (Ram. xi. 5, 7) 

Hence that uiaal intermixture of Ihreata and promiiies in 
the prophets, as a preaident unto preachers of the truth in 
all agea, who ought, with such prudence and teudemeaa, to 
muiage tliis part uf their ministry, as neither to harden the 
wicked in their sins by undue application of mercy, nor to 
loake sad the henrta of tliose whom the Lord hath not nibde 
aad, by a proraincuous denunciation of wrath ; but rightJy to 
diride the word of truth, and to gire every one their own 

3. Nor muat we here pasa hy vmobserved that diacriminaU 
ing gnce of God, whereby the jewels and tiie stubbJe, the 
godly for healing, and the wicked for burning, are distin- 
goiabed the one from the other. The Lord indeed doth 
moat righteoualy dispense both healing to thoae that fear 
hini, according to the grace of hia covenant ; and bamJBg to 
those that hate him, according to the justice of his law. And 
it ia true the wicked make thetoaelves lit for the burning, 
lor their " destruction ia of themselves ; (Ho*, xiii. 9) " their 
mjr and their doings have procured it;" {Jer. iv. 18) it ia n 
dioica of Uieir own making. (I*a. Uvi. 3} But they that 
are healed, are not the authors or original procurers either 
of the grace whereby they fear God, or of tl»e mercy where- 
liy God heals them. God alone, hy hia free grace, makea 
ibe difference between those that serve bini, and those that 
•erve him noU 

He reveals to babes, what he hides from the wise antl pru- 
dent, and that because it aeems good to him. (Matlk. xi. 'iH, 
26) " To yon it is given ; to them it is not (;iven." {Mattk, 
xiii. 1 1) it is not of hitn that willetb, nor of him that run- 
neth, but of God that ahewcth mercy. (Rom. \x. 1f>) If I 
be one of thai remnant that fear God'n name, I hare no rea- 
Bon to glory in myself; it is God that gives me a heart, and 
« way to fear him. (Jer. xxxii. 39) It is by his grace that I 
%m what I am. (1 Cur. xv. 10) It is he that works in me 
to wilt and to do of hia own good pleasure. (PAi7, ii. 13) 
It is he that makes me to differ ; (1 Cur. iv. 7) " ut totom 


Deo detur, qui hominis Tolnntatem bonam et preeparttt ad- 
JQvandSeini, et adjovat prseparatam,'' — as the iuc6ih parable 
champion of the gra6e of <jrod, St. AiiBtin^ speaketh ^ ; That 
the whole work may be ascribed unto Qod, who both pre- 
pareth the good-will of man that it may be holpen, and help- 
eih it being prepared. 

And again*; *' Certum est nos velle cum volumus; sed 
file facit ut velimtis t^ It is certain, that we will when we do 
will, but it is he that maketh us to will. — And again, " Nos 
▼olumliSy sed Deus in nobis operator et velle; n6^ operamur, 
sed Deus in nobis operatur et operari ;'' we will, but Gk>d 
n^orketh >ib us- to Will ;' w^ Work, but God worketh in us to 
work also.^Aad again; ** Ule facit ut ^nos faciamus quae 
pnecepit; nos non facimus, ut ille faciat quee promisit;^ be 
tiiftketh us to do the things which he commandeth ; we make 
not him to do the things which he promiseth. — O that the 
wanton and* proud wits of men would leave the Lord to do 
With his own what it pleaseth him ; (as he will certainly do 
ttoCWithstanding all their passionate altercations, MaHh. xx. 
15) and would let the drffierence between* him that feareth 
the' Lord, and him that feareth him not, be ascribed only 
mito the gift of grace, without which, no man would fear 
him ; — which rich grace, " & nullo duro corde respuitur ; 
ideo ehim datur, at cordis duritia primitus auferatur,'' as the 
same father speaks", — is not refused by any hard heart; 
for it is therefore given, that hardness of heart may be taken 
away. — Though man be free to resist grace, yet he is not 
firee to conquer it: God^s mercy is victorious as well as his 
justice. '' That which cOmeth into your mind, shall not be 
at all, that ye say. We will be as the -heathen, as the families 
of the countries, to serve wood and stone. As I live, saith 
the Lord God, surely with a mighty hand, and with a 
stretched-out arm, and with fury poured out, will I rule over 
you," Ezek. xx. 32, 33. Where the Lord threateneth to 
conquer them with his mercy.— -He will have mercy on whom 
he will have mercy. '* Si Deus miseretur, etiam volumus ; 
ad eandem quippe misericordiam pertinet, ut velimus.'^'' If 

k Att^. Enchirid. c. 32. 1 Aug, de Grat. et lib. arb. c. 16. contra daas 

Epist.. Pclag. lib. I. c. 6. et de dono pcneverat. cap. 13. de praMleslknat. Saiict. 
c. 10. B Aug. de preedest. Sanct. c. 8. u Ad Simplic. lib. 1. qu. 2. 


men be but oontented that God should ate his free will ft 
gifing bis grace, as well as they contend for their own free 
mil to acoept it ; — if the time which is spent in dispatirtg for 
free will* were spent in begging it ; — ^r if when we beg 
free will of Ood, that we may accept grace, and not refuse it, 
we would but allow it consonant to God^s power and good- 
ness, to grant us our petition, and to cause us not to refuse 
it, (and certainly * lex supplicandi legem statuit credeodi,!* as 
Cdestinus speaks, we may believe that God will grant, what 
we may pray for according to his will) the world would not 
be so continually troubled with the hot and passionate db« 
pates in these arguments as we find it is. Certainly, every 
humble and holy man will not only think it his duty to praise 
God, for that he gave him a power to convert, but that he 
gave him conversion itself, and the very work of willing and 
turning unto God. 

3. We may here observe the double, most diflerent eft'eot 
of the gospel of Christ upon proud and impenitent sinners; 
ft savour of death, to one ; of life, to the other ; (2 Cor, li. 
15, 16) fire, to the one; balsam, to the other: as the ssme 
perfume kills the vulture, which revives the dove ; the same 
Red Sea a passage to Israel, a grave to Egypt ; the same 
pillar, light to one, and darkness to the other ; the same sun 
makes the garden smell sweet, and the dunghill stink. 

Great therefore must our care be, what afiections we bring 
to hearing the word. It is given for life ; but we may find 
it unto death, according to the disposition of the heart we 
bring with us thereunto. 'An honest and good heart,' a 
meek and quiet spirit, a melted soul ready to be cast into 
the mould of the word, is the best preparation to meet with 
Christ in his gospel. 

11. We see here healing, promised to those that fear God^s 
name ; and thence we may certainly conclude, that the ho- 
liest men do want healing. 1. As we are like unto Chrisft» 
'per primitias spiritus,^ by the first fruits of the spirit^ so 
we are unlike unto him * per reliquias vetustatis," by the re- 
mainders of cdrruption. ^* There is not a just man that 
livetb, and sinneth not. p" Though the guilt of sin be re« 
moved in our justification, and the power subdued in our 

* Aug. 6c pccCAt. Meiit. ct Kemiss. c. H. p Eccles. vii. 20. Jainc5 iii. 2. 


•anqtificfttion ; yet the sicknest and remaindere of it are not 
abolished till our dissolution. " Ista vitia gratil Dei medi- 
caute curantur, prius ut reatu non teneant, deinde ut conflictu 
non vincanty postremo ut omni ex parte sauata, nulla omnino 
remaneant,^' as St. Austin speaks «: These evils are cured 
by the grace of God, First, that they may not hold us by their 
guilt; next, that they may not conquer us in the conflict ; 
and lastly, that being thoroughly healed, none of them may 
remain.— 'And these remainders of corruption the Lord here 
leaveth in us to be matter of daily conflict, of deep humbling, 
of earnest prayer, ''ut sit quod petentibus largiter adjiciat, 
quod confitentibus clementer ignoscat';*^ that he may boun- 
tifully give the things for which we pray, and graciously 
pardon the sins which we confess. 2. Besides our sins, we 
are surrounded with enemies, and beset on every side with 
temptations : and though we have a promise of victory over 
them, and sufficiency of grace against them, yet we have no 
promise of absolute immunity, that we shall be invulnerable 
by them. The experience of our own lapses, and of the ho* 
liest and greatest saints, sufficiently evidence unto us what 
poor and frail creatures we are, when the Lord leaves us, to 
try us as he did Hezekiah. (2 Chron. xxxii. 31) 3. Sorrow 
is the natural ofispring of sin and temptation. A sick and 
wounded man cannot but feel the pain of that which weak- 
eneth him. There are not any men, more men of sorrow 
and acquainted with grief, than they whose eyes are most 
open to see, whose hearts most tender to feel the weight of, 
sin, the terrors of God and the assaults of temptation. Being 
therefore subject to sins, to wounds, to sorrows, no wonder 
if they stand in need of healing. 

And indeed none call out so importunately for healing, 
either for themselves or for the church of God, as they that 
lisar bis name. (Jer. viii. 22. PsaL Ir. 8, 18. Psal. xxxviii. 3, 
9) He Uiat shall read the doleful complaints of Job, of 
Heman, of Hezekiah, and others mourning under the weight 
of sin and wrath ; of Jeremy, Daniel, and Nebemiah, be* 
wailing the breaches and desolations of Sion ; will find it 
one principal evidence of a godly man, to pour out his com- 

4 Aug, contn Jul. Pslag. lib. 5. c. 7. f Aug. de Spir. et lit. cap. ult. 


plaint before the Lord when he it overwhelmed. {P$aL cii. 
1) No desireg so stroog in them as to have their eyes open- 
edy their hearts purged, their sin removed, their peace en- 
laiged. thetrath of God vindicated, bis worship restored, his 
ordinances preserved, his presence continued in the midst of 
his people. Promises of healing in God, do awaken prayers 
for healing in them. {ha. xiz. 22. Jer. xxxi. 8, 0, 10, and 
xxxiii. 6. IIos. vi. 1. Isa. Ivii. 15) 

III. The author of this healing is here the Sun of Righteous- 
nese, who came purposely, to bind up the broken-hearted*, 
to appoint to them that mourn, beauty for ashes, &c. (Isa. 
Ixi. 1,2,3) Concerning him let us consider, 1. The reason 
of bis appellation. 2. The manner of his healing. For the 
appellation, he was called by Balaam, ' a star/ one that was 
to have dominion; {Num. xxiv. 17, 19) 'a great light;* 
ilia. is. 2) 'Amh-oAi) * the day-spring/ or sun-rising; {Luke i. 
78) a ' bright star of the morning;' {Rev. xxii. 16) an ever- 
lasting light that never goes down ; {I$a. Ix. 30) that takes 
away all night. {Rev, xxii. 6) 

The apostle tells us, that by Christ the worlds were made ; 
(JZsfr. i. 2) the old visible world, wherein is the natural sun ; 
and a new heaven and earth, wherein dwelleth righteousness ; 
(2P!sf. iii. 13) uuto which belongeth this Sun of righteous- 
IMSB. And therefore the time of the gospel is called ' a day 
of grace and salvation ;^ (2 Cor, vi. 2. Rom. xiii. 12, 13) and 
believers, 'children of the light, and of the day:', (1 Thest. 
T. 5) wherein darkness of error and ignorance is dispelled ; 
and glorious things, which had been hidden from ages and 
generations, manifest unto the world. 

Christ is ' the light of the world to come;* (as the evan- 
gelical church seemeth to be called, Heb. ii. o) ' that light ;^ 
(Joim i. 8, and iii. 19) * a heavenly light.' So evangelical 
doctrines are called rd kmopmia, < heavenly things.'' {John 
iii. 12, 13. Heb. ix. 23; 

'A full light' {John i. 14) In him, did all fulness dwell. 
(CoiL L 19) An indeBcient light which endures for ever, as 
afuthfttl witness in heaven; {Psal. Ixxxix. 3(k l$a. Ix. 19) 
a pmnitive independent light, which deriveth not his righ- 

• Luke iv. IH. ActN iv. :>:i. Isai. iix. 26. 
VOL V. J, 


leoUsness from any other fountain ; he sanctified himself by 
his own spirit. (John xvii. 19) A diffusive light; which 
sheddeth itself on every other vessel of light ; ** of his falness 
we all receive." '* He fiHeth all in all.'' (John i. 16. Ephes, 
i.'23) ' A moving light,' which goes through all the earth 
to flie ends of the wotld. (Psal. xix. 3, 6) *' He came and 
preached peacfe to those afar off/ and to them that were nigh." 
{Ephes. ii. 17) An operative, influential, and benign light, 
which cometh with life» as well as with lustre ; and therefore 
it is called * the womb of the morning/ {Psalm ex. 3) re- 
viving, restoring, ripening the fruits of the earth. {Psal. 
xxxvi. 9) 

IV. The means and manner of his healing, is by his aris- 
ing unto us. There is a sun extant at midnight, as well as 
at noon ; but he comforts not us blit by his rising. Now 
this rising noteth ; 

1. His incarnation : the word which is translated •AvfltrdX^, 
Oriens, the day-spring, or sun-rising, ( Luke i. 78) is, in the 
original, nov 'a branch.* {Zech. iii. 8) And as here a 
Sun of righteousness, so elsewhere a Branch of righteous- 
ness. {Jer. xxiii. 5, and xxxiii. 15) A Sun df righteousness ; 
too is he the Lord from heaven, the Lord of David : a Branch 
of righteousness ; so is he the dOn and the offspring of Dar 
tid. This is our comfort, that he is as well ' Germen,' spring- 
ing out of the earth, — as ' Oriens,' looking down from 
hieaven. {Psal. Ixxxv. 11) 

2. His manifestation in spirit and power, by the gospel, 
to the consciences of his people, by the beauties of his 
grace and holiness, enlightening the mind, inclining the 
will, healing the affections, converting the conscience, dis- 
covering to the soul the deep things of Ood, which is called 
the ^rising of the day-star in the heart.' (2 Pet. i. 19) 

8. His rousing men out of ignorance and security, unto 
the business of a holy life : for the sun riseth, that men may 
go forth to their labour. {Psal. civ. 22, 23) The light saith, 
Awake thou, that steepest {Ephes. v. 14. Hom.xiii. 11) 

4. His heavenly conduct and direction ^ ; shewing as the 
way wherein we should walk, and leading us therein, dis- 
covering enemies and temptations behind us, precipices, 

t Psalm czliii. 8. y. 8. lui. xxx. 21. 


gttlii, wiareft, and piu before us ; (Luke i. 79) whereas be 
vbo walketb in darkoeas, koowetb not whither ho goetb. 

The Sun of righteouaneaa, iboa riaing, doth heal ua by 
baa light, and by bis iofluence. 1. By the light of hia hea* 
vanly doctrine, whereby he ' coovinceth of ain "^^ and so dia* 
coFenetb oar diaeaae ; and then of rigbteoaaneas, in him to 
pitfdoaoor ain, — and of judgement, to rescue ua out of the 
doninion and power of Satan. 2. By the influence of bia 
Ueaaed apirit efficaciously enforcing the word, and educing 
that virt«t out of it, by which it restoreth health and beauty 
to the aoiil : — this ia called ' the revealing of the urm of tba 
Lord;* iUa. liii. 1) and ' the band of tlie Lord^ being with 
tht word* {ActM xi. 23) 

Bot Christ is in heaven, and we in earth : how shall we 
bring these together, that the medicine may be applied to 
tbe disease ? " Omne agens agit per contactum ;" and thia 
miist be either ' immediatione suppositi,' or ' immediatione 
virtalis,* as philosopbera speak. And we have both bera: 
Ua person, being divine, is immense and omnipreaent. Bo 
fiUetfi all in all. ' His virtue is further conveyed unto us by 
bia ' wings %' the beams ol this Sun of righteousness, most 
wmMf Bxni suddenly flying with his truth and grace into the 
aofil. And tliese wings are ; 

1. Hia word and ordinances, in which Christ is present 
with his church, (Mat. xviii. 20) and presented to it. (Gmi 
iii. 1) The holy doctrines of the gospel, and duties of wor- 
kup, are (if 1 may so speak) the drugs and materials, the 
balm of Gilead, whereby spiritual diseases^ sin and sorrow, 
are cured. As we find usually in the gospel, he did but 
apeak the word, and diseases were gone." His cures wens 
commands. His ordinances are the leaves of the tree of 
life, which are for the healing of the nations. (Rev. xxii. 2) 

2* Any illustrious providence sent down, as it were, from 
heaven, when he doth terrible things which we looked not 
for. * Thus he healed the fears of Israel by opening a way 
in the Red Sea ; and their murmurings in the wilderness, by 
giving them waters out of the rock. Thus he strengthened 

• John ivj. 8, 11. > Ephcs i. 33. 7 Fulm ezxxii. 9* 

• Matth. fiii. 8, ». • Inai. lxi%. 3. 

s 2 


the faith of Constantine ^, newly converted by the sign of the 
name of Christ in heaven, with this inscription, Mn hoc 
vinces/ Wonderful Providences, which bring any healing to 
discomposed and dilacerated nations, are as so many beams of 
the Sun of righteousness, who, as^Lord of all creatures, orders 
them all for his churches good. The wheels in Ezekiers 
vision of living creatures ^, whereby I understand the various 
and perplexed revolutions of all affairs in the world, were 
' full of eyes ;' noting the guidance of divine wisdom, order- 
ing them all to the welfare of his church and people. 

3. Any special servants and officers of his, whom he com- 
missionateth and sendeth forth for the good of his people ; 
whether the angels of heaven, as we read of a 'healing 
angel ;^ {John v. 4) or the angels of the church, to whom be- 
longeth the dispensation of wholesome and healing doctrines, 
(1 2Vm. vi. 3. Tit, ii. I) to open the eyes, and to turn them 
from darkness to light ; {Acts xxvi. 18) or any other renown* 
ed instruments and messengers of help and comfort to an 
afflicted people. These are, if I may pursue the metaphor, 
the apothecaries, to weigh out, mix, and temper, and prepare 
the drugs, according to the direction of Christ, which the 
apostle expresseth by the word tftoroiuw ' rightly to divide 
the word.^ (2 Tim. ii. 15) And our Saviour by hiSiveu o-irofci- 
rpm, * to give the due portion of meat,^ {Luke xii. 42) which 
some would have to allude unto the custom of measuring 
out, daily or monthly, unto servants their allowances of diet. ^ 

4. His own holy spirit, who, in Tertullian's * expression, is 
' Vicarius Christi,^ as the beam is of the sun ; who taketh 
from Christ, and sheweth unto us ' ; making report to the 
souls of believers of the favour of Christ unto them ; shedding 
abroad his love into their hearts < ; blowing upon his garden \ 
that the spices thereof may flow forth ; as a witness, a seal, 
an earnest, a seed ; bringing Christ and all his healing graces 
and comforts unto the souls of his servants, in their sins and 
sorrows, to revive them. 

V. Here is the subject of this healing. Where observe ; 
1. The gracious and special compellation : the Lord speaks 

b Euteh* dc Titi Conttantini, 1. 1. c. 22. 25. Raynolds Conference with Hart, 

cap 8.diris.4. p. 508. c £zek. i. 16, 18. <i Stuckius de conviY. 

1. 1. cap. 23. * Tertul, de praescripcionibus. ^ John Z¥i. 15. 
t Rom. T. 5. k Cant. ir. 16. 


by name to his sick and sorrowful senranU» with a peculiar 
fiiroar, as to his own sheep ; {John x. 3) keeps a matricula, 
and public register, wherein their names are enrolled. (Mai. 
ill. 16. Psalm Ixxxvii. 4, 6) They are engraren on the breast 
of our High priest (Exod. xxviiL 9) He takes exact notice 
of their wants, their complaints, their tears, th«r desires; 
and shines in with particular comfort and healing upon them. 
So to Mary. (John xx. 16) So to the woman of Syrophceni- 
da ; '* O woman, great is thy faith ; be it unto thee as thou 
wilt.^ (Matth. XV. 28) So to Peter ; " Go tell his disciples, 
and Peter ;'^ poor mourning Peter, comfort him by name. 
(Mark xvi. 7) 

2. The immediate preparation, and proper disposition unto 
healing, to fear Ood's name. There is a double virtue of 
Christ towards men. 

1. A quickening virtue ; and the subjects of this virtue 
are tl|^se who are dead in trespasses and sins. (Eph. ii. 1, 6) 

2. A healing virtue towards those, who though they be 
alive, are yet in a weak, wounded, languishing condition, 
looking out after help and recovery. No such way for a sick 
and wounded nation to be healed, as to fear God^s nsme. 
See Solomon's prayer to this purpose, (1 Kings viii. 33, 39) 
and the Lord^s gracious answer unto that prayer ; (2 Chron. 
▼ii. 14) '' If my people which are called by my name, shall 
homble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn from 
their wicked ways ; then will I hear from heaven, and will 
Ibrg^ve their sin, and heal their land."" They are his people, 
his sons, his jewels ; they call upon him, mourn towards him, 
turn to him, seek his face ; they sink under the burden of 
corruptions ; they cry out under the buffets of Sutan, under 
tlie ravishments of temptatioos ^ ; they pine away under the 
Judgements of God ; they know not what to do, but to look 
up unto him. How can the bowels of a heavenly Father but 
yearn over a sick ^, a uourning, a weeping, a praying, a re- 
turning child ! See Ephraim bemoaning himself, turning, r^ 
peoting, smiting upon his thigh ; and the Lord presently re- 
lenting over him, and resolving to have mercy upon him; 
{Jer. xxxi. 18, 19, 20) ^' Is Ephraim my dear son? Is he a 
pleasant child ? For since I spake against him, I do earnest- 

< Rom. y\\. 23. ^ 2 Cor. lii. , S. 2 CbroA. xx. 12. 


ly remember him still ; my bowels are troubled for him; I 

will surely have mercy upon him, saith the Lord.*^ It ib 

not murmuring and repining in our afflictions, biting the 

stone which bath hurt us, breaking out into complaints and 

revengeful animosities against one another, fretting ourseWes, 

*' cursing our king and our God/ as the prophet speaks ; (Isai. 

Tiii. 21) * gnawing our tongues,^ and refusing to repent; 

{Rev. xvi. 9,11) that is the wiay to healing :-*— To be hum- 

*bled, ^ to accept of the puntshipetit of our sins ^ to bear the 

.indignation of the Lord "^^'' to seek his face, to fear his name, 

.to convert unto him ; this only is the way to healing. (Jsai. 

vi. 10) 

VI. We should here proceed to consider the effects and 
consequences ol* this healing, which I must only name, and 
no more. 

1. ^'Ooing forth/ leaping, exulting, prepared with joy and 
▼igOur, withycourage and enlargement of heart, unto duty 
and service ; as John, Cbrist^s forerunner, is said to make 
ready a people prepared for the Lord. (Luke i. 17) It 
jioteth that spiritual joy and peace, which is the strength of 
God^B servants in duty, when he shines with light and healing 
(Upon them. Healing and holiness is a foundation of joy, 
.{P$alm xxxiii. 1. 2 Cor. i. 12) and joy back again a princi- 
ple aud preparation unto holiness. "The joy of the Lord is 
our strength,'* (Nie^em. viii. 13) The servants of the liOrd, 
^tbe trees of righteousness, are ever so much the fuller of 
/ruit, OS they are of comfort; the more the Sun of righteous- 
;a^$, with his light and influence, doth shine upon them, the 
more they aboimd in duty and service. 

2. ' Growing up' in light, in stature, in strength, in know- 
ledge, in grace, to more and more perfection; the most 
healthy are the most thriving Christians. As many tiroes 
when persons are recovered out of a fit of sickness, they 
visibly shoot up, and grow more in a few months, than in 
«ome years before; so it is with God's servants, when they 
have been delivered from any sore temptation : like Anteeus, 
they gain by their falls. When they are no more children, 
when they cease to be weak, then they grow. {EphAv, 14, 16) 

3. • Victory and security' against their proudest enemies, 

I Levit. JiJivi. 41. m Mic«h vii. 9. 


whom' the God of peace will tread down under the feet of his 
serrants, as Joshua made hia captains to tread on the necks 
of the kings of Canaan. {Luke x. 19. Rom. xvi. 20. Jos. x. 
24) *' Even for the bruised reed, and for the smoking flax, 
will the Lord bring forth judgement unto rictory.'** (Matth. 
xiL 20) 

Now from these many metaphors setting forth Christ unto 
iis» by whose light our blindness is cured, by whose right. 
eoosness our guilt is covered, by whose wings our comip- 
tipos aire healed, and we enabled to go forth with joy, to 
grow up in duty, to tread down our enemies, we learn, — 

( 1 ) The freeness of his grace. Nothing on earth can deserre 
the shilling of the sun ; nothing in us can deserve the grace 
of Christ; it shines most freely, without preceding merit, 
without consequent retribution : ** Who hath first given to 
him, and it shall be recompensed to him again .^^ {Rom. xi. 35) 

(2) The fulness of his grace : he is a sun. If we want 
wisdom, there are treasures in him. {Gal, ii. 3) If spirit^ it 
is without measure in him. {John iii. 24) If any spiritual 
ipaoe, or gift, there is unsearchable riches, an inexhausted 
fountain in him. {Eph. iii. 8. Col. i. 19. Zech. xiii. 1) And 
he hath it all as a Uiagazine and officer, for the supply of his 

(3) The communion and dependence of the church upon 
this his fulness. Our light, our righteousness, our grace, our 
comfort, come from the influence, and depend upon the pre* 
seocMS, of Christ with us. The house doth not receive a stock 
of light to stay in it, though the sun were gone ; but hath it 
by immediate dependence on the light of the nun : so every 
measure of grace in us dependeth in ^ esse et opcrari' upon 
the influence, concourse, and presence of Christ by his spirit 
with us. Every good work of ours hath its beginning, con- 
tinuance, and consumnration in him. ** Non mihi suflicit 
quod semel donavit, nisi semper donaverit,^ suith Jerome. 
He that Legins, perfects ; {Phi/, i. (>) gives will and work ; 
dPhiL i'l. 13) heart and way; {Jer. xxxii. 39) is the author 
and the finisher ; {Ilcb. xii. 2) without him we can donothing; 
ID all things we muht grow up in him. {John xv. />. Eph. iv. 
13) "From him is all our fruit found." (//o.<. xiv. S) We 
must pray with David, " Take not away thine holy bpirit from 

" {Psalm li. 11) We must take heed, lest, by our 


quenching or grieving of him, we provoke him to withdraw 

4. The conjunction between the righteousness of Christ 
and his healing ; where he receives into grace, he takes away 
iniquity, and healeth backsliding. (Hos. xiv. 2, 4) He came 
not only to pardon sin, but to destroy it. (1 John iii. 8) His 
mercy is never without his grace ; his offices go together ; 
his sacrifice and his sceptre cannot be divided. This is one 
of the greatest comforts that a believer hath, that, at length, 
his lusts shall be consumed. Even heaven itself would not 
be a place of glory, if a man were to carry his sin along with 
him thither. 

I have thus done with the general and theological tracta- 
tion of the words : I now proceed very briefly unto such an 
application of them, as may come closer, and be more sea- 
aonable and suitable to this honourable solemnity. 

That this great council and college of physicians hath a 
dangerously sick patient to look after, three nations, — and 
the church of God in them, like the man between Jerusalem 
and Jericho, wounded and half dead, —we have had these 
many years the best, or rather worst assurance that may be, 
by feeling the sickness ; so that there need be no further 
proof of it. We have seen and felt, with sorrow and amaze- 
ment, the honour of the parliament of England shamefully 
assaulted, princes bleeding out their souls, sojourning in Me- 
sech, and in the tents of Kedar"; peers and patriots seclud- 
ed from their honourable and rightful trust ; the great coun- 
cil of the nation sequidimiated ; a learned and faithful mi- 
nistry reproached, ready to be sacrificed, brought to the brow 
of the precipice ; ordinances decried, errors and heresies cu- 
mulated ; the public worship of God interrupted ; the assem- 
blies of his people, on his own day, profanely affronted by 
mechanics working their ordinary works in our churches and 
pulpits. We have seen and felt our laws and foundations 
threatened, our ships broken, our trade obstructed, our trea^ 
sures exhausted, our merchants discouraged, our religion 
crumbled, our church congregations shamed and defiled with 
the impure and obscene intrusion of naked persons, clothed 
with nothing but dung and impudence. We have heard of 

■ Psalm cxx. 5. 


families raised upon the ruins of others, and of families ruin- 
ed by perjurious criminations. Indeed, we have seen and 
heard of more evils and confusions, than the hour of a ser- 
mon, or the length of a history can well enumerate. If sins, 
if sorrows, if shame, if fear, if dangers, if frenzies, if quak- 
ingSy if convulsions, if breach upon breach, if change upon 
change, if divided minds, if disjointed hearts, if inconsistent 
interests, if incoherent designs, if vicissitudes of government 
as mutable as the courses of tlie moon, if altar against altar, 
doctrine against doctrine, worship against worship, post by 
post, threshold by threshold % be symptoms of a sick body ; 
—certainly this great college of physicians hath a rery sick 
patient to look after. 

Nay, which is much to be bewailed, eren they who fear 
the name of the Lord on every hand, on every persuasion, if 
they will impartially review their own ways, will find that 
their mutual jealousies, breaches, disaffections, distances, 
animosities, affectations of pre-eminence and domination, 
pursuance of interests, preserving of stations and new raised 
estates, and many other the like miscarriages, have contri- 
buted a great share to the sicknesses and sorrows of the 
common body ; and caused the name of God, and the honour 
of religion to be evil spoken of. 

Your proper work, right honourable patriots, is to be 
healers — (so rulers are called, Isa. iii. 7) healers to these three 
nations. ** We have looked long for peace, and there came 
no good ; and for the time of healing, and behold trouble.'' ' 
If the Lord have reserved you for such a time, for such a 
work as this, " to be eyes to the blind, feet to the lame, fa^ 
thers to the poor, as one that comforteth the mourners,'" as 
Job speaks "*, the ear that hears you shall bless you, the eye 
that sees you, shall bear witness to you. *' It shall be writ* 
ten for the generation to come ; and the people which shall 
be created, shall praise the Lord for you.^ ' The Lord shall 
make you the head, and not the tail ; you shall be above 
only, and not beneath. {Dcut. xxviii. 13) It is a weighty 
enterprise ; the cure difficult, the disease complicate ; great 
and wisdom, great love and caution, great patience and 

• Ezck. xliii. 8. F Jcr. xiv. VJ. n Job %x\\. 15, \(i,2b. 

'Pnlncii. 18. 


tenderness is required unto it. There may be danger of mis- 
carriage by clashing of counsels, by partiality of interests, 
by misjudging of cases, by the acrimony of purgatives, by 
the height of cordials, by inequality and disproportionate ap- 
plications, by minding the parts asunder^ as divided from 
the whole. 

O come with none but healing resolutions, with none but 
closing and uniting affections ; let one heart, one soul, one 
end, one spirit, animate your whole body. If this precious 
ointment of unity and peace be first upon you, it will fall 
down to the skirts of the nation. The patients will not fall 
out» if the physicians be agreed. 

Think with yourselves, that you hear the life and being, 
the ancient honour and renown of these nations, call aloud 
upto you for healing : England, sometimes a terror to her 
proudest enemies, a balance to all the interests of Christen- 
dom, now a supplicant to her own children to keep her alivet 

Think that you hear the concurrent cry of the protestant 
churches, which are greatly concerned in our weal, or woe 
(the protestant religion being the interest of England* as 
the Dvike of Roan hath gravely observed) calling upon you 
to heal us, that they may be whole. 

Think that you hear the importunities of all the people of 
the It^nd, and all orders therein, call unto you for healing. 
Prinpes and peers long dethroned and eclipsed in their ho- 
nour and splendor. Citizens long decayed in their trade 
and commerce. Countrymen long exhausted with heavy ex- 
penses upon narrow estates. Ministers long discouraged by 
swarms of dangerous and corrupt opinions, by that abun- 
dance of atheism, scepticism, neutrality, indifferency, pro- 
faneness, contempt of ordinances, which the looseness of 
these times, like an opened sluice, or a breach in a bank, hath 
let in as a deluge upon the church of God amongst us. 

Think that you hear your own families, your wives, your 
children, '' et natos natorum, et qui nascuntur ab illis,^ the 
generations yet unborn, calling unto you to lay up healing 
for them ; and, like the man of Macedonia to the apostle, 
•aying, ' Com.e and help us.' * 

And if you will give me leave to tell you where you must 

* Acts iTi. 9. 


begin ; yoa mutt begin at ibis Sun of rigbteoosnest ; yon 
most be wings, beams, angels, emanations from bim, if you 
will bring belp and healing to his people. From him all yovr 
.wisdom and coanselj^ all your love and zeal, all yoar fidelity 
and sufficiency, ib derived. ** We are not sufficient of ooi^ 
selvts to think any thing as of ourselves, but our sufficient 
is of God ;" who alone makes able counsellors in the stat«» 
as well as ministers in the church. 

And as he is the Father of all your light and counsel) so 
by hie blessing alone, they operate. Without him, * yon oan 
do nothing.** As man liveth not by bread alone, so he reoo- 
▼ereth not by physic alone, but by every word which pro- 
xecdeth out cuf the mouth of Ood. He is the Lord that beak 
«lb ns. {Exod. xv. 26) He that gave his disciples power to 
jQUxe diseases, (Luke ix. 1) must do the same for you, if yo«i 
be our faealem. And therefore you must begin at him, and 
sny as the prophet did, ** Heal me, O Lord, and I shall be 
Ji«sled; save me, and I shall be saved, for thou art my 
praise.^ ( Jer. xvii, 14) 

And M you have his sufficiency to enable you, and lus 
blemiig to give success unto you ; so you have him as a 
great exemplar to lead and teach you, whom you may imitate 
in this great work : for he went about teaching and beafing; 
{MaUh, jv. 23) and he healed, 

L Freely ; and so be commanded bis disciples to heal. 
{Matih. X. 8) He did not enrich himself by any of his corsa 
and miracles. By how much the less of reward, by so mnoh 
the more ofhonour, for a free cure. Not but that it is wor- 
thy the bounty of a parliament to acknowledge great and 
noble services, with proportionable returns of favour; but 
the less internal and domestical those returns are, they will 
appear the more noble. ' '* Tu civem patremque geras : in 
consule cunctis, Non tibi ; nee tua te moveant, sed publica 
damns." (Claudian) 

2. Bountifully. Jle was at cost and charges to heal others; 
bis blood was our baliam ; he was content to be smitten, thai 
we might be healed, (/mi. liii. 6) He looked not on his own 
things, but on the things of others. (Phil. ii. 4, 5) ** He 
gave his life for his sheep."^ (John x. 11) A good man is 

^ Jtrnmt ad Qesipbuntem advcisut Feltfunct. 


willing to spend and to be spent, for the good of those unto 
whose service he is devoted ; (2 Cor. xii. 16) ^Nec sibi, sed 
toti genitum se credere mundo/ It is recorded for the 
honour of Nehemiah, that though former governors had been 
chargeable to the people, yet he and his brethren did not eat 
the bread of the governor; {Neh. v. 14, 16) and of Esther, 
that she would venture perishing for the service of her peo- 
ple. (^Esther iv. 16) 

3. Universally, without exception ; he ' healed all' that 
came to him for healing. (Matth. xii. 25. Luke iv. 40, and 
vi. 19) He is an ill physician that will cure his patient of a 
•ore finger, and use no means against his fever or consumption, 
for an aching heart, or a bruised head. We may say of Eng. 
land, as the prophet of his people. {Isai. i. 6, 6) That ** our 
aickness is from head to foot ;^ — some parts sick virith sor- 
row and sufferings, others sick with sin and wickedness. Let 
your 'endeavours of cure be impartial. Any one part, un- 
healed, will create pain and danger to the whole : and as you 
may not neglect any integral, so let your principal care be 
for the vital and architectonical parts, to reduce them unto 
health and safety. But let your providence extend to all ; 
the least and lowest member hath a right in the common 
soul, in the good of the whole. '* Render to all their dues " ;'** 
tribute, custom, fear, honour, are due to some ; love« liberty, 
property, safety, protection, peace, are due to others. 6a* 
lance all interests with so equal and righteous a poise, that 
rulers may govern a free people, and the people obey illus- 
trious and noble governors ; that the people may be comfort- 
ed by the justice and clemency of their princes, and princes 
honoured by the loyalty and obedience of their people : that 
love may be the soul of the body politic, the bond, the joint, 
the sinew that holds together all the members in the unity, 
and for the good of the whole. ' 

4. Meekly, humbly, compassionately : there is a feigned 
meekness, as that of Absalom and Otho^, * Omnia serviliter 
pro Imperio' : but Christ was meek and lowly injheart. {Matth. 
xi. 29) We read of the gentleness of Christ. (2 Cor. x. 1) 
So Christ taught men, as they were able to hear. {Mark iv. 
33) So he healed them, took the lambs into his bosom, and 

> Rom. ziii. 7. ' Col. tii. 15. Eph. iv. 15, 16. J Tacit. Hitt. 


gently led the rest {liai. xl. 11) Considers our mould; 
(Piolm ciii. 14) will not break a bruised reed ; (Matlh, xii. 
20) stays with a poor blind beggar in the way. {Mark x. 49, 
61) And thus he requireth us to heal and restore disjointed 
members with a spirit of meekness ; (GaL Ti. 1. PhiL it. 6) 
shew all possible tendemesn and indulgence towards the in* 
firmitiesy especially the consciences of men of humble and 
sober, of quiet and peaceable spirits : the strong are taught to 
bear the infirmities of the weak. (Rom. xv. ]) Be careful 
to secure and settle the fundamentals, the vitals, and esseiK 
tials, of doctrine, worship, and duty, that you may be sure 
of sotnd and orthodox ministers, to go in and out before the 
flock : and if, in smaller and more problematical things, men 
cannot be all of one mind, (as we never shall have perfection 
of judgement till we come to heaven) '* Let not the strong 
ilespise the weak,"* nor the weak judge the strong: whom 
God receives into his favour, let not us shut out of' ours. 
{Mom. xiv. :i) 

6. Perfectly. — As many as touched him in order unlp 
healing, were perfectly cured. (Matth. xiv. 36) Endeavoutr 
as much as is possible, such a total oblivion and obliteration 
of our sad divisions, and the distemper arising therefrom, that 
no dregs of the disease, no scars of the wound may remain ; 
but that all the members may coalesce into a perfect unity 
and fraternity again. 

And as this must be your first care to begin at the Sun of 
Righteousness, and to imitate him ; so you must be careful of 
the two wings which are the vehicula of healing ; be sure 
that the wings of the Sun of Righteousness do carry him into 
all places of the land. 

1. The ^ wing of light,^ — sound doctrine, pure ordinances. 
The more the people agree in divine truths, the more they 
will be disposed for moral and for civil unity. Religion is a 
elementing thing. Lactantius ' and Jerome derive it ' k Reli- 
gando,' *^ Quod e& quasi in fascem vincti sumus.*^ Discourage 
and discountenance dangerous and false doctrines; bear up, 
speak comfortably to, an able, orthodox, faithful, and learned 
ministry ; procure brotherly reconciliation amongst men of 
sober minds, but different judgements. The breaches (I hope) 

* Lactam, Iiutit. lib. 4. cap. 2S. Jtrom. In Amot 9. 


are not so wide, but that if anioMsities and prejadices were 
removed, they might, by amicable and fraternal debates) be 
closed up again. 

2. The ' wing of righteousness/ — able, faithful, religiouB 
judges and magistrates; wholesome, healing, and righteous 
laws, are the vehicula of justice : by the sanctuary and pru- 
dence of these, your healing will shed itself abroad into all 
parts of the land. 

In one word, *Go forth/ have your eyes in every place, 
IIpXXo} /Soo-iAffloy ^^AacAfbo) x«} voAXcl ira. * Let the wheels of 
your providence have eyes oh them. Grow up into splen* 
dOr and perfection, and restore the collapsed honour of this 
au^st council in ^1 parts of it. Tread down wickedness ; 
naake stronger laws than ever, against impiety and profane*- 
neas, against iniquity and unrighteousness. Keep Christ 
and his presence ; keep godliness and the fear of his name in 
the midst of the land. Endeavour not a mere formal and su» 
perficial, but a substantial and spiritual reformation ; and 
then assuredly the Lord will honour you, and make you his 
instruments of performing this gracious promise, '^ Unto you 
that fear my name, shall the Sun of Righteousness arise, with 
licaling in his wings :^ and these wings shall carry your 
names and memories with splendor and renown unto all 
succeeding ages. *' For them that honour him, the Lord will 
honour " ^ 

• Xenophon, CyropMd. ^ 1 Sam. ii. 30. 




forth in a SERMON, preach«d bef«>r« the Right Uoiumrable th« Boom of 
*mn in Wcstmintter^bbey, April 30, 1600, bdng a day of Hnlawn Ha* 
iSBaCkm to Mek Qod for hit Blewing on tho Connteb of tbo 











2 CHRON. vii. 13, 14. 

If I shut up heaven thai there be no rain ; or if* 1 command ihi 
locusts to devour the land : or if I send pestilence among my 
people ; — if my people ^ which are called by my futme, shall 
humble themselves, and pray, and seek my face, and turn 
from their wicked ways ; then will I hear from heaven^ and 
forgive their sin, and will heal their land. 

Thb words are a gracious promise, made by the Lord unto 
Solomon, afler be had dedicated the temple by fasting and 


prayer : for though there be no meDtion of fasting, yet if we 
consult the time, we shall find that it was in the seventh 
month ; (2 Chron. v. 3) and that the solemnity continued from 
the eighth to the twenty-third day of that month ; (2 Chron. 
vii. 9, 10) and the tenth day was^by a statute, for ever appoint- 
ed to be a day, wherein to afflict their souls. (Lev. xxvi. 29) 
The parts are three; 1. A supposition of judgements, ver. 
13: where, by the enumeration of three, any others may 
synecdochically be understood. 

2. A direction unto duties: wherein are two things to be 
taken notice of: 1. The quality of the persons who are to 
perform them; * My people called by my name.' 2. A spe- 
cification of the duties, which are these four, ' Humiliation, 
supplication, reconciliation, conversion.^ 

3. A gracious promise of mercy, wherein are very remark- 
able four signal returns of grace in conformity to their du- 
ties. 1. They humble themselves under God's holy hand ; 
and he humbleth himself to look down ' from heaven/ 
2. They pray, and God hears their prayer. 3. They seek 
the favour and the face of God : and God forgives their sin, 
and is reconciled unto them. 4. They turn from their wicked 
ways ; and God heals those evils which those wicked ways had 
brought upon the land ; no duty undertaken in vain, but a 
suitable and correspondent mercy promised to encourage 
them thereunto. 

It may here not impertinently be asked, why these three 
judgements of * shutting up heaven, sending locusts and pes- 
tilence,* are rather mentioned than any other ? since doubt- 
less the promise doth extend itself further. I take the rea- 
son to be, 1. Because these are irresistible; no counsel, no 
policy, no strength can prevent them. 2. Because they are 
inflicted by God alone, no second causes immixed in 
them : Mf I shut up heaven, if I command the locusts, if I 
send pestilence.* 

1. If an enemy come,— -counsel may hinder, strength may 
vanquish, treasure may bribe and divert, him. Our own 
policies and provisions may seem to contribute towards our 
help. But against an ^ army of locusts,^ no policy, wisdom, 
strength, embassy, can prevail. No power of man can open 
or shut the clouds ; no gates or bars can kfeep out a famine, 
or a pestilence from a place. 


2. If an enemy come« we are apt to ascribe that to the 
malioe of men ; to look outward to second caases, and not 
inward to onr own sins, or upward to the justice of God ; 
thottgfa it be certain, that there is no human hostility, with* 
ottt a diTine commission. Men are Ood^s rod, and sword, and 
staff (P$aUm xvii. 13. Isa. x. 5, 6. Exek. xxi. 3, 6, 11) He, 
by his secret and holy providence, edgeth the spirits of men 
against one another ; (as he sent an evil spirit between the 
men of Shechem and Abimelech, Judges ix. 23) and stirreth 
np adversaries against those that provoke him, as he did 
i^aiost Solomon. (1 Kings xi. 14, SS) And when he pleas- 
eth to return in mercy, ^' he rebuketh the sword, and break- 
eth the bow, and cutteth the spear in sunder.*** {Psalm xlvi. 
9. Isa. liv. 17) These things, I say, are certain. But we 
are too apt to bite the stone that hurts us, and not mind the 
hand that threw it : whereas when wrath is from heaven only, 
we are forced to see God ; we have no second causes to 
ascribe it unto. 

So the meaning is, ** If I send judgements immediately 
from myself, such as no human wisdom can prevent, or 
power remove ; if then the people shall bethink themselves, 
and retom, and seek my face, they shall 6nd, that, when 
wisdom, policy, treasures, walls, armour, munition, are no* 
tiling worth, — prayer and repentance shall avail for hesLVingf 

So here is a double combat between God and man. 

1. Man provokes God with sin ; and God overcomes sin 
with judgement. 

2. Man wrestleth with prayer and humiliation; and God 
yieldeth in mercy and compassion. 

I begin with the first general, the supposition of judge* 
ments, and from thence make two observations. 

L Judgements light not on a people casually, or by 
chance, but by the over-ruling and disposing power and jus- 
tice of the command and commission of God. It hath not 
an earthly original: it grows not out of the dust; {Job v. 
6, 7) but it comes from heaven, and is sent from God, to 
signify something of his mind unto us. 

1. Sometimes, indeed, by way of dominion and abso- 
lute power, he destroyeth the perfect and the wicked ; 
he laugheth at the trial of the innocent. {Job ix. 22, 23) 
Sometimes as a preparation unto intended mercy; as men 

VOL. V. T 


plough the ground which they meaa to enrich with pre- 
cious seed, and carve the stone wfafich they mean te p«t 
in the top of the buildin^g. Josephs iron chain made way 
to his golden chain; and David'a troubles seasoned htm fof 
his crown. As men put forth longest into wind and sun that 
great timber, which miist bear the gveatest burden and stress 
of the building. No such school to learn in, as the school 
of affliction. But most usually in a way of justice; ^ Be* 
cause thy ^ns were increased, I have done these things unto 
tbee.^ (Jer. xxx. 15) Thou hast done right; we havo done 
irickedly.^ (A/eAem. ix. 33) '* I have not done without cause 
ali that I have done.** (Ezek. xiv. 23) Personal chastise- 
ments auty be for trial and eiceEcise of faith and patience ; 
but general and public, judgements are ever in wrath and dis-> 

Such have been the dealings of Qod in this nation. The 
eup of affliction hath been given to all orders of men. We 
have seen princes on scaffolds, and in banishment; parlia* 
ments broken in pieces by their servants ; peers and patriots 
divested of their honours^ and secluded from their trust; 
dishonours poured upon the city, poverty on the country, 
blood OB the land, scorn on ministers, threats on nniversi* 
ties, consternation on soldiers ; there is not any order or de- 
gtfe of men, which hath not been shaken with these earth- 
quakes. O how deep is our stupidity, if we do not all of us 
analyze and resolve our sufferings into their proper principles, 
our sins, and God^s displeasure! if we have only howled 
under them, and see not Ood^s providence in them, ordering 
the sins of men unto our humiliation ! if we know them only 
naturally by their smart to the flesh, and not spiritually, by 
their influence on the conscience! if we censure others, and 
absolve ourselves! if our sufferings harden and enrage us in 
animosities against men, but do not meeken and mek us 
under the holy trials of God ! 

Let us, therefore, labour to find out our sins by our suffer- 
ings, the cloud of wrath rising out of the sea of lusL Let 
us search and try our ways ; and, since we are living men, 
not complain of the punishment of our sins ; be not as ada- 
mants, rocks, oaks, which blows, waves, winds, break not, 
move not, bend not : — make use of our sufferings to review 
our sins, and to know our duty ; what we should happily 


have done, and did not, in the day of our prosperity, before 
God laid ut aside ; what the controrersy was, which God 
had against us in oar saflTerings ; what the daties are, which 
he reqoireth of as in our restitution. The prophetTs staff did 
no good to the dead child till he came himself. Jodgementa 
do nothing, till God follow them with his graces. Chastise* 
ments nerer mend us till they teach us : '* Blessed is the 
nan whom thou chastenest, O Lord, and teachest him out of 
diy law;** (Psalm xciv. 12) " till we see his name, and hear 
his Toice in them ;^' {Micah vi. 9) till we take notice of his 
justice preparing the whale that hath swallowed os, (Jonah i. 
17) bidding Shimei curse, (1 Sam. xvi. 10) giving a charge 
to the Assyrian ; {Isai. x. 6) — this will make us dumb, when 
we consider diat it is God that doth it {Psalm xxxix. 9) 

And now that the cup hath gone round, and God hath, by 
his righteous providence, prevented our revenge, and done 
that by the strange vicissitudes of his justice in a wise and 
holy manner, which if he had left us to do in our own cases, 
would possibly have been done with folly and fury ; — let na 
conclude, that the Lord having ' judged us all himself,' wi 
should make it our work, not so much to look back with 
lerengeful, as to look forward with healing and closing, 
resolutions. We have been like wanton children which fall 
<rat in a family : Now our father hath whipped us round ; 
tfiat should make us return to our fraternal agreements 

2. The Lord hath variety of judgements, whereby to re- 
duce froward and stubborn sinners ; can punish them in the 
heavens over them, in the earth under them, and in their 
bowels within them; can beset them upward, downward, 
outward, inward ; and make a net, a chain, and hedge of af- 
flictions to shut them in, and * to fence up their way that 
they cannot pass.' (Job iii. 23, and xix. 8) When he will 
plead, he will tike away all refuge ; and make every region, 
towards whirli we look, minister despair. They shall look 
upward, and they shall look unto the earth, and behold 
trouble, and darkness, and dimness of anguish, (/la. viii. 
21, 22) If they look without, behold a sword ; if within, 
behold famine and pestilence; {Levit. xxvi. 25. Jer. xxi. 4, 
6. Euk. vii. 15) evil, which they shall not be able to 
escape, or go forth of. (Jer, xi. 11) '\Vhenmen multiply uns, 

T 2 


the Lord usually multiplieth judgemeats, till he either bend 
by repentance, or break by destruction. When cleanness of 
teeth, blasting and mildew, pestilence and sword, the judge- 
ments of Sodom and Ooraorrah, did not prevail with Israel 
to return, then he threateneth final wrath ; '^ Therefore 
Thus will I do unto thee/' Amos iv. 6—12. Which Him, 
in the prophet Amos, seemeth to me to be the same with 
' Lo-Ammi/ in the Prophet Hosea, an utter rejection of them 
from being the Lord^s people. (Hos. i. 9) Four times after 
one another, doth the Lord threaten to punish his people 
' seven times more for their sins,' if they walk contrary unto 
him. (Levit. xxvi. 18, 21, 24, 28) 

Philosophers use to reckon but eight steps to the highest 
and most intense degree of a quality ; but the wrath of God 
is represented by eight and twenty degrees unto us. 

L The method of Qod in these various judgements 
usually is, 

1. He begins at the outward man, exercising a people 
many times with change of rods ; which is ever a sign of an- 
ger in the father, and of stubbornness in the son. 

2. He proceeds to the soul, by smiting that, revealing his 
wrath, subducting his peace, implanting his terrors, causing 
guilt and fear to gripe and seize on the conscience, called, 
* Breaking of bones/ {Psalm li. 8) * drinking up of spirits/ 
{Job vi. 4) * a wounded spirit.** {Prov. xviii. 14) If the Lord 
should give a secure sinner, who now haply thinks himself 
alive and safe, upon the mistaken apprehensions of mercy, a 
full view of the filthiness, and sense of the heaviness of any 
one atrocious sin whereof he stands guilty ; it would make 
him a terror to himself, willing to exchange his burden for 
the weight of a rock or mountain. " O my broken bones !''* 
saith one. {Psalm li. 8) ^' O my withered heart T saith ano- 
ther. {Psalm cii. 3, 4) " O the distracting terrors of God !" 
saith a third. {Psalm IxxxYiii. 15) " O the intoxicating arrows 
of the Almighty !^ saith a fourth. {Job vi. 4) Thus the Lord 
can make a man a * Magor Missabib,' a very fury and fiend 
unto himself, by arming his own conscience against him. 
•And if the sergeant be so formidable, what a fearful thing is 
it to fall into the hands of the living God ! against whose 
wrath, all the honours of the world, all the wealth and great- 
ness which a thousand kingdoms could heap upon a man. 


could be no more a protection, than a robe of beaten gold 
could be, to one that is cast into a fnmace of fire. * Know- 
ing therefore the terror of the Lord,^ let us be persuaded to 
beware of provoking his wrath by any presumptuous sin. 

3. Towards obdurate sinners,-— the Lord many times deals 
in a more fearful manner ; sealing them up under hardness 
of heart, a spirit of slumber, a reprobate sense, a seared con- 
science, to be led bliudfold by Satan till destruction una- 
wares overtake them. So it is said of the old world, that 
notwithstanding the preaching of Noah, who by preparing an 
ark condemned the world, yet they ** knew not till the flood 
came, and took them all away.'' (Matth. xxxi. 39) " Because 
I have purged thee,^ saith the Lord, *< and thou wast not 
purged, thou shalt not be purged from thy filthiness any 
more." {Ezek. xxiv. 13) " Ephraim is joined to idols; let 
him alone."" {Ho$, iv. 17) '' Let him that is filthy, be filthy 
atiU. (Rev. xxii. 11) 

Now since the Lord hath such variety of judgements, that 
we can never out-sin his wrath, let us be deeply humbled for 
our pride, who have, PharaohJike, put God to so many 
changes of rods, and variety of judgements, as we in this 
nation have felt. Let us yield betime unto him ; ' for he 
will overcome, when he judgeth/ Let us take heed of flat- 
tering ourselves, when one rod is worn out, or laid aside, as 
if the bitterness of death were past ; God can make every 
creature about us, every faculty within us, a rod and scourge 
against us. 

And therefore having received such deliverances as we 
lately have done, let us make holy Exra^'s conclusion, 
** Should we again break thy commandments ?' ( Ezra ix. 
13, 14) Should we not ' take heed of sinning any more, 
lest a worse thing come unto us r** (John v. 14) Should we 
not consider, for what it is that God restored us to our sta- 
tions, namely, That we should, in our places, study how to 
honour him ; /o he zealous for his truth, and pure religion ; 
tender of the liberties, properties, and equal rights of all the 
people in the land ; to restore all oppressed innocents ; to 
loose the bonds of violence ; and to settle these so long shak- 
ing and discomposed nations, upon the firm foundations of 
truth, peace, and righteousness again ? 

Thoa much for the first general ; — the supposition of judge- 


ments, various, an4 such as come immediately from God, 
and admit of no possible prevention by human wisdomf, or 
raodoval by human power. 

II. We proceed to the directiou unto duties; wherein 
c<Hnes first to be considered the quality of the persons who 
Are to perform them : " My people that are called by my 
jiame.'^ All men* are his creatures; only a select and pecu- 
liar inheritance^ that bear his name^ enjoy his peace, pro- 
HUtoes, and protection, and are in covenant with him^ are called 
' his people.^ — *' I entered into covenant with thee« and thou 
becameat mine,^ saith the Lord. {Esxk. xvi. 8) '' This people 
have I formed for myself.^' (/m. xliii. 21) ^ The Lord hath 
sel apart him that is godly, for himself.^' {Psalm iv. 3) ** They 
are the people of bis holiness '^ {Isa. Ixiii. 18) '^ A people 
btr bis n$me, taken out from among others.'' {Acts xv. 14) 
To be called by his namCt noteth to be his adopted children ; 
as Joseph's children were made the children of Jacob. 
(Gmem xlviii. 6, 16) 

We are Ood^s people, two ways : 

L By visible profession, or sacramental separation from 
the world, as the whole nation of the Jews were called his 
people ; — a peculiar treasure unto him above all people, 
{JEafod. xix. 6) a nation nigh unto hkn. {Dent. iv. 7) His 
people even then^ when they rebelled against him. (Jmu i. 
3, 4) 

2. By spiritiial sanctification, and internal dispositions. 
** Thine they were, and thou gavest them me, and they have 
](ept thy word«^' {John xvii. 6) Jews inwardly by the cir- 
cumcision of th^ heart : {Rom. ii. 29) the Israel of God ; 
(Ga/. vi. 16) the children of the promise ; {Rom. ix. 8) the 
remnant according to the election of grace ; {Rom. xi. 6) 
the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit. {Phil. 
iii. 3) 

These are his people by a price of redemption ; (1 Cor. vi. 
19, 20) by a peculiar designation unto his service ; {Tii. ii. 
14) by an intimate relation of love and dearness ; {Ezek. xvi. 
8) by a high valuation of them, as treasures, jewels, vessels 
of honour ; {Mai. iii. 17. 1 Pet. ii. 9. 2 Tim. ii. 20) by des- 
tination to a more glorious end. {Ephes. iv. 30) 

The duty extends to both. The whole body of a visible 
church are, in judgements^ to humble themselves ; and as to 


teajporal deliTefmiices, the Lord doth respect the himulw 
•lioiie ef the woner members of the church ; as we see ia 
the GMes of Abab and Rehoboam ; (1 Kmgs zxi. 28, 2ft 
2 Ckram. xii. 6, 7) but to do this so efiectoally, as to attain 
all the annexed promises, is the work of the Israel of Ood, 
by sparitnal sanctification. 

Now from this qnalification we gather these two nsefnl 

I. The sins of God^s own people, who aie in covenaal 
with him, may proToke and procure judgements ; their pride* 
and security, worldly love, conformity to the corruptions of 
the tines, cokl n es s and formality in duty, uneven and no* 
faithful walkings acting by divided intoests from the lest of 
^ LordV people, may provoke God severely to punish a 
land, and we may justly fear he hath done so amongst ua» 
A good man, though a ton, may yet be * Filius sub ira,' 
Euder paternal displeasure. If Moses and Aaron do not, by 
believing glorify Ood, they must both die in the wilderness. 
(Ntumb. XX. 12) If David grow proud of victories, and num* 
ber the people, God %rill send a plague which shall lessen 
their number, and bis pride. (3 Sam. xxiv. 16) If Solomott 
tani from God to women, and to idols, though he be a son, 
ke dudi be chastised with the rods of men. (2 Smn. vti. 14) 
If Asa grieve the prophet, and oppress the people, he shall be 
▼exed with wars and diseases. (2 Ckfxm. xix. 9, 12) If Je» 
keshaphat help the ungodly, his life shall be endangered, and 
his ships broken. (2 Ckrom. xx. 36) God will have judge* 
ODent ' begin at his own house.' (Pel. iv. 17) 

II. Their sina have some aggravations in them, which 
other men^s have not : these are committed against special 
light, and more glorious convictions, as those of Solomon, 
^ after God had appeared unto him twice.** (1 Kimpxi. 9) 
Against special love, and experiences of divine favour. 
(2 Sam. xii. 7—9) Against special relations, the honour of 
a father, a lord, a husband. (/#ai. i. 2) Against special 
giace, and assistance of the Holy Spirit. (Ephes. iv. 30) 
Against special covenants and engagements, after avouchiufp 
God for theirs. {Pialm Ixxviii. 34) Against special delivefw 
ances from greatest dangers. (Etra ix. 13, 14) Against 
special hopes, and more special promises, which should have 
persuaded them unto holiness. (2 Cor. viu 1. 1 JoAiiiii. 3) 


Against special peace, and glorious comforts ; as David 
sinned against the joy of God's salvation. {Psalm li. 12) 
Peter denied Christ after he had seen his transfiguration. 

And this may teach the holiest of men ; 
. 1. To take heed of playing the wantons with the grace of 
God : though God be a tender, yet he may be an angry father : 
and who knoweth the ' power of his anger ?' {Psalm xc. 1 1 

2. To be more careful to stand in the breach against pub- 
lic judgements, having by their sins contributed to the 
bringing of them upon the land. 

It is not our doing of duty, but God's being in covenant 
with us, which is the ground of his mercy to us. Property 
doth stir up compassion: '* Though they have provpked me, 
yet I will spare them, because they are mine** {Mai. iii. 17) 
Whence we learn ; 

'. 1. In what manner to go to God, and to plead with him ; 
not in confidence of our duty, but of our relation to him as 
bis; *<Thou art our Father; we are thine.^' {IsaL Ixiii. 
16 — 19) The church in affliction seldom useth any other 
argument ;— '' Why doth thy wrath wax hot against Uiy peo- 
ple T {Exod. xxxii. 11) "Art not thou our God ?" (2 Chron. 
XX. 7) *^ We are called by thy name ; leave us not.'' (Jier. 
xiv. 9) *' Spare thy people, O Lord ; give not thine heritage 
to reproach.^ {Joel ii. 17) And the Lord, when there is no 
motive else, is marvellously wrought on by this argument ; 
*' Is Epbraim my dear son ? is he a pleasant child ? For 
since I spake against him, I do earnestly remember him still : 
therefore my bowels are troubled for him ; I will surely have 
mercy upon him, saith the Lord.*^ {Jer. xxxi. 20) In con- 
fession we must say, *^ Thus and thus have we done :^ {Josh. 
vii. 20) in petition we must say, ^' Thu» and thus hast thou 
promised.^' We may argue much better from relations than 
performances — '* Lord, we are thy children ; when we de- 
served wrath, thou didst adopt us; though we deserve^ it 
still, do not reject us. When thou didst adopt us, thou 
didst .adopt enemies: if thou shouldst reject us, thou shouldst 
reject children. Our unworthiness could not prevent thy 
mercy ; let it not remove it." 

2. In what manner to do duty. None can do duty aright, 
but as one of his, and in covenant with him. In Christ, by 
^tby both our persons, and our services are accepted. {Eph, 


i. 6/1 Pet. iL 5) The altar sancti6eth the gift% and he ia 
our altar. ^ Out of him, we can do nothing.^ Duties are 
not done aright, but in the virtue of the covenant of grace. 
Jehn did a work materially good, but carnal policy turned it 
into tin. (Hos. i. 4) To pray, and yet hold fast cruelty ** ; 
to fiist, and to take pleasure in wickedness ; to bring offer- 
ings and flocks to God's house *, and still delight in violence 
mod oppression ;— if any thing be to mock God, and provoke 
wfEth, certainly this is ; to make religion, like Samud^s man- 
tle, a doak for the devil. 

3. In what manner to escape judgements, and secure 
meicy. Be his people ; and you are sure to be spared. (Mat. 
ill. 17. Ezek. ix. 4) He hath an ark for Noah, a Zoar for 
Loty a basket for Paul, a Gath for David, chambers and 
hiding-places for his people, until calamity be over-p<«st 
{Jia. xxvL 20. Psalm Ivii. 2. Zq>h. ii. 3) When Jesus was 
near his own suffering, and in the midst of dangers himself, 
he took care of his poor disciples ;-»'' Liet these go.^ {John 
xriii. 8) The less protection they find amongst men, the 
more they shall have from him. 

Since therefore the Lord is tender of the interests of his 
people, and takes special care of hearing, forgiving, and 
healiiig them ; let it be your care. Right Honourable, like- 
wise to take them into your protection. They who hurt 
them, hew at the bough whereon they stand ; dig under the 
foundation which holds them up. 

This for the qualifications of the persons, of whom these 
duties are required ; the duties themselves, required for the 
removal of judgements, follow. 

1. If they shall humble themselves, and be cast down 
under God'^s holy hand in the sense of his displeasure. But 
that is not enough ; Ahab did so; (1 Kings zxi. 27) who, 
notwithstanding his humiliation, for aught we read, did not 
pray unto God. 

2. If they shall pray, and cry for help, as Nineveh did. 
{Jomak iii. 8) But that is not enough neither. Hypocrites 
in distress will say, '' Arise and save us." (Jer, ii. 27) They 
will spread forth their hands, and make many prayers ; {Isa. 

• Matth.xziii. 19. b Hcb. xiii. lO. « John xv.4, 5. 

' IsM. L 15. Itiii. 1. • Ainot v. 21. 


L 15f) and cry in the ears of the Lord with a loud voice ; 
{Ezek. viii. 18) and enquire early after hlm.'^ {Psalm Ixxviii. 


3. If they shall seek my face, be grieved more for my dis* 

pleasure than my rod. Pray first for mercy» and then for 
healing, as David* (Psalm vi. 2) It was Ghrist^s method 
first to forgive, and then to heal ; (Matth. ix. 2, 6) and it 
must be ours in praying for it But neither is this enough ; 
Pharaoh can be contented to have his sin forgiven, though 
he will not let it go. {Exod, x. 17) 

4. If they shall turn from their evil ways, and so lift up 
holy hands mito God ; First, wash their hands in innocency ; 
and then compass the Lord's altar ; {Psalm xxvi. 6) pat ini« 
9uity far away from their hands, and then stretch ttiem forth 
towards God ; {Job xi. 13, 14) lift up pure hands ; (1 Tim. ii. 
9) put away the evil of their doings, and then come, and 
reason together with the Lord. {Is€u i. 16, 17, 18) 

!• Then, if tliey shall humble themselves. A duty called 
for by prophets and apostles ; {Micah vi. 8. James iv. 10. 
1 Pet. V. 6) especially respected by God ; as we find in the 
case of Josiah. (2 Kings xxii. 19) And gracious promises 
made thereunto. {Lev. xxvi. 41, 42) 

It emptieth the heart of self-confidence ; is the root of that 
fundamental duty of self-denial. 

It fits for approach to God, because the more humble, the 
more welcome ; the more we tremble at his threatenings, the 
more we shall supplicate for his grace. {Isa» Ixvi. 2. Job 
ix. 16) 

It disposeth to a confession of sin, as we see in the poor 
prodigal and publican. {Luke xv. 17, 18, 19. and xviii. 13) 

It prepares the heart for the entertainment of mercy. 
Though the proclamation be made, and the court of mercy 
be open tb all ; {Rev. xvii. 22) yet while men love sin, they 
forsake mercy. {Jonah ii. 8) But when the soul is humbledj 
it opens to God, and his grace. Weary souls are glad to be 
satiated. (Jer. xxxi* 26) 

It makes way to the forsaking of sin : the more a soul is 
humbled for it, the more it is fearful of it, and watchful 
against it. 

Humiliation is two-fold. 

1. A ' passive,' when God breaks the heart by the ' ham- 


mer of the word,' as it ift called, Jer. xxiii. 29 ; or by Bome 
sort affliction. 

2. ^ Actife/ when the soul bumbleth itself under sin and 
wimtfa; when a man afflicts bis own soul. (Leo. xvi. 29) 
Again, this is two-fold : 

1. Legal; proceeding from a spirit of bondage, when the 
heart roan on a rack, or melts in a furnace, is filled with 
consternation and anguish under the weight of sin and wrath : 
— ^which was the case of Pharaoh, Ahab, Belshazxar, Felix, 
the jailer, the murderers of Christ 

2. Evangelical ; when the soul is not only broken and bat- 
tered with the horror and dread of wrath; (this it may be, 
and remain hard, as every piece of a broken flint is hard still) 
but when it is kindly melted and softened with apprehensions 
of Ood^s goodness and free grace:— -a compounded duty 
made up of love and sorrow, the humiliation of Hesekiah, 
(Jer* xxvi. 19) and of Josiah. (2 Chron. xxxiv. 27) 

is a perpetual duty. As long as sin remains, there 
be a sense of it, and sorrow for it. But, in some times 
and cases, it is specially to be renewed; as in time of ex- 
Inordinary sins and provocations, of public dangen and dia- 
tresses, of great enterprises attempted, or successes and blesa» 
ings desired : which was the case of Ezra, chap, viii. 21. 

The great sins; the sad divisions; the disjointed affec- 
taoDs; the contrary interests; the doleful errors and distem- 
para in the church ; the miserable fluctuations and discom- 
pocores which have been in the state ; the horrid violations 
of order and justice ; the woful stains which have been upon 
the land, by the irregular and prodigious efi*usion of the 
blood of princes, peers, and prophets ; the afironts and dis-> 
sipntions which have been put upon parliaments, the con- 
temple which have been poured out on ministere, and 
attemple against their maintenance ; the great difficulties 
which lie before the noble houses at this time, in their en- 
deavoure of healing and settling the land, and putting the 
broken bones and dislocated joints into due order again ; 
the allaying of animosities, the moderating of extremitieSi 
Ike reconciling of differences, the satisfying of interests, the 
pieeenration of pure religion, and the great concernments of 
Christ and his people ; the restoring of collapsed honoun to 
the nations, and of just rights to all orden therein, which 


have been so many years obstructed ; the reviving of trade, 
the easing of pressures, the reducing of these wofully tossed 
and naufragated kingdoms unto calmness and serenity again; 
— do call aloud for these duties in the text, that so the Lord 
may be pleased to hear, forgive, and heal us himself; and 
shine upon the counsels, and bless the whole undertakings 
of his servants, that they may be instruments of healing us 

For your better performance hereof, I shall propose two 

I. To take a view of God in himself, and in his relations 
unto you, and dealings with you. 

II. To take a view of yourselves, in the glass of his pure 
and holy law. 

I. Set the Lord before you, as David did. {Psal. xvi. 8) 
Consider what a Qod he is, with whom we have to do. Con- 
sider him, 

L In himself: his searching eye ; — humble yourselves in 
his sight. {James iv. 10) His mighty hand ; humble your- 
selves under his hand. (1 Pet, v. 6) His eye can search us; 
— we cannot hide from him : his hand can reach us ;— we 
cannot escape him. Every attribute of God may serve to 
humble us. 

His majesty and glory, dreadful to the angels. (Isa. vi. 2) 
' Cujus participatione justi, ejus comparatione nee justi.'* He 
is a great God ; and therefore greatly to be feared. {Psalm 
Ixxxix. 6, 7) 

His holiness, wherein he is glorious. {Exod. xv. 1 1) So 
holy that he cannot be served ; {Josh. xxiv. 19) of purer eyes 
than to behold iniquity. 

His jealousy and justice : a God to whom vengeance be- 
longeth, who will not be mocked or provoked. (Nahum i. 2) 

His mercy and goodness ; which should lead us to repent- 
ance, and melt the heart into a filial fear of him. {Hos. iii. 5. 
Rom. ii. 4) 

His omniscience ; who searcheth and trieth the heart and 
the reins, hath all things naked and open before him. If we 
know enough by ourselves, to humble and abase us; how 
should we reverence the eye of God, who knoweth all things ! 

Such considerations greatly humbled the holiest of men. 
Moses is afraid to look upon God ; {Exod. iii. 6) Job abhors 


himself; (Job xlii. 5) Elijah hides his face in a mantle; 
(1 Kings xix. 13) Isaiah cries out, * I am undone ;' (/mi. vi. 6) 
Evm cannot stand before Ood ; {Ezra ix. 15) Peter bids 
Christ depart from him, because he is a sinful man. {Luke 
▼. 8) 

2. In his relations to us : he our Maker, we the clay ; he 
oor King, we vassals ; he our Judge, we malefactors ; he our 
Father, we undutiful sons ; he our Master, we unprofitable 
servants. All arguments unto humiliation. 

3. In his dealing with us. Our humiliation melts him all 
iBto mercy. When Israel confessed, submitted, prayed, re- 
formed, the soul of the Lord was grieved for their misery. 
{Jmdges X. 15, 16) When Ephraim smote on his thigh, the 
Lord's bowels were troubled for him. {Jer. xxxi. 19, 20) 
Bttt our stubbornness will seal and shut up his compassions 
against us. {Levit. xxvi. 21) Consider him ; 

1. In his judgements and various providences : by which 
we should learn righteousness. {Isa. xxvi. 9) The Lord^s 
cap hath passed through all orders of men, princes, peers, 
gentry, ministers, people, soldiers themselves. We have felt 
hia judgements in our houses, our honours, our names, our 
estates; by wars on land, by dangers on sea, by divisions in 
church, by confusions in state, by more evils and sorrows 
than can be well enumerated. And should we not turn unto 
the Lord that smites? {Isa. ix. 13) Should we be, like Ahax, 
the worse for our sufferings ? (2 Chron. xxviii. 22) Be set 
oo fire, and not know it ; be burnt, and not lay it to heart? 
{ba. xlii. 25) 

2. In his mercies, which have shined upon us through all 
our clouds. We have no reason to complain ; for we are 
fiving men. He hath remembered mercy in the midst of 
wrmth ; quenched the flame of war ; frustrated the attempts 
of those who would have kindled it again; rebuked the rage 
of the sea, the beast of the reeds, as the Psalmist speaks ; put 
a stop to the career of those who had, in hope and design, 
swallowed up our churches, our universities, our ministry, our 
Jordan, into their Dead Sea ; — continued his gospel, and the 
means of grace in plenty and liberty amongst us ; (blessed be 
his name for ever ! never may his blessing be removed from us !) 
restored our parliaments (the ^rreat bulwarks, under God, of 
OUT religion, liberties, properties, interests, all our endear* 


meats) towards their ancient honour and splendor again. 
And this goodness of Ood calls for our humiliation. '* I will 
accept you, and gather you out of the countries, and then 
you shall remember your ways, and loathe yours^lfes.*' (Ezek. 
XX. 41, 43) With a hard and a soft, stone and mortar, we 
build a wall; with a hard and a soft, a hammer and a pil- 
low, we break a flint ; with a hard and a soft, the seal and 
the wax, we make an impression. Hard judgemeots and 
soft mercies, should build us up in holiness, break our stub- 
bom hearts, and make impressions upon tb^oa. 

II. Take a view of yourselves, of your own hearts and 
lives. We are apt to forget ourselves ; {Jama i. 28) to mis- 
take ourselves ; (Proo. xir. 12. i2eo. iii. 17) and therefore we 
tre bid to ' search and try* ourselves, (2 Cor. xiii. 6) as a 
means to silence our complaints against GK>d. {^Lam. m. 39, 
40) When the prodigal son once came to "himself, and took 
a survey of bis own .condition, he was quickly brought to 
acknowledge his unworthiness. (Ltffte xv. 17, 18) Tfak is a 
duty of singular use and benefit. It enlargeth the heart in 
godly sorrow for sin past, upon tbe discoveries which this 
sorutiny maketh. When we remember our doings, we shall 
loathe ourselves. (Euk, vi. 9) It worketh caution and cir.. 
cumspection for the time to come. We shall take heed of 
breaking the commandments, having provoked tbe Lord so 
much already. (Ezra ix. 14) It will cause us to magnify 
divine mercy, as Paul did, when he called to mind, that he 
had been a persecutor and blasphemer. (1 Tim. t. 13, 16) 
If any one should do us the thousandth part of the wrong 
which we have done God ; could we humble ourselves to 
feed, to clothe, to enrich, to adopt such a person unto our 
own family, and provide an ample inheritance for him ? It 
would make us rely only on free grace, and not on any 
strength kA our own, when we consider how much God re- 
quires, and how little we perform. *^ I will go in the strengtii 
of the Lord, I will make mention of thy righteousness, of 
thine only.*^ (PsaL Ixxi. 16) Asshur shall not save us; we 
will not ride upon horses, nor say to the work of our hands, 
'* Ye are our Gods ; for in thee, the fatherless findeth mercy." 
{Hos. xiv. 3. Isa. xvii. 7, 8) It will make us exceeding 
meek and patient in afflictions. It is nothing but ignorance 
of ourselves, which makes us swell and fret against God. If 


we be liviBg men, we have no reason to complain ; for we 
snffw lees than our iniquity deserres. {Lam, iii. 39» 40. 
Job %i. 6. PmoI. cm. 10. Ezra ix. 13) 

Aad tkat we may have the better and feller riew of oufi- 
wAwtM^ of our hearts and lives, let us look upon the holy law 
of God. It is exceeding broad, and reacheth to the smallest 
oerroption; {Piolm cxix.96) exceeding spiritual, and search- 
edi the iDmoat comers of the soul ; (Rom. vii. 14) exceeding 
pure, and cannot away with the least pollution; (P$alm 
cxix. 140) exceeding perfect, and will not dispense with any 
defect; {Psa/m xix. 7) exceeding right and straight, and can- 
wot endure any guile of spirit {P$ahn xix. 8, 9) Upon the 
exeeeding great and precious promises of the gospel, which 
ave the portico and dowry of the church here below ; upon 
Ae Holy Spirit of love and grace, which sealeth believers 
onto the day of redemption ; upon the free love whereby we 
vpere elected ; upon the precious blood whereby we were re- 
deemed; upon the glorious inheritance whereunto we are 
laeaerved ; upon the gracious image after which we are re 

This holy law, we have violated ; these precious promises, 
we have undervalued ; this blessed Spirit, we have grieved ; 
tins grace, we have abused ; this image, defiled ; this free 
love, this inestimable blood, this glorious inheritance, we 
littve deprized, and miserably neglected and disesteemed. 
What remains, but that we cry out all, with the leper in the 
ktw, ** Unclean, unclean."* 

Lastly, Let us take a view of our sins: if we be not rocks and 
adamants, that will humble us. We are made to converse 
with God ; and sin hath shut him out of all our thoughts. 
We ose to lament sad alterations, when a garden of Eden is 
Daode a wilderness, cities turned into ruinous heaps ; they 
tlMit did wear scarlet, embracing dunghills. How should we 
bewmil the sad change, which sin hath wrought in our nature 
and lives ! That a creature, stamped with the impress of the 
Divine Image, made for high and honourable employments, 
should so far degenerate, as to be a child of darkness, a vas* 
sal of bell, a vessel of lust ; — that a soul, made of a kind of 
angelical substance, should sink itself into the balance, with 
aoidid pleasures, with perishing profits, with noisome lusts ; 
ahonld barter, and sell away itself, and its salvaticii, for 


wind, for shame, for vanity, for rottenness, and change its 
glory for that which doth not profit ; — that a tongue, which 
was made to glorify God, and to be our glory, made for 
prayers, and praises, and gracious communication, should 
belch out blasphemy and profaneness, oaths and curses, 
ribaldry and reviling, and all kind of rotten speeches, like an 
open sepulchre ;-^that a heart that was made for heavenly 
meditations, and for intimate communion and converse with 
God,-— should now entertain none but hellish affections, and 
be a sink and charnel-house of impure lusts. 

If we should here descend to a more particular disquisition, 
and consider. The uncleanness of our ordinal from fallen 
Adam, by whom we have been sold as bondmen under sin ; 
{Rom. vii. 14) for ''none can bring a clean thing out of an 
unclean.*^ {Job xiv. 4, and xxv. 4) The uncleanness of our 
nature and constitution; by nature children of wrath, no good 
thing dwelling in us: as contrary to the holy will of God, as 
darkness to light; as full of evil, as the sea of water; 'set 
on fire by a hell of corruption ;' {James iii. 6) exactly con- 
trary to the law of God, as appeareth by comparing the strict 
demands of the one, {Gen. iii. 10) with the thorough depra- 
vation of the other. {Gen. vi. 5) — The uncleanness of our 
thoughts, and secret affections which arise continually, as 
sparkles out of a stirred furnace : vain thoughts, which tend 
to no good; {Jer. iv. 14) — wicked impure thoughts, very 
gall and bitterness. {Acts viii. 22, 23) The uncleanness of 
our words; not only idle words, (Matth. xii. 36) but rotten 
and unsavoury. {Ephes. iv. 29) — ^The uncleanness of our ac- 
tions, that immense colluvies of impieties against God, un- 
righteousness against men, intemperance against ourselves ; 
heinous in quality, measureless in quantity ; sands for num- 
ber, mountains for weight; attended with multitudes of 
doleful aggravations. The uncleanness of our services, and 
iniquity of our holy things ; — such considerations as these, 
sanctified by evangelical grace, would much conduce to our 
humiliation, and work in us three fruits and evidences 
thereof: — 

1. A * godly sorrow ;^ so called by the apostle, because it 
sets the soul God-ward. Cain, Judas, Felix, sorrowed; but 
they ran from God : but godly sorrow carries the soul closer 
unto God. As a ship, in a tempest, ventures not to any 


shore, but gets further ioto the sea ; so the soul, when it is 
humbled by God^ betakes not itself unto any carnal shore, 
but still runs closer into him. 

2. A justifying of God ; ascribing to him the glory of his 
righteousness, if he should condemn us ; and of his mercy, 
that he doth absolve us. {Psalm li. 4. Dan. ix. 7, 8, 9) 

3. A selfjudging and subscribing to our condemnation ; 
nyuig* Amen, unto the curse. (Deut. xxvii. 15) If I judge 
myself, God can reverse my judgement, as the superior judi- 
catory can the act of the inferior: but if I stay till God judge 
me, ail the world cannot null or avoid his. As St. Austin 
saith of the poor publican ', *' Ipse sibi judex erat, ut Deus 
liberaret; ipse accusabat, ut ille defenderet :** He judged and 
accused himself, that God might deliver and defend him* — 
*< Bonum judicium,*^ saith Bernard S *' quod me illo districto 
dirinoque judicio subducit et abscondit: Volo vultus iras 
jodicatus praesentari, non judicandus:^ this is a good judge- 
meot indeed, which withdraws and hides me from the severe 
judgement of God. I tremble to fall into the hands of the 
living God; let me be presented before his wrath as judged 
^already, not as to be judged by him. 

IL The next duty is prayer; without which, humiliation is 
but a * sinking'' under God, not a * seeking^ unto him. The 
very heathen betook themselves unto this sanctuary in times 
of trouble **, ' ut pacem Dei exposcerent' By this mighty 
engine God hath been moved to hold his hand, to repent of 
bis purpose, to revoke denounced judgements. ^* Vincit in- 
rincibilem, ligat omnipotentem.'' 

1. By this we honour God in acknowledging him the foun- 
tain of all our good, the inflicter of all evil, the avenger 
of all sin; that we have to do with him in all our sufferings; 
creatures but the rod, he the Father that holds it: That no 
other means can do us good, except he sanctify them ; that 
bis displeasure none can remove. As a diamond is cut only 
by a diamond, so God is pacified only by himself. The sting 
of the scorpion is cured by the powder of the scorpion ; the 
anger of God, by the favour of God. 

2. By this we ease ourselves. Prayer lighteneth affliction, 

t j§H^. ia Pwlm .11. I Bern, in Cant. Set. 55. ^ Brit, de 


VOL. V. U 



where it doth not remove it. Nature 18 strengthened to bear 
the pain ; conscience is strengthened to withstand the temp- 
tation and snare of it. The heart is meekened to accept the 
punishment of sin. As wool or 'mud deads the force of a 
bullet; so the hedrt, weakened by prayer, doth obtund the 
edge ofan affliction, thfeit it cannot get so deep into the heart 
to hurt it. 

III. In prayer, we must seek the face of Ood ; his favour 
to comfort us» and his counsel to direct us. 

1. In judgements and difficulties, 'we should more seek 
God^s favour than our own deliverance ; the recovery of his 
love, thfta the removal of his rod. Other griefs press nature ; 
his displeasure wounds the spirit. In other griefs, God^s 
favour upholds the soul ; {Psalm xxiii. 4, and xciv. 17, 19) 
but when God^s favour is withdrawn, the soul hath nothing 
else left to lean to : nothing can comfort when God frowns. 
Armour can protect against a sword or a bullet, but not 
against fire. When God is angry, no refiige but in himself. 

2. In difficulties, we mnst likewisie seek God's fttce, as 
David did ; (2 Sam. xxi. 1) not lean on our own understand- 
ing, nor sacrifice to our net ; but have our eyes upon him, 
who is the Father of Lights-; who, wheh he will, maketh 
wise the simple : and *wheii he will, infatuateth the counsel 
of the wise, and maketh it brutish. 

IV. After all these preparatory duties, that which is the 
substantial duty, and the end of all the rest, must follow, 
' Turning from our wicked ways :' not from sin to sin, that is 
* mutatio in aliud' only, not Mn melius f — Not from sin to 
secular interest; that is not a conversion from sin to God, 
but to the world: — ^not from sin to the mere dictates of na- 
ture and right reason ; that is not a conversion from sin to 
God, but from sin to ourselves ; a philosophical, not a spiri- 
tusfl conversion : — not firom sin only to the natural consci- 
ence, to gratify and prevent the terrors of that ; that is a 
Servile, tiot a filial conversion : — ^but firom sin to God; not 
fefgnedly and hypocritically, {Jer. iii. 10) with a divided 
heart : but sincerely in our thoughts, fi'om the love and allow- 
^toce of all sin ; in our ways, from the practice willingly of 
any sin ; but especially from those sins which have most pre- 
vailed against us, and wherewith we have most dishonoured 
God. (as Isa. xvii. 7, 8, and xxx. 22. Hos. xiv. 3) 


These are the duties here prescribed, in order to t}ie an- 
sweriog of SolomoQ^s prayer. The answer follows exactly 
cominensarate to these duties, in four gracious promises. 

1. A promise of gracious condescension, intimated in the 
word from heaven ; though he dwell on high, he will hum- 
ble himself to revive the spirit of contrite and humble sin* 
ners. (Psalm cxiii. 5, 6. /«a. Ivii. 15) He will 'come down^ 
to work deliverance for them. (Ejod. iii. 8) 

2. Promise of gracious audience; *^ I will hear.^' It is a 
doleful affliction to God's servants, when he is angry with 
their prayers, and shuts them out {Psalm Ixxx. 4. I^m. iii. 
8) And on the other side, this is one of the most radiant 
and glorious comforts of God's people, that, in all difficul- 
ties, they have a throne of grace to betake them to, with a 
promise, '* You shall pray, and I will hearken ^ — as <^ man 
d4)ih to what he delighteth in : for " the prayer of the right- 
eous is his delight." (Jer. xxix. 12, 13. Prov. xv. 8) 

3. A gracious promise of forgiveness to serene his counte- 
nance, and lift up the light thereof upon them : for even 
when we do his will, and when we are his people, we want 
pardoning mercy. There is need of pardon, not only for the 
ungodly unto their justification, but also for his own people 
and children unto a restitution to paternal favour ; the sense 
and fruition whereof they may forfeit by their sins. And 
this is God'*8 method in hearing prayers, — to forgive sin, 
before he cures pain. (Matth. ix. 2) For indeed when siu 
is pardoned, the sickness is cured at the root ; for sin is the 
sting of every affliction, as well as of death. 

4. A promise of healing, healing of the land, the humilia- 
tions and prayers of God\s peculiar people are beneficial to 
the whole land. " The innocent shall deliver the island.^ 
{Job xxii. 30) A Joseph in Kgypt, an Elijah in Israel, is the 
cbmriots and horsemen thereof. An humbled, praying, con- 
verting people, sliall certainly be a healed people : and if ever 
we hope to be healed to purpose, this must be our method to it. 

Now touching these promises, there is this worthy our ob- 
servation : — 

1. That when God 'comes down' to deliver, and looks 
firom heaven, he doth it by no other way, than by the incar- 
nation of his Son, the cfiicacy of his Spirit, the operation of 
his evidence, or the ministry of angels. 

t 2 




2. When he hears prayers, it is only by the intercession 
and mediation of Christ 

3. When he forgives sins, it is only by the merits and 
righteousness of Christ. 

4. But when he heals a land, he often useth in that work 
the ministry of men. Magistrates are healers and repairers; 
{Isa. iii. 7) ministers are healers of the sick. (Ezek. xxxiv. 4) 

And, therefore, I shall here, in all humility, implore of you, 
B-ight Honourable, who are instruments for healing in the 
Lord's hand, unto these long and wofully sick nations, — that 
you would, with all your vigour, call together all the graces 
of God, all the abilities of nature in you, unto this most ne- 
cessary work. You have the Lord^s promise to be with you 
in it, if you set about it in his way. 

And his way to heal a land, is, 

1. When the people thereof are his people, called by his 

2. When they are an humbled, penitent, praying, reforming 

Your greatest care therefore must be ; 

1. That the people of the land be Ood^s people; that his 
name be owned ; his truths, worship, interests, preserved pure 
and inviolate amongst us« It is to those that fear God's 
name, that the promise of ^ healing' is made. (MaL iv. 2) 

2. Inasmuch as even the sins of such may provoke the 
Lord, your zeal for God, and love to the nation should 
appear, in awakening them and all others to remember from 
whence they are fallen ; many of them through pride, wan- 
tonness, interests, and carnal designs, from wholesome 
truths, from holy ordinances, from the love of a faithful mi- 
nistry^ from brotherly love, from Christian communion, to 
many errors and vain jangliiigs, to contempt of magistracy, 
to affronting authority, to Tiolating public order and peace ; 
to such an excess of licentiousness, under the pretence of 
freedom, that religion scarce ever was more endangered under 
the straits of persecution, than under the lasciviousness and 
wantonness of an abused liberty. Though, therefore, there 
ought to be all tenderness to preserve for God's people the 
liberty wherewith the Lord hath made them free, (God forbid 
any restraint or abridgment should be upon that :) yet since 
the same Lord hath commanded, that we must not use our 


Uberty as a cloak of maliciousness, it is necessary that great 
prudence be used to prevent the exorbitances of wanton 
minds, who make use of liberty to the dishonour and as- 
saulting of public authority, to the kindling of flames, anima- 
ting the discontented people unto insurrections, enervating 
the peace and concord of the people of the land, by disjoint- 
ing them in that which is the main bond of unity, the truths 
of religion :*-wherein, when they are once universally broken, 
who sees not how wide a door is opened for Rome or Mun- 
ster, not only to enter in, but to be welcomed amongst us. 

The way therefore unto healing, is to endeavour to bring 
us all home to be God'*s people, and, as his people, to be com- 
pacted within ourselves ; to lay aside aU dividing, distin- 
guishing, invidious titles ; and, with fraternal affections, to 
coalesce, as far as may be, in judgement, however, thoroughly 
in affection ; and so to keep our differing opinions to our- 
selves, as that the consciences of our brethren may not ba 
grieved, nor the peace of the church of Christ endangered 

I conclude all, with beseeching you, that since the Lord 
bath taken it as one of his titles to be called * The Lord that 
healeth us,' {Exod. xv. 26) that without him the builder 
worketh, the watchman keepeth, the statesman counselleth, 
the physician healeth, all in vain, — You would ever, by 
prayer, and attendance unto God for counsel, so seek his 
face, and guidance in this weighty work — that, when it is 
finished, and the headstone of our settlement laid, we may 
say, *' It was the Lord's doing, and marvellous in our eyes ;** 
and may with shouting cry, " Grace, grace unto it.^' 



6t«aei in a SERMON »t St. Paul's Church, London, October 28, ieOO. 

» m » I ■« 

• I t 






Right Honourable, 

Being desired by order of your court to print this Sermon, 
preached on the last day of the then Lord Mayor, and the 
first of the present, I shall humbly crave leave to mind both 
those honourable persons, and all others, of the signal provi- 
dence of God to them and us, this last year. How gracious- 
ly the Lord hath carried the Lord Mayor through the storms 
and difficulties of a most troublesome government, bearing 
him up by a spirit of prudence and calmness, above potent 
frowns, and popular passions, till at last his year was ho- 
noured with the glorious spectacle that this city hath seen 
for many and many ages, in the happy return of our Dread 
Sovereign unto his royal throne, — our eyes have been abun- 
dantly witnesses of. From how many afflictions and dangers 
your present Lordship hath been wonderfully delivered, the 
Lord providing shelters and chambers to hide you in from 


the jealoos eyes and iron arms of those who were then in 
power; reserving you uuto, and recompensing you with, this 
present honour, — you cannot but, ^ith thankful adoration of 
Dirine Providence, be most sensible of, and afiected with. 
What terrible things the Lord hath done for these three 
kingdoms— -things which we looked not for, in breaking go-. 
▼ernmentSj infatuating counsels, melting armies, levelling 
mountains, and preparing a way for hiH Sacred Majesty 
throuigh the hearts of his people, to the possession of his 
thfone ; is so eminently known to all nations, as if it were re*, 
gistered with a beam of the sun, and proclaimed by an ange-. 
Heal herald. What use both you, and all of us, should make 
of these wonderful workings of Divine Providence, I cannot 
give yoQ in better words than in those of Samuel unto Israel. 
(1 Sam. xii. 24) ** Only fear the Lord and serve him in truth 
wi|tb all your hearts ; for consider how gr^at thini^s he hath 
dme for you.**' If unto such a wise and holy improvement of 
mercies, this present Sermon may be of use unto you (where-, 
in is aet forth how ransomed persons are not their own, and 
therefore not to seek or serve themselves, and how much 
they are engaged to live to the glory and service of him 
that delivered them) I shall have abundantly the fruits of 
my labours, and I hope therewith the benefit of your 
prayers, who am. 

Your Honours' most humbly devoted. 

From mif study, \ ED. REYNOLDS. 

Not;. 20, UJ60. \ 

1 COR. vi. 19,20. 

Ye are not your own : 

For y€ are botigkt with a price : therefore glorify God in your 
body, and in your spirit^ which are God^i. 

Such is the desperate corruption of man's heart, thai 
those very blessings of God, which should oblige unto his 
service, do usually alienate and estrange the same from him : 
so that the very table of wicked men is a snare, and ^^ the 
things which are for their good, do become unto them an 

296 THE lord's property in fSERM. XXI. 

occasion of falling.*' (Psalm Ixix. 22) They no sooner wax 
fat, but they kick. {Deut. xxxii. 15) Their wealth becomes 
the fuel of their lust ; and their prosperity, the mother of their 
luxury and intemperance. When they are filled with their 
pastures, they forget God. {Hos. xiii. 6) When the Lord 
*' feeds them to the full, they commit adultery, and assemble 
themselves by troops in the harlots' houses.*' {Jer. v. 7) 
Thus it fared with the people, to whom our apostle writes in 
this epistle. Corinth was a city in Peloponnesus, between 
the Ionian and the £gean sea ; the head of Achaia ; one of 
the principal emporia, or mart towns of Greece, celebrated 
by Homer*, Strabo, Cicero, Florus, for the great wealth 
thereof. And as it was fan^ous for riches, so was it as infa« 
roous for those sins, which plenty and prosperity use to pro- 
duce, especially the sin of uncleanness and fornication ; inso- 
much that KopirfMi^ffiy was an expression amongst the Greeks 
for ' Scortation.* And they were wont, as Athenseus tells 
us^, when they prayed for success in their undertakings, to 
vow, * that they would bring whores into the city ;* — as if it 
had been an honbur and service unto it. And learned men 
are of opinion % that the apostles in their council at Jerusa- 
lem, did, by letters, forbid unto the Gentiles fornication ; 
{Acts XV. 20) because amongst them it was judged a free and 
lawful thing to make use of mercenary harlots, who, for 
gain, did prostitute themselves unto the lusts of men. How 
much this sin did prevail at Corinth, not only before their 
embracing of Christianity, (as verse 11) but even after they 
had been taught by the apostle, and given entertainment 
unto the gospel, as is evident by his complaint, 2 Cor, xii. 21 ; 
so we may further gather from the special arguments he fur- 
nisheth them with, in this chapter against it. 

1. That which alters the end and use for which the body 
was made, is not to be allowed : but fornication makes a 
quite contrary use of the body, than that for which it was 
made ; which was to be for the Lord, dedicated to those ser- 
vices wherein he should employ it. . '^ The body is not for 
fornication, but for the Lord ; and the Lord for the body,*^ 

■ Hontfl". Iliad- lib. 2. — Strabo. lib. 8. — Cicero. Orat. pro L. Manil. — L. Florus. 
lib. 2. c. 16. ^ Eustathius in Homer. Iliad. |). 290.^i4thtn. lib. 13.— 

^mhrt. de Abra. lib. 2> c. 11. < Grot, in Act. xv. 20- et Lorin, ibid. 


ver$e 13. The body for the Lord, to serve aod hoDOur him ; 
and the Lord for the body, to sanctify and sare it. 

2. The body which is to be raised onto glory, and which 
(we hope) shall be made ** like unto Christ a glorious body»^ 
is not, in the mean time, to be conspurcated and dishonour- 
ed with so impure a pollution. ** But God hath raised up 
the Lord, and will us/' vtr$€ 14. 

3. The * members of Chrisf ought not to be made the 
members of a harlot; inasmuch as this is a high indignity 
unto Christy that so pure and holy a head, should have 
so leprous and filthy members. But our bodies, by the in-> 
habitation of the spirit of Christ in us, are his members ; and 
therefore should not be made one flesh with a harlot; ver. 

4. That which in this is more unnatural and atrocious than 
other sins, in that other sins do not terminate themseWes in 
file body, but go out unto other objects, is not to be admit- 
ted. But fornication brings a peculiar dehonestation and 
contumely upon the body ; therefore it is not to be admitted, 
vene 18. 

6. Temples, which are peculiarly consecrated unto Ood 
and to his service, ought not to be defiled or profaned by 
any sacrilegious pollutions ; for, ** him that defileth the 
temple of the Lord, he will destroy.*^ But our bodies are 
temples for the Holy Spirit to dwell in ; therefore ought not 
to be conTerted into stews, or receptacles of impure lusts ; 

ver$e 19. 

6. They who are not their own, nor in their own disposal, 
but belong to another Lord, are not to live after their own 
will, or by their own lust, but according to the will, and the 
ends, and uses, of their principal Lord. *^ But we are not our 
own ; and therefore have not the power to live according to 
our own lusts : but we are his that made us by his power, 
redeemed us by his love, dwelleth in us by his Spirit : there* 
fore him we are to glorify by pure spirits, and chaste bodies. 

So the words of the text are the last argument, which the 
apostle useth against that great sin, which did so abound in 
that rich and luxurious city ; therefore Jerome, Ambrose, 

' Duoniin unius rci in !K)liJum dominium esse non potctf. l>ig» 1. 13. Tie 6. 


Chrysostom,. Theppbylacl, dismember iliem from the words 

Wherein are considerable three particulars. 1. A double 
prapo^itiouj the one negative, ^' Ye are not your own ;^ the 
other affirmative, ^' Ye are God'^s.'" 2. The reason of both, 
'* Ye are bought with a price.*^ 3. The inference from botb^ 
'* Therefore glorify God in your body and spirit'* 

Xhe first proposition is negative ; '^ Ye are not your own ;^' 
therefore it is against the rule of common right, and public 
justice, C Q^^ suumcuique tribuit') to dispose of yourselves 
according to your own counsel and pleasure. " None of us 
liyeth to himself; no man dieth to himseif.*^ (Rom. xiv. 17) 
Wa have neither being, nor well-being, nor subserviences 
unto either, of, or from, ourselves ; therefore none of it is fq 
be disposed at our own will. There are indeed vain men, 
that say, '^ We are Lords. {Jer. ii. 32) Our lips are our 
own, who is the Lord over us 7^ {Psalm xii. 4) and thereupon 
resolve to walk after their own devices, {Jer. xviii. 12) and 
to do whatsoever thing goeth forth out of their own mouth :-^ 
(Jer. xliv. 17) but as their claim of themselves is but aa 
usurpation, so their living to themselves js but a sacril^e, 
whereof they must give a strict account 

A thing, is said to be our own ' Dopainio pleno,^ when we 
have a propriety in it, and a possession of it. Propriety ia 
twofold ', ^ original,' that of the supreme Lord ; — ' deriva^r 
tive,^ as th^t df the copyholder, the Emphyteuta, the usufruc- 
tuary, who hath a right granted to use, or to meliorate, but 
not to corrupt or abuse the land or tenement conveyed unto 
him. Possession also is twofold ; the one, by way of dof 
minion ; fu» when a man holdeth that which is truly his own^ 
or conceiveth bona fide to be his own : — the other, by way 
uf custody and trust, as a guardian holdeth the estate of his 
pupil; a steward, or servant, the goods of his Lord ; a j^^ppr 
sitory the goods of him, who entrusts him with the keepitig 
of them. This premised, we say, 1. by original propriety^ 
none can call either himself, or any other thing, his own, but 
only God, who alone is the fountain of all being, whose napne 
is, I AM ^ who is of himself only, and all other beings are by 
derivation and participation from him * ^* for of him, and 

• Vid. Greg. Tkol, Syntagma juris, 1. 1. c. 12, 13. ' E^. iii. 14. 



I Ibrough him, and to htm, are all things.'" ■ Anii thererore 
I be only being of hiDiseir, can work, only for himself; and 
being the author of all gther beings, may justly nlso dial- 
' lenge to be the eiul of them ; for he made all things top ■* 
Jumself. (.Prov. xvl 4) 
2. By derivative propriety; men have a right under God 
L Bfito mauy good things. There is a double grant made by 
tGod of good things, — one, by way of general indulgence; 
lu>d so he " hath given the earth to the children of men,^ 
mdFsalm cxv, 16) and " divided to the nalious their inhen.> | 
' tanoe." {Deat. xxxii. 8) Even heathen and wicked a 
have a right, by Divine Providence, to their estates; as he I 
gave UDto Jehu and his sons, for four generations, the throne ] 
of Israel, (2 Kings x. 30) and tlie land of Egypt to Nebuchad. 
Dezznr. {Exek. xxix. 19) It is a dangerous opinion, which [ 
teodetb to the dethroning of princes, and concussion of | 
states, to teach, that ' Temporale Domiuiuni fundatur iq j 
Gratia ;' aud that wicked men are usurpers of all which they 1 
enjoy : for the Lord maketh " his rain to full on the just aiut ■\ 
unjust;" (Malth. v. 46) and commanded 'to give uiito> 1 
Cmar/ a heathen king, * the thiugs which were CttaarW' \ 
(Mailh, xxii. 21) And though wicked men, by the demerifc^ 
of their sins, deserved to be deprived of good things, yet ' d^ J 
tacto,' the Lord doth indulge the use and fruition of them. * 
And therefore it is a wicked doctrine of those Poutifician 
who teach, that a heretical prince (that is, in their sense, 004 i 
thai caslelh oB'the yoke of the Roman religion) doth there- 
upon forfeit his temporalities into the hands of the Popei 
and 10 to make him, ' in ordine ad spirituulia,^ to be the 
disposer of crowns and kingdoms. 

Bat this propriety, men are to use under those restrictions 
lod limitatioDB which the Lord in his word hath prescribed ; 
▼iz. in order unto his glory, (1 Cor. x. 32) and in order to , 
the good of ourselves and others : else, though they have | 
lawful, they have not a pure and sauctified, use of them. 

Agaiiii There is a divine grant by way of special grace ami 
covenant; and thus the Lord hath given unto his peculiar 

■ Roli).ii.36. ■■ yfflinn. 12,q. 2. 0|hu. de reproine principU 

L I.C. 10^-Bill.dc Ponl. Rom.l.S.c. 6,7, 8.— Boron. Anno. ■*9S. sect. 36,37. 
An. 59S. KCi- 90. Anno. 5«B. jmi. U. Anno. 603. kcI. 23. Anno. "30. ltd, 5. 
<Mrr«. AdKr. Anijlic. scctn <[[otet, lit). :<. de Prim. Ponlif. ci)k 23. 

300 THE lord's property in [sERM. XXI. 

people^ both himseir^ and his Son, and his Spirit^ and all 
things that belong unto life and godliness. '* He is not 
ashamed to be called their God ;*' {Heb. xi. 1 6) and gifeth 
them leave accordingly to avouch him for their God : {Deut. 
xxvi. 17) and» together with himself and his Son, hath es- 
lated them * In all other good things.' {Rom. viii. 32) All 
the gifts, endowments, graces, natural or spiritual, which he 
hath bestowed upon any, whether Paul, or ApoUos, or Ce- 
phas» the most eminent of men, are given for them and their 
comfort; (1 Cor. iii. 22, 23) they are ail given to profit 
withal ; (1 Cor. xii. 7) and for the perfecting of the saints. 
{Ephes. iv. 12) 

3. Again, We have the tenure.and possession of our life, 
our nature, our faculties, our endowments, all the gifts and 
talents which are bestowed upon us. But this is not a pos- 
session of dominion, to dispose of these things at our own 
pleasure ; we may not rashly throw away our lives, or pro- 
fanely lay out our wit and learning, upon the service of Sa- 
tan, or our own, or other men^s lusts. But it is only a pos- 
session of custody and trust, in order to the glory of God, 
and to the edification, comfort, and benefit of others. For 
all the gifts and power which God gives, is ** to profit withw 
al, and for edification, not for destruction.^ (2 Cor. x. 8) 
• Sad then will be tlie account which they shall make, who, 
by luxury and intemperance, by challenges and duels, or by 
any other way of rashness and wickedness, expose their lives 
unto danger of ruin. Or, on the other side, do so pamper 
nature, and indulge to their sensual appetites, as ^ propter 
vitam vivendi perdere causas,^ and have their souls only for 
salt to keep alive their bodies, and to serve for no other pur- 
pose ; — who use the gifts of God against the giver of them, 
and have their wisdom, power, wit, learning, wesdth, interests, 
only as a panoply of Satan, {Luke xi. 22) to fight his battles 
against God and his church ; as Ahithophel used his wisdom 
against David', and Tertullus, his oratory against Paul^; 
and Jeroboam, his power against the prophet'; and the 
Scribes and Pharisees, their learning against Christ; and 
Libanius, Lucian, Porphyry, Celsus, and other proud philo- 
sophers, their wits and pens against Christian religion. 

i 2 Sam. zvi. 20. xtU. 1. ^ Acu zxiv. 1,2. i 1 Kingt zHi. 4. 


Here then ofTere itself a weighty and serious question to 
be resolTed, namely. When doth a man act as if be were his 
own, as if he had the original propriety and plenary posses- 
sion and dominion over himself / 

In the general, I answer. When a man doth exempt him- 
self from all superior jurisdiction, — will be subordinate unto 
none; and from all brotherly communion, — will be co-ordinate 
unto none; will neither live to the glory of God above himt 
or the use and benefit of his brethren about him ; will be, as 
it were, alone; (/mi. v. 8) and as if he had a kind of dei^ 
mod sufficiency within himself: as Tyrus said, ** I am a God ; 
I sit in the seat of God ; and did set her heart as the heart 
•f God.** {Ezek. xxviii. 2) And as Nebuchadnecxar said, ** Is 
not this Babylon the Great, that 1 have built for the house 
of my kingdom, and for the honour of my majesty ?** (Doji. 
ir. 90) And as Pharaoh, '* Who is the Lord, that I should 
obey bis voice, and let Israel go T" {Exod. v. 2) 

But more particularly we shall resolve this question in four 
propositions : 

A man acteth and liveth, as if he were his own, and in bis 
own disposal ; 

1. When he maketh his own reason his supreme rule, by 
wbicb to work. 

2. When he maketh his own will his chief law and autho- 
rity therein. 

3. When he maketh his own interest his ultimate end in 

4. When he maketh his own performances the principal 
groond of all his hopes. 

I. When a man makes his own reason his supreme rule, 
resolving, as Jeroboam did, to follow what ** his own heart 
hath devised and contrived.*" (1 King$ xii. 33) Reason in- 
deed is the * candle' of the Lord ; (Prot7. xx. 27) but what is 
a candle to the sun-beam ? unto which the apostle compareth 
the gospel. {Rom. x. 18) The Lord will have no disputing, 
or replying against him; {Rom, ix. 20) but will have human 
reason strike sail, and captivate itself to the word of God. 

For stating of this point, we are to distinguish between 
camil reason and right reason. Carnal reason, or reason 
darkened and corrupted by the original pravity which cleav- 
eth unto it, is ^ enmity against God ;'' and neither is, nor 


the power of Ood ; afld 

AOb xTfL a Tot 

nor 6tr beoid, 

jtoconoMvOp too 

ft GW. 


^ CtriMO 

^, by diTHM 

ver ofOBgriioal 
* uppooidf it it an 

lod to dodMO'iooh 
11 le goipal, M hmfo m 

1*^ Abq iMfofloto ibo 

■^^ 'nTictioa^ anHkttEtioB of 

t: I. 8. 9 Cir.m S) dl which 

^ 1 iifttioii. For M Mtafo stand- 

le the fhcolty^ tnd gi?e it m epi- 

vliidi are above it ; to grtkoe oeodi 

y and acmneii thereof* to mahe the 

•t iboae tnitha which are revealed.^ 

: ihat habitude and degree wherein rea- 

i.ition to hwy or goapel ; how the one ii 

1 the other more aoblime ; — and w h e t e i i i 

^ober and religiooa oae of it. But when a 

I hii reason into the thionep and set np his own 

.itions, which shonld be brooght into captivity 

)edience of Christ, above law aad gospel ; and anflbr 

itonness of a luoriant and disonrsive fbneyi to dis- 

way the love doe to the one, the faith doe to the other, 

le obedience dne to both ; when men will make their 

I dto judge of God^s own word, and the last resolution 

if thing which they mean to do and believe ; — this is 

iL 27. Mmau ivi. 85. Mf M«r, Mp A^yip, M^ 
KfpM W 4Mr«^ JiMlM. Mvt de recti Conf. « VkL 

302 THE lord's property in [sERM. XXI. 

can be subject unto him. (Rom. viii. 7) It is that which the 
apostle calleth Xoyi(r|xo), i^<»(mi, y^fta, ' imaginations, high 
things, tlioughts, reasonings;^ (2 Cor. x. 5) by the help 
whereof it is, that men do so argue and dispute in defence of 
ihose lusts, which they are loth to part with, or be convinced 
"oT^: a notable example whereof we liave in Saul. (1 Sam. 
Kv. 15, 20, 21) 

Right reason may be considered, either with relation to 
the law, or to the gospel. With relation to the law : so we 
acknowledge, that it being the remainder of the image of 
■God in the tnind of man, it is, in things moral, though short 
of the word, yet consonant unto it. It is short of it: for 
the apostle had never known concupiscence to be sin, if the 
law had fiot forbidden it. {Rom. vii. 7) And if reason, in 
•morals, those we mean which were natural and consecrated, 
imd fiot been . dimmed and defaced ; there would not have 
been any need, in that respect, of the publication of the law, 
which was promulgated, that thereby we might know sin. 
{Rom. iii. 10) Nay, after the law was published, the apostle, 
till his conversion, had not the full knowledge of the spiritual 
nature and wideness of it, as, after, he had. (Rom. vii. 9. Phil. 
iii. -6) The law is perfect and spiritual ; reason is not. 

Yet withal it is consonant to the word ; and therefore, the 
apostle, in some cases, appeals to nature, and bids us * Judge 
within ourselves ;' and tells us, that ^ they who have not the 
law, are a law unto themselves;^ (1 Cor. xi. 13, 14. Rom. 
ii. 14) and saith of the sin of the incestuous person, that it 
was ' not so much as named among the Gentiles.'' (1 Cor. v. 1) 
There is a natural o-uvl^^<rj; ", or habit of practical principles, 
•ingrafted notions of original light which the mind doth most 
readily assent unto ; called Natural Knowledge, Jude^ ver. 10; 
and the knowledge of God in the heathen j which makes them 
* without excuse.' (Rom. i. 20) 

With relation to the gospel, so we say, that the mysteries of 
•the Christian religion, though they be not against reason, are 
yet above reason. They are not against it "^ : Therefore our 

n Via. Avg. Confess. 1. 5. c. 10. et de Civ. Dei, 1. 14. c. 14 . • Erup- 

tleikts animee doctrtna nttunae eongaaitae, et ingenitse, conscientiae tacitt com- 
^lifls^ &c. Tert. dc Tcstim. Ani. c. 5. — Priroordialis lex, matrix omnium prae- 
oeptorum Dei : I(Um advers. Judaeos, c. 2. « ^ug. de Gen. ad lit. 

1. 1. c. 19. 


Saviour proves the resurrection of the power of Ood ; and 
ID like manner the apostle, Mat. zxii. 29. Aeis zxri. 8. Yet 
they are above it : for " eye hath not seen, nor ear beard, 
neither bath^t entered into the heart of man to conceive, the 
tilings which God hath prepared for them that love him.'* 
(1 Cor. ii. 9) Therefore it is every way known by the name 
of a * mystery/ and ' hidden mystery;^ (£pAev. iii. 9. Co/, 
i. 26) a mystery which flesh' and blood hath not revealed, 
bot the Spirit of God. {Mat. xvi. 17) Evangelical doctrines 
of fiuth are not comprehended, nor virtually comprised in the 
aec^ of natural reason ; but made known only by divine 
mod supernatural revelation, p 

Lastly, Though reason is not able to discover evangelical 
mysteries, yet the revelation of them being supposed, it is an 
excellent instrument to make use thereof, and to deduce such 
consequences from the principles of the gospel, as have a 
natural and clear connexion unto them. And therefore the 
mpostie calleth evangelical teaching 'AWSfij^i;, tXayxj^, fwfi^ 
fmffis akifiilaf, a demonstration, conviction, manifestation of 
thetmth ; (1 Cor. ii. 4. John xvi. 8. 2 Cor. \v. 2) all which 
are acts or ways of clear ratiocination. For as nature stand- 
eth in need of grace to elevate the faculty, and give it a spi* 
ritual perception of things which are above it ; so grace useth 
nature, and the perspicacy and acumen thereof, to make the 
more clear discoveries of those truths which are revealed.^ 

We see the state of that habitude and degree wherein rea- 
son stands with relation to law, or gospel ; how the one is 
more perfect, and the other more sublime ; — and wherein 
consisteth the sober and religious use of it. But when a 
roan will exalt his reason into the throne, and set up his own 
high imaginations, which should be brought into captivity 
to the obedience of Christ, above law and gospel ; and sufier 
the wantonness of a luxuriant and discursive fancy, to dis- 
pute away the love due to the one, the faith due to the other, 
and the obedience due to both ; when men will make their 
reason the judge of God'*s own word, and the last resolution 
of every thing which they mean to do and believe; — this is 

f Manh. xi. 27. Rom. xvi. 25. i>v^p p9vp, iMp X^yor, ihr4p fcanUi|fir 
c7irn)T ^i^MM T^ i)>irrffpa. Justin. Mart de rccu Conf. H Vid. Cmmir: 

dc Vcfbo Dei ; c. 18. 

304 THB lord's PROPEin'Y IN [S£RM. XXI. 

to tell the world, tliat they are their own, and that they ac- 
knowledge no aulhority above themselves.^ 

2. When a man maketh his own will bis chief law« which 
he is resolved to obey. All the contest between God and 
wicked men, is, whose will shall stand. The Lord com- 
mands, that his will be observed ; the sinner resolves, that 
his own will shall be obeyed. The law requires duty ; the 
sinner will not do it. The law threateneth curses ; the sinner 
will not believe it. The word convinceth of what is God^s 
will; and the sinner swelleth in contumacy and obstinacy 
against it. 'Cesset voluntas propria, non erit infemus.'* 
In this case, the Lord resolves to make sinners know, ** whose 
word shall stand, his, or theirs;" (Jer, xliv. 28) to break 
those whom ho did not bend, and to make known his power 
against their pride ; (Exod. ix. 16) to fetch his glory out of 
atrong and stubborn people ; (Isa. xxv. 3) as a tempest tear- 
eth an oak that resists it; but hurteth not the com that 
yields unto it ^' He resisteth the proud, and will overcome 
when he judgeth.''^ 

3. When a man maketh his own interest his ultimate 
end, directing all his aims and designs to his own gain, 
pleasure, credit, ease, advantage, looking in nothing beyond 
himself; eating to himself, drinking to himself; {Zech. vii. 6) 
bringing forth fruit unto himself, {Hos. x. 1) without any 
conscience towards God^s will, or aim at his glory. 

But are we so little our own then, that we may not at all 
aeek ourselves, or eye those things wherein our own interests 
are concerned ? — Doubtless we may. He that commands to 
love ourselves, allows to aim at the profiting and pleasing of 
ourselves. For love shews itself in benevolence and bene- 
ficence, willing and doing ourselves good. But it must not 
be either arbitrarily, or ultimately ; not arbitrarily, but with 
submission to the rule of God's will ; and not ultimately, but 
with subordination to the glory of his name. We may seek 
our own preservation, yet so as to acquiesce in God^s provi- 
dence, in whose hand our times are ", and so as to be will- 
ing, that God be magnified in our mortal body ', whether by 

' Quid ma^is contra fidelem quam credere nolle quicquid non possit rationc 
attingere ? — Laudatur Marhi, quod rationem fide prsvenit ; punitur Zecharias, 
quod fidem ratione tentavit Bern. Ep. 190. • Bfr, de Resurrect. Dom. 

Ser. 3. t James iv. 6. Ptfalm li. 4. " Psalm iixi. 15. « Phil. i. 20. 

seuM. xxkJ his people. 305 

life, or by death* We may seek the improvement of aoy 
gift, temporal, or spiritual, which Ood hath given us; yet so 
as to acquiesce in that measure which he is pleased to pro- 
portion unto us ^, and so as to consecrate ourselves ', and all 
our endowments unto his glory, that Chrint may divide all 
our spoils. * We are to seek our own salvation ; yet even 
this, if a case could so be put, is to be postponed unto God's 
glory. But such is his goodness, as never to oppose these 
two, or set them in competition with one another ; but ever 
to fonjoin, and to twist them together. Whensoever we 
seek the glory of God, we do, ' eo ipso/ promote our own 
salvation. Whensoever we prosecute our own salvation, we 
do, ' eo ipso/ bring glory to God. Whatsoever glorifies God, 
dotli ever end in our salvation. Faith glorifies God ; Abra^ 
ham was strong in faith, giving glory to God. {Rom. iv. 20) 
And the end of our faith, is the salvation of our soul. (1 Pet 
i. 9) Works of obedience glorify God. {John xv, 8) • And 
they are the ready way to our own salvation ; for afler we 
have done the will of God, we shall be sure to * receive the 
promises.' (Heb. x. 36) God can glorify himself in our 
damnation ; but we neither can, nor may do any thing tend- 
iiig to our damnation, that God may be thereby glorified : for 
whensoever we break the law, we dishonour God. (Rom. 
U. 23) 

4. When a man niuketh his own performances the princi- 
pal ground of all his iiopes and desires; having no joy, or 
comfort, but what he can draw out of himself; — trusting in 
bis own power to effect and bring about his ends, as Pharaoh 
and Babylon did ; (Exod. xv. 10. Isa. xiv. 13, 14) sacrificing 
and burning incense to his own net and drag: (Hab. i. 16) 
ascribing successes to his own might and power, (Deut. viii. 
17) as the proud Assyrian did ; (ha. x. 13) and expecting 
salvation from his own good works, like the proud Pharisee. 
(LuJce xviii, 11, 12) 

But may we not build on our own performances for salva-' 
tioo ? Doth not the apostle call good works, ' a founda- 
tion f (1 Tim. vi. 19) And may we not tlien build upon 

In answer hereunto, we are to distinguish ^ inter rationem 

1 1 Cor. xii. 11. « Rem. xii \:\. • Luke xi. 22. 

VOL. v. X 

306 THE lord's property in [serm. xxt. 

condignitatis, et rationem ordinis :' between the merit de- 
serving the reward, and the order and consequence, which 
God hath put between the one and the other, making 
the reward mercifully, but withal certainly, to follow the 

Again, we are to distinguish ^ inter causam essendi, et 
cognoscendi ;^ between the cause of confidence * h priori/ 
and the means and arguments whereby to know it ' h poste- 
riori/ Our good works are not the merit, or cause, or pro- 
per foundation of our own salvation, or confidence concern- 
ing it ; but only the free grace of God ^ and the righteous- 
ness of Christ thereby bestowed upon us ; yet from a holy 
life, as an efl^ect of faith in Christ, and fruit of divine love, 
and certain antecedent unto salvation, we may draw com- 
fortable arguments ^ ' k posteriori^ to establish our hearts in 
the expectations of it. In which respect the Wise man saith, 
that '' in the fear of the Lord there is strong confidence.**^ 
{Prov. xiv. 26) 

And for the apostle^s metaphor of a foundation, it is there 
opposed evidently to that which he calleth in the same 
place, ver. 17, the ' uncertainty of riches,' — ^to note the sta- 
bility and permanency of that treasure, which they that are 
rich in good works, shall at last enjoy; so that there is 
nothing of casualty intended in it. Not to pass by the 
notion of a very learned man upon the place ^ ; who telleth 
us, that there the word df^Uxiof importeth the same which 
Gnikar doth in the Rabbins, which signifieth, as he observeth 
out of Maimonides, ** Scriptum quo cavetur de refundenda 
creditori pecunia :" so that the apostle^s meaning is the same 
with Solomon's, (Prov. xix. 17) <' He that hath pity on the 
poor, lendeth unto the Lord;" and so hath xoXov ^ifuXiw, 
* Bonum nomen,' very good security for that which he hath 
given ; — God will pay him again. 

We have seen what it is for a man to live as if he were 
^ sui juris,' his own, and at his own disposal : and that no 
man is thus his own, neither made by himself, nor made for 
himself; so not our own. 

And if not our own, then some other's we must needs be. 

«» Psalm xix. 11. « Prov. xi. 18. d Sam, Pet. Var. Led. 

I.e. 11. 


And the apoBtie tells us whose we are, bodies and spirits^ 
^* All of OS God^s ;^' and therefore we cannot, without sacri- 
lege, invade Im right, and mancipate unto a harlot that which 
is consaerated unto him. lie formed the body of the dust of 
the ground ; therefore fhat is his : and he breathed into it 
the breath of life; therefore the spirit is bis. (Gen. ii. 7) 
His then by right of creation, and primitive designation ; for 
whatsoever he made, he made for himselt 

How then comes in the intervention of a price to make us 
his, whose we are ' ab origine ? Sure this necessarily pre* 
s np poeetb an alienation : for no need to buy back that which 
before was mine own, if it had not witbdravm itself from my 

And indeed such an alienation there hath been. Adam, 
M»his fall, played the fugitive from his first Master and lA>rd ; 
and, by that means, sold his posterity under sin. {Rom. viL 
t4) And sinners themselves renew oftentimes that bargain, 
and sell themselves to commit sin, as it is said of Ahab. 
(1 Kmg$ xxi. 20, 2(i) So the people are said to have sold 
themselves for their iniquity; (/so. 1. 1) as Balaam ran afVer 
the wages of iniquity. (2 Pet. ii. 15. Jmk, ver. 11) For 
eeery one that committeth sin, is the * servant of sin ;* (Jokm 
viii.34. Rami. vi. 19) and not only so, but a slave and bond- 
man: 'be that is overcome, is brought into bondage/ (2 iV/. 
iL 19) as wicked men are said ^ to be taken captive by Satan 
at hia wilL' (2 Ttm. ii. 26) 

Men may be, two manner of ways, under the thraldom and 
tyranny of sin and Satan. 

1. Voluntarily by way of covenant and contract : as wicked 
men are said to make a covenant with death ; {Isa. xxviii. 
16) as Samuel told Saul, '^ Rebellion is as the sin of witch- 
crafu** (1 Sam, xv. 2«3) Wherein there is a kind of compact 
with the devil : an agreement to do such or such service for 
sacb or such wages, of pleasure, or profit, or honour, or some 
other poor satisfaction.* 

3. Judicially and penally ; when men, having long provok- 
ed God by their voluntary service of lust and Satan, are, at 
last, by divine tradition, given up to uncleanness, — and de- 
hvered unto Satan, as into the hand of a gaoler and execu- 

• Dimbolus jure bomincm possidebat, quia homo sponlc diabdo conteniii, 
— Ep. 190. Ncquitcr usurpatum, scd ju^tc ))crmi»iium. !hj. 

X 2 

308 THE lord's property in [sERM. XXI. 

tioner of divine wrath ;T-whereof we read, Hoin* i. 24, 26, 28. 
1 rfiw. i. 20. 2 TA^ss. ii. 11. 

Thus poor sinners, like fugitive servants, though they have 
no right to dispose of themselves (for nothing can extinguish 
the dominion or sovereignty which God hath Qver all the 
works of his own hands) are, by their own covenant, and 
sometimes by God's judgement, under the power, possesion, 
and command of Satan. For as the Lord gave the land of Abraham and his seed, yet the Canaauites them- 
selves had the first possession ; so the Lord hath given unto 
Christ a kingdom, and a seed, and people to serve him ; 
(Psabn ii. 8, and xxii. 30. (JoAn xvii. 6. Heb. ii. 13) but sin 
and Satan had the first possession of them. And as Joshua 
was, by the power of the sword, to vindicate the promised 
land unto Israel, in pursuance of God's covenant; so the 
Lord Jesus was to assert the people, whom his Father had 
giveti him, out of the power and possession of Satan and sin, 
unto himself. 

. . And here, since that is a true saying of Pliny, '^ Mala 
emptio exprobrat stultitiam,'^ that an ill bargain doth up- 
braid a man with folly; this then must needs be a very pro- 
digy of madness, for men to sell away themselves for the 
poor, low, stinking, momentary pleasures of sin, when. the 
whole world, if a man could enjoy it for ever unto himself, 
would not be an exchange worthy for the soul. {Mat, xvi. 26) 
And therefore whensoever you are allured and tempted unto 
sin, bring it to this issue, — Whether the wages of it be worth 
your souls ? If not, do not incur so great an imputation of 
folly, as to exchange an immortal soul for a momentary and 
perishing vanity. 

Now the passing over of these poor captives from the pos- 
session and dominion of sin and Satan unto God, is here said 
to. be by an emption, *' Ye are bought with a pi ice.^' For 
understanding whereof, we are to know, that unto this work 
of redemption, two things are required : 1. A right. 2. A 
power to prosecute that right. The right standeth in two 
things.. 1. In an ancient and original propriety to the thing 
purchased. 2. In a propinquity thereunto. 

Christ hath a double claim and propriety unto his people. 
1. In the right of his divine nature, and our creation, because 
he made us. And we cannot, by any fraudulent contiact of 


oars, di?eiit him of that original and inseparable right unto 
his own creatures : for *' by him aH things were created* '^ 
(Coi. i. 16) 2. In the right of his mediatorship, nt$ head of 
the church, to whom wo were given by the Father, to be in 
such manner recoTered, as he in his commission should ap- 
point. He had a promise that he should see his seed : for 
there could not have been a redemption without the consent 
of the person, with whom the contract was to be made. In 
election, the church was to be given unto Christ,«->before, 
in redemption, he could purchase it unto himself. 

And as Christ had thus a propriety to his people ; so he 
was to redeem them 'jure propinquitatis :** for Uie apostle 
alludes to the usage in the Old Testament, where he who re- 
deemed, and brought back an alienated inheritance unto the 
family again, was to be a near kinsman. {Lev. zxv. 25. Ruik 
iv. 3, 4) Christ therefore redeeming us, and recovering the 
estate for us which we sold away, was to be our kinsman, 
that he might have the right of redemption : for *' he that 
sanctifieth, and they that are sanctified, are all one.^ (Heb. 
ii. 11) Sin was to be condemned in our flesh. {Rom. viii. 3) 
It behoved him to be ^ like unto his brethren/ that he might 
be a merciful and faithful high priest 

Whence we should learn as brethren, to do all offices of 
love, and of helpfulness unto one another, to restore one 
another, to bear one another's burdens, because we are all 
of • one blood.' (Acts xvii. 26. Gal. vi. 1) So that whatever 
services we do any, we do it to * our own flesh,^ as tlie pro- 
phet speaks. (Isai, Iviii. 7) 

But besides a right of redemption, there is required a 
power to actuate and execute that right. And this power is 
twofold: 1. A power of authority, derived from that com- 
mission and command, given unto Christ to execute all 
judgement: of which commission we read, John v. 22. John 
X. 18, 34, 35, 36. Mat. xxviii. 18. Ileb. x. 7—9. 2. A power 
of strength and vigour, to do and suffer the things com- 
manded. In which respect, Christ is called the captain of 
our salvation, stronger than the strong man, able to save to 
the uttermost those that come unto God through him ; {Heb. 
vii. 25) to finish the work given him to do ; {John xvii. 4) 
to go forth conquering, and to conquer ', (Rev. vi. 2) to lead 
captivity captive; (£/;A. iv. 8) to destroy Satan; {Htb.ii, 

310 THE lord's PttOPEKTY IN [S£RM. XXI. 

14) to spoil principalities and powers, and to triumph over 
them ; {Col. ii. 15) to deliver us from the wrath to come ; 
(1 Thess. i. 10) and, in one word, to offer up himself by the 
eternal spirit unto God, so as to obtain eternal redemption 
for us; (Heb. ix. 12, 14) by that one offering perfecting for 
ever those that are sanctified ; {Heb. x. 14) * ceasing' firom 
hts work as God did from his, to note the consummation of 
h. {Heb. iv. 10) 

These things qualifying the person that is to redeem, the 
work itself is double ; there is * redemptio per modnm ii^ 
berationis/ by way of deliverance out of captivity, or by way 
of fai»oni, which is called "^ delivering us out of the hands 
of oor enemies/ {Luke i. 74) And ' per modum aoquisi- 
tionis,' called by die apostle ^oAurpoio'if rrig vn^annnnng 
ibe redemption of the purchased possession. {Ephes. i. 14) 
We have them both together. {Gcd. iv. 4, 6) 

For the former of these we must observe, 1. That there is 
liie captive, mankind. 2. They under whom this captive is 
detained, the supreme judge. Almighty God, under whose 
law the sinful world is held. ' So the judge is said to cast 
into prison, to destroy soul and body in hell s; to deliver to 
the tormentors, to conclude in unbelief. And under this 
supreme judge, Satan, sin, death, the powers of darkness, 
which are jailors, sergeants, officers, all imder the rebuke and 
command of the principal judge. 3. The redeemed, the 
Lord our righteousness **; Jesus, that delivereth us from the 
wrath to come. 4. The price by him laid down for the ob- 
taining of our discharge ; for in redemption, a price was to 
intervene ; {Jer. xxxii. 7, 10) and this was his blood. {Epkes. 
i.7. IPe^i. 18, 19) 

Men may be several ways freed from captivity. 1. By 
escape, as Peter by the help of the angel. {Acts xii. 11) 2. 
By dismission and free release, as Absalom was dismissed 
from banishment by the free pardon of David. (2 Kings xiv. 
21) 3. By power, as Abraham rescued Lot out of the hands 
of those that had taken him captive. {Gen* xiv. 16) 4. By 
commutation of one for another, as prisoners in war use to 
be mutually exchanged. 5. By ransom, and payment of a 

f Rom. vii. 6. I Matth. v. 25. iii. 20. xviii. 34. Rom. xi. 32. Ac(b 

xxvi. 18. ^ Jcr. xxiii. 6. 1 Thess. i. 10. 


price. And id thii manner hath Christ deliTered hit churchy 
by gifiog his life a ransom for many. {Mai. xx. 28. 1 Tlifii. 
iL 6) For though it be as to ourselves a free condonation, 
we have remission of sins by the riches of his grace. {Rtnm. 
iii. 24. Ephis. i. 7) And though it be as to Satan, and all 
the powers of darkness^ a victorious rescue, whom Christ 
spoileth; {Luke xi. 21) yet as to God, the judge, whose 
justice our sin offended, from whose wrath we cannot be de- 
liTered, till that justice be first satisfied,— it was by the so- 
lution of a price, or laying down of a proper ransom : for the 
Lord spared not his own Son ^ but laid upon him the iniquity 
of us sll ^, which he bare in his body on the tree ', so that 
he was made a curse for us °*; made purposely under the 
law, that he might pay, by his obedience to the law, that 
debt which we had contracted, but could never discharge. 
Unto bis father, did Christ pay this price for us. He had 
the primitive and original property in us ; from his service 
we, revolting unto the service of another Lord, were respoo* 
sible to him as our judge for so great a wrong ; ** debet onw 
nis qai peccat, honorem quem rapit Deo solvere,^ as Anselm 
speaks. ^ His prisoners and debtors we were : to him alone 
we pray for the pardon of them. Satan and death were but 
his jailors, unto whose power and custody we were delivered. 
Though they were our Lords, and we their servants by a co» 
veaant of sinning, yet they were usurpers in regard of God, 
by intruding upon his right in us ; for we, being his, and 
not our own, had no more power to alienate ourselves from 
his service, than one man's apprentice hath to bind himatlf 
unto another master. Here then having been a double wrong 
done unto God ; one by the sinner, another by Satan ; Christ 
satisfieth for the wrong of the sinner, by suffering his curse; 
and revengeth the wrong of Satan, by rescuing the sinner 
from him unto bis natural service again : the one in a way of 
justice ; the other, of power. 

Now lastly, emption being a contract whereuato three 
particulars concur % ' res, pretium, et consensus ;" the thing 
bought, the price for which, and the consent of the parties 
contracting ; unto tlie consummation of this work is required. 

i Rom.vm.32. 
tii. 13. ir. 4. 
1. 3. T. 34. 

k Isai. liii. C. 1 1 Pet. ii. 24. 

o Atudm. Cur Dcus homo, 1. 1. c. II. 

» Gal. 
o Juit. 

312 TiiK lord's propekty in [stkM, XXf. 

besides the solution and validity of the price, the acceptation 
thereof by the consent of the judge, that is, of God, to the 
ransom. And this abundantly made known unto us in the 
word ; the Lord declaring that '' he was well pleased in his 
Son P;^ that ^* when his soul should be made an offering for 
8in> he should see his seed, and prolong his days, and the 
pleasure of the Lord should prosper in his hdnd, and he 
should see of the travel of his soul, and be satisfied, and by 
bis knowledge should justify many/'&c. (/sat. liii. 10, 11) 
That *'.we are accepted in the Beloved;" {Ephes. i. 6) who 
was answered in his prayer by a voice from heaven, to signify 
Code's owning of that sacrifice, which he was t>resently after 
to offer. (John xii. 28) Thus we see how we were bought by 
way of liberation and ransom. 

. Now lastly, by way of purchase and acquisition, Chribt, 
having thus bought his church with his own blood, (Acts xx* 
28) hath further, by the redundancy of the merit of that his 
blood, purchased for it an excellent inheritance, a dowry of 
grace and holiness here, and of glory and blessedness here- 
after ; called, by the apostle, * the adoption of sons.** (GaL 
iv. 6) 

And being thus redeemed, we are now God^s own, not 
only upon the common and general title of creation, as all 
other things in the world are ; but by a peculiar, and in a 
more gracious manner ; by redemption, as his liberty ; by 
dedication, as his temples ; by union, as his members ; by 
unction, as his peculiar people, whom he hath chosen and 
formed for himself. {Psalm iv. 3. Isa, xliii. 21) 

Which leads to the last particular in the text, the practical 
inference, or use, which the apostle makes of both the pro-' 
positions, that therefore we should glorify (and as the Vulgnr 
addeth, bear, or shew forth) *' God, both in our bodies, and 
in our spirits, which are both his f ' for therefore he hath 
given us both the one and the other, that we might use them 
both unto his honour, and preserve them in that dignity and 
relation which they both have unto him. 

And indeed, 1. Where is the Lord glorious, if not in his 
works? *' Bless the Lord all ye his works, in all places of 
his dominion.*^ {Psalm ciii. 22) We are his by creation, the 

P MatU). iii. 17. xvii.5. 


work of his hands. 2. Where glorious, if not in h'w room* 
bers? which are animated by that spirit of glory, and of Ood 
which rested upon Christ, the Lord of glory. (1 Pet. xViw. \y 
And we are his by union, members that ought to be con- 
formed to a glorious head. 3. Where glorious, if not in his 
temple ? For " in his temple doth every one speak of his 
glory.' {Psalm xxix. 9) And we are his by dedication, 
built up a spiritual temple unto him. (1 Pet. ii. 5) 4. Where 
glorious, if not in his own anointed people, his peculiar trea- 
sure ? (Psalm cxxxv. 4) His jewels, (Mai. iii. 17) in whom 
he intendeth to be admired. (2 Uieu. i. 10) 5. Where can 
he expect service, if not from those whom he hath redeem- 
ed ? The civil law saith **, ** Redemptus est redimentis per 
modum pignoris ;*' and Demosthenes, rov Xoa^sipJ99u hi niv 
wsAyfflW shm riv Xutirra, hchf f(u^ itwo^Mf Xirfm' That he who 
is delivered from enemies, is a servant unto him that deliver- 
ed him, till he can pay the ransom which %raa given for him. 
^ Quod emitur, transit in potestatem ementis.^ Where 
Christ is redemption, he is sanctification too ; for we are re- 
deemed from our former vain conversation, (1 Pet. i. 19) and 
from all iniquity. {Tii. ii. 14) Christ loved his church, and 
gave himself for it, that he might sanctify and cleanse it 
(Ephes. V. 26. Rom. xiv. 9) 

Being therefore not our own, but bought with a price, let 
us glorify him that bought us; 1. In adoring this great 
mystery brought about by the exinanition of the Son of God, 
and the humbling of him to our curse': for though the 
Omnipotent Lord wanted no other means to have wrought 
this deliverance ; yet herein hath he magnified his power, 
wisdom, justice, mercy, and love, in doing it by the incarna* 
tion and suffering of his eternal Son ; that an the first Adam 
made us sinners ^ in semine,^ so the second makes us righte- 
ous ' in sanguine.'* To adore the freeness of it, in that he 
came unsought to ' seek,* as well as to 'save.' (Luke xix. 
10) And the discrimination which is therein made, between 
us and angels ; for he took not tlic nature of angels, but the 
seed of Abraham. (Heh. ii. 16) Though the devil *^ in 
CgsIo intumuit, ego in steniuilinio.** 

q Cod. ik |K>sUlimin. rivcr»is I. ^. c( 17 Pitu. dc leg Auic. 1. 2. Til. 6 
' AMg. de Tiin. 1. U. c. 10. Brr. Epwt. IlK). 

314 TH£ lord's PROP£liTY IN [s£RM. XXI. 

2. To admire the severity of divine justice, which would 
not suffer sio to go unpuQished* or the sentence of death 
against it unexecuted, though it were in his own Son. The 
unsearcfaableness of divine mercy, in accepting a commuta- 
tion, a Son for a servant, a sacrifice for a sinner. The infinite 
depth of divine wisdom, in finding out a way to punish the 
sin, and to save the sinner ; to punish it thoroughly, and as 
thoroughly to pardon it ; to cause him that was eternal, to 
be made; him that was impassible, to suffer; him that was 
Lord of life^ to die : to make our nature in that person pay 
a debt, which all the angels in heaven could never have dis* 

3. To believe and apply the comfort of so precious a doc- 
trine 40 Auw4.vesyj^id to pot in for a share in it, and so to 
glorify God, as.Abf^^hiEMPI^ 4id. iStm. iv. 20) Withojiit it I 
am a captive :to sin and Satan, cursed in body, cursed in 
soul ; my conscience says * Amen,' to the curses, Deut* 
xxvii. 15 — ^26. The law holds me under, the scripture shuts 
me out ; I have no shelter nor refuge from the thunder of 
divine wrath. 

But now by the redemption which Christ hath wrought, 
God is placable, sin pardonable, the soul curable, the curse 
removable. And shall God offer mercy, and I refuse it? 
Am I bought vrith a price, and shall I not glorify God by 
accepting of it ? Do I not stand in need of Christ ? Is he not 
provided for me ? Is he not revealed to me i Doth he not in- 
vite, entreat, command me to come unto him ? Did he ever 
cast away any that did so ? May I not venture to believe ? 
May I not reach forth an arm to embrace the sure mercies 
of David ? Are there not examples of great sinners who have 
been welcome unto great mercy ? (1 Tim. i. 13 — 16) Lord, I 
am a great sinner ; I confess it, I bemoan it, I hate it, I for- 
sake it ; I will throw away every thing which keeps me and 
Christ asunden thou dost freely give Christ, I greatly want 
him, I earnestly desire him, I thankfully accept him, I will- 
ingly follow him ; I am his ransomed servant to be ruled by 
him, and to live to his grace. I am bought with a price, 
therefore I will not be a ' servant of men,' (1 Cor. vii. 23) to 
captivate either my reason, my conscience, or my conversa- 
tion, to their will. I am bought with a price : therefore I 
will be servant to him that bought me, that as be hath, by 

SfilUf. XXI.] HIS liED££M£D PEOPLE. 316 

bis bloody parchased {^lory for me, so I may, by my obedi- 
ence, bring glory unto him: for '* herein is he glorified, 
when we bring forth much fruit '^ (John zt. 8) I will glorify 
him in my body, by external purity^ and exemplary sanctity; 
I will possess my vessel^ t* e. my body, in holiness and in 
honour. (1 Thes, iv. 3) I will cleanse myself from all filthi- 
ness, as well of flesh as spirit. (2 Cor. vii. 1) I will yield my 
members servants of righteousness unto holiness. {Rom. ▼!• 
19) I will let my good works shine before men, that they 
may glorify God. {Matth. v. 16) 

I will glorify him in my spirit, by tntemal purity of heart. 
I will sanctify the Lord God himself, and make him my fear 
and dread, (isa. viii. 13) I will labour for truth and chastity 
in the inward parts. {Psalm li. 6) I will take heed of Jesebel 
and her fornication, because the Lord searcheth the reins 
and the heart. {Rev. ii. 20—23) 

Thus if we glorify him in body and spirit in a way of obe* 
dience ; he will at last fashion our vile bodies like unto his 
glorious body, (PhiL iii. 21) and raise it up in honour and 
power. (1 Cor. xv. 42, 43) 

And he will make our spirits, the spirits of just men made 
perfect, {Heb. xii. 23) and shed abroad his image fully upon 
OS, when he shall come to be glorified in his saints, and to 
be admired in all them that believe. (2 Thes. i. 10) Which 
that we may do, let us call upon God. 




< ■ 

Opened in a SERMON preaciied at St. Margaret's Church in Westminster, 
before the Right Honourable the House of Commons, June 28, 1060. 
Being the Day of solemn Thanksgiving for the happy Return of the 
King's Majtoty. 






It may justly seem strange unto you, that, when joy is one 
of the swiftest affections of the soul, and^ of all other, most 
impatient of suppression % this Sermon, preached before 
you on one of the greatest solemnities of joy that this nation 
hath seen^ should have yielded such slow and lingering obe- 
dience unto your commands, and, like Cushi, should come 
last with the tidings of a restored king, for which I have no 
other apology to make but this, That the joy of one service 
did retard the last of another : for having, together with 
some other of my reverend brethren, received a command 
from his Sacred Majesty, (whose heart is zealously set upon 
healing the breaches and divisions which are in the church 

• Nun se capit ezundantis Uetitise magnitudo, sed dedignata pcctonim latcbras, 
ita muUa et Candida foris prominet, ut intcUigatur, non ingentior esse qukm vc- 
rior. Nazar. Pancg. In cundcm homincm non puto conveniie gaudium et silcn- 
tiam. Pacat. 

sf.RM. XXII.] Diviyr. efficacy. 317 

of God amongst ut) to draw up some materiaU towards so 
happy a work ; and finding, that in papers of tfuch a nature^ 
brought under the views of different judgements (wherein 
erery clause* yea» many times single words and particular 
expressions, prove the subject of long debates) it is impossi* 
ble to make such despatch, as otherwise the urgency of the 
design doth passionately cull for : the necessary and constant 
attendance upon that service, did put for a time a suspension 
upon the obedience, which 1 was ready much sooner to hare 
yielded unto your commands, for publishing this Sermon. 

It is now at last, by God's assistance, come forth ; and 
sbeweih how easily the spirit and providence of God, can 
erect his temple and provide for the interests of his truth 
and worship, though the instruments of it be utterly destitute 
of human power. It is indeed a happy thing, when they 
who have power, will exert it for God, and lay it out upon 
the service of his house. But though they should want 
hands or hearts to build the church, God hath ever a residue 
of spirit to advance his own work by, and knovrs how to in- 
fatuate all counsels, and to dissipate all enterprises and ma- 
chinations which are framed against it. ^ 

Our eyes have seen how easy it is with God to dissolve 
and demolish the most cunningly erected structure, which 
either policy could contrive, or power support ; and that witli 
a still voice *, and in a silent way, without so much as draw- 
ing a sword or striking a blow to effect it. How he can do 
things which we looked not for*', by rebuking seas, and le* 
veiling mountains, and melting armies, and scattering the 
beasts of the reeds, and making a plain and sudden way 
through insu|>erable difficulties, to bring home our dread 
Sovereign to his throne and native dominions again. 

And he who hath wrought wonders for us in these our 
civil concernments, can do the like for his church * ; the in- 
terests whereof are, of all things on the earth, dearest unto 
him, and the welfare and happiness whereof, all the earth- 
quakes and concussions, which have been amongst us, do 
call aloud unto you, to look after and to be tender of. 

^Mal.ii.lS. 2Sam.xv.31. Isai. zix.3, 11. Job v. 12, 13, 14. xii. 17. bai. 
liv. 17. c 1 Kings zix. 12. * Isai.lxiv. 3. Mttth. ?iii. 86. 

Zach. iv. 7. Ptalm xlvi. 9. Ixvili. 'M'>. I&ai. zlix. 11. • Iiii.x1iii. 4. 


When the Lord shakes heaven and earth ^ churches and 
states, it is to make way for Him who is the Desire of all na- 
tions* If Christ, and the glory of his holy ordinances, and 
spiritual worship be not more exalted ; if the sons of Levi be 
not purified, that they may offer unto the Lord an offering in 
righteouBBess*; if the house of God be not purged of cor- 
ruptions ; if pomp, and splendor, and terrene interests be the 
tluDgs most passionately prosecuted, and the vitals aad es- 
sentiala of religion, the great things of the law, purity of 
doctrine^ tpHrhnalaess of worship, powor of godliness, but in 
the second place regarded ; if we be zealous for mint and 
cummin, and phylacteries and precepts of men ^ and have not 
a: proportionable' fefvour of leal for tbo Magnalia Dei ; cer- 
taAniy Ood will yet reckon with us, and call uo to an account 
for all the blood which batfi been, shed, for all the treasure 
which hath been exbaasted, for all the judgements and mer- 
cies«. for all (he providences and wonders, which have been 
expended upon us. I speak not this to accuse, but only to 
amaken ; not to charge, but only to beseech you to consider 
whether the Lord do not expect, that after such vicissitudes 
of wonders as we have seen, (especially having inclined the 
heart of our gracious Sovereign unto moderate healing and 
reforming resolutions,) you should together with him take up 
the same purposes, to make the church of Christ amongst us 
more holy and happy than ever it was before. For certainly 
never any pariiaments had greater advantages to promote 
rdigion than you have. I shall conclude this dedication 
and address unto you with the words of Azariah the prophet 
unto Asa. The Lord is with you ^ while you be with him ; 
and if you seek him, he will be found of you ; but if ye for- 
sake him, he will forsake you. The Lord shine upon all 
your counsels. 

Your Honours'* most humbly devoted, 

in all duty and obedience, 

Ed. Reynolds. 

From my study, 
July 24, 1G60 


r Hag; ii. 6. 7. * t Mai. iii. 3. h Luke xi. 42. Matth. xziii. 5. 

XV. 9. Act! ii. 11. i 2Chron. XV. 1. 


ZECH. iv. 6. 

Them he answered and spake unto me^ raying. This is the wonl 
of the Lord unto Zerubbabel^ ^ayiftg^ Not by might, nor tjf 
power, but by my Spirit ^ naith the Lord of Hosts, 

Ik the former part of the chapter, we have a Tision of a 
golden candlestick, with a bowl, and seven lamps and pipes, 
and two olive trees on either side of the bowl, out of which 
tlM candlestick was supplied with oil. Hie prophet, being 
prepared by an humble sense and confession of his own ig- 
norance, to receive fuller instruction concerning it, is, by the 
angel, in these words, acquainted with the mind of God 
therein. Teaching us by the way, not to despond or be dis- 
oouraged by the difficulty of the scriptures from the study- 
ing of them, but to be humbled under the sense of our own 
blindness, and to stir up in ourselves a serious desire after 
ftdler knowledge of God in them, and to betake ourselves 
onto Christ, to reveal the counsel of God unto us ; and then 
to rest assured that the Lord will help our infirmities, and 
give us an understanding to know him, so far as shall be 
necessary for our condition and salvation ; — according unto 
those gracious promises, ** The meek he will teach bis way, 
and shew them that fear him, his covenant.^' {Psalm xxv. 
9, 14) ** If any man will do his will, he shall know of the 
doctrine, whether it be of God." {John vii. 17) " Unto him 
that ordereth his conversation aright, 1 will shew the salva- 
tion of God.*^ {Psa/m I. 23) 

1. We are here to enquire why this Word is sent unto 
Zerubbabel ? We find that the Lord stirred up Joshua and 
Zerubbabel, as principal instruments, whom he would use in 
building the temple, and restoring his worship ; which ac- 
cordingly we find them setting about ; Ezra ii. 68, 69, and 
iii. 2, 8. The work, by the power and malice of the Sama- 
ritans, was obstructed from the days of Cyrus to Darius. 
The Lord, by the prophet Haggai and Zechariah, raised up 
the hearts of Zerubbabel and Joshua to revive the work. 
{Ezra V. 2) 


And as we find Joshua and Zerubbabel the two chief 
builderSy so we find two chief enemies resisting these two in 
that service. Satan, a spiritual enemy, resisting the spiritual 
ofHce of the priest: Tatnai, and others^ as statesmen, oppos- 
ing this enterprise in civil respects, as injurious to the king. 

In the former chapter, the Lord in a vision comforted 
Joshua, and rebuked Satan. In this vision, he comforteth 
Zerubbabel, and rebuketh that ' mountain of opposition^ 
which was raised against him: very fit and necessary it was, 
that both instruments should be encouraged, that both ad- 
versaries should be rebuked. 

2. We are to enquire, how these words are an answer 
to the prophet^s question, and an exposition of the vision 
which he saw ? The resemblance between the vision and 
t&e word stands thus : As the candlestick was set up wi^i- 
out man's hands, and fed with the oil dropping into it imm^r 
diately from the olive trees, without any human help there- 
unto concurring; so the Lord alone, notwithstanding the. op- 
position of men, and weakness of his people, would, by his 
spirit alone, bring this work to a consummation, and mag- 
nify his power in the weakness of his instruments. Zerub< 
babel must not be dismayed, because mountains of opposi- 
tion are in his way, the Lord being able to level and ren^pve 
them all. {Matth. xvii. 20) As he said by Haggai, ' The 
silver is mine, and the gold is mine.' (Hag. ii. 8) '^ If I would 
that way have made this temple glorious, I could as easily 
do it now as I did before ; but I have another glory, and a 
greater to fill this house withal. So here, if I would, erect 
this house by power, I coi^ld easily have done it, being the 
Lord of Hosts. But I have another way to do it by, even 
' by my Spirit ;Vit sliall appear to be the work of mine alone 
^race ; and thereunto shall my people with all thankful accla- 
mations ascribe it, crying, ' Grace, grace unto it.' " 

My Spirit is here opposed to an ' arm of flesh,^ as I^ai. 
xxxi. 3 ; to signify that the Lord alone would bring this work 
to pass, without the help of human power: as he said by the 
prophet Hosea, '* I will save them by the Lord their God, 
and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, 
by horses, nor by horseman." {Has. i. 7) As Christ was 
conceived not by human generation, but by the power of the 
Most High; {Luke i. 36) so the temple, a type of Christ, 


was to be raUed by the power of the S|iirit, guidiug various 
iDtercurrent providences uuto that end. 

1. The Spirit did powerfully Htir up the hearts of Zenib- 
bftbel, Joshua, and the people* to their work, Hag. i. 14. 

(1.) By pressing upon their hearts the judgements, which 
they had suffered for the neglect of this great work, ver. 6, 
9. 10. 11. 

(2.) By comforting them with the assurance of his pre- 
sence and assistance, ver, 13. 

(3.) By minding them of their coming out of Egypt, which 
was the alone work of the Spirit of God, which Spirit did 
still remain among them. Hag. ii. 5. 

(4.) By givin;; them assurance of a signal blessing, from 
the day that they should set about this work, Chap. ii. 19. 

(5.) By promising them the Messiah, who was to come, 
and fill that temple with his glory ; thereby comforting them 
against their want of silver and gold, wherewith they mi^ht 
suppose that house ought to be beautified, as well as the 
former had been. Chap, ii. 7, 8, 9, 21. 

(6.) By assuring him that no power should stand in bis 
way, to hinder or obstruct the accomplishment of this work, 
ver. 22, 23. 

2. The Spirit ordered the letter of the enemies for hinder- 
ing the work, to tlte promoting of it against their wills, 
Ezra V. 6) 

3. The Spirit i>ut it into the miud of Darius to confirm the 
decree of Cyrus, and to add enlargements thereunto, that 
they might '* offer sacrifices, and might pray for the life of 
the king and his sons,^ Ezra vi. 6—12. 

In the words observe; 1. The general scope and intent of 
them, an encouragement to build the temple, though they 
then wanted power to effect it. 

2. The means of this encouragement, * A word of the 

. 3. The vehicula, whereby this word is conveyed, by the 
angel to the prophet, by the prophet to the prince, ' Then he 
answered and said uuto m£.^ 

4. The subject of this encouragement, ' Zerubbabel.' 

5. The matter of the comfort set forth; 1. Nej^atively, 
• Not by might, nor by power;' 2. Positively, * but by my 
Spirit, saith the Lord.' 

VOL. V. ^ 


From the words thus opened, we may, 

1. Observe the great care of the Lord to heal and remove 
the discouragements of his servants, whereby they might be 
weakened in any work, unto which he calleth them. If Satan 
resist, he shall be rebuked : if mountains stand in the way, 
they shall be levelled : if royal edicts hinder, they shall be 
revoked: if sad and desponding thoughts disquiet, they 
shall be removed. God never sets his servants on work^ and 
then leaveth them to their own feafs ; but ever proportioneth 
assistance and comfort to the difficulties of the service, 
wbereunto he calls. Thongh bis authority alone be argu- 
ment enough unto his servants to do what he requireth, yet 
he dealeth hot only in a Way of Bovefeignty, to shew his 
dominion over us, but in a way of condetoension, to shew 
his compassion unto us. He remembereth that we are but 
dust ; and accordingly attempereth his dealings to our con- 
dition. If he chastise, it is with the * rod of a man/ (2 Sam. 
▼ii. 14) If he tempt, it is with the ' temptation of a man.' 
(1 Cor. z. 13) If he draw, it is with the ^ cords of a man." 
(Hos. xi. 4) So he deals here with Zerubbabel and Joshua. 
It might seem to human reason an impossible enterprise, for 
a few poor men, newly crept out of their graves, to erect so 
stately a fabric ; resisted by Satan, maligned by wise and 
potent men, obstructed once already by an imperial edict for 
many years together. Therefore as the Lord gave Moses, 
Aaron and Hur, to hold up his hands, so here he sends unto 
Zerubbabel, Haggai and Zechariah, to strengthen his hands, 
and to assure him, that the ministry only, and the obe- 
dience should be his ; but the work itself he would effect by 
his own power, and that in so strange and wonderful a 
manner, making use of the very malice of enemies to promote 
the design which they most maligned ; as if the house had 
been built, and the candlestick fed by an immediate creation. 

Thus the Lord hath ever dealt with his servants in difficult 
employments ; he hath answered their objections, resolved 
their doubts, removed their fears, magnified the power of his 
grace in their infirmities. Abraham and Sarah were beyond 
hope of children, dead unto such a purpose; {Heb. xi. 12. 
JZem. iv. 19) the Lord raiseth him above these doubts, by his 
omnipotence and all-sufficiency. {Gen. xvii. 1, and xviii. 14) 
Jacob was afraid of his brother Esau ; the Lord removes it 
by a vision of angels, and his prevalency in wrestling. {Gen. 


xzzu. 1, 28) Mote* was cominauded upoD hard service, to 
bring Iiraal out of Egypt : we find him full of objectioDs, in 
erery one of which God satisfied biin» before he despatched 
him upon the aenrice. 

'< They will not believe me," (Exod. iv. 1) No? I wiU 
make them know thou coniest from me, by the miracle I 
will enaUe thee to do. {ven 2 — 9) " I am not eloquent, I 
mm riow of speech, unfit to persuade Pharaoh to part with 
Israd.* (oer. 10) This God answers by arguments from hia 
onmipotence, presence, and continual direction, {ver* 11, 12) 

There may be a fitter man for so weighty an employment; 
find snch a one ; the fitter the mas, the more auccessfnl the 
aegotiatioa. (ver. 13) Here, though the Lord wren angry 
tkal hm should charge God with making an unfit choice, (who 
nsimHy in great works hath regard to the lowliness of his in* 
fltroments) yet he condescendeth so far as to send Aaron 
with him to be his mouth to the people, (ver. 14—16) 

And now when he is made willing to go, and hath captt- 
▼mttd his reason unto God's will ; the Lord himself removei 
the great reason, which lay as a discouragement upon him ; 
the fear of those that sought his life ; (ver. 10) leares not 
any doubt unremoved, which might have disheartened him 
in the work. 

So he dealt with Gideon, called him to gpreat aenrice, to 
delirer Israel from the Midianites. (Judgei r'u 13) Gideon 
is presently at Moses' fence,^" My family is poor, and I 
the miaanest in it ; wherewith shall I save Israel 1^ (vtr, 16) 
''Wherewith? By my power; 1 am with thee." (ver. 16) 
^ How shall I know tliat ? Shew me a sign." (ver, 17)— The 
sign comes, and that puts him into a new fear. Timor etiam 
anxilia reformidat : It betrays the succours which God and 
reason ofier. (ver. 22) The Lord removes that fear ; *' Thou 
sbali not die C (ver. 23) but even then sets him upon a work 
which endangered his life. (ver. 25—30) His father hath 
no sooner satisfied the people, and saved his life, (ver. 31, 
32) but a new fear ariseth : the Midianites and Awalekites 
gather together against Israel. Gideon obeys God's call, 
but wants signs to remove doubts, (ver. 34 — 40) He is gra* 
tified in them ; but then he is exercised with a great temp- 
tation. His army must be lessened from thirty-two thousand 
unto but three hundred men. He obeys, but fears still ; 

Y 2 


(Judges vii. 10) and this fear is removed by a dream of one 
in the enemies' camp : (ver. 13, 14) and being so many ways 
confirmed, he sets on the work and prevaileth. 

This is very suitable to the goodness of Ood, who knows 
that we have no strength of our own ; that we cannot serve 
him, but by the grace and help we receive from htm. We 
• give him of his own. (I Chron. xxix. 14) " Quisquis con- 
tendit haberi posse caritatem Dei sine Dei adjutorio, quid 
aliud contendit quam haberi posse Deum sine Deo P^' saith 
St. Austin.* 

It concerns the Lord in honour to back his servants to his 
own work, when the opposition they meet with, is not 
against them but for his sake. When Israel fled, God's 
great name was concerned ; {Jos, vii. 8, 9) and therefore 
Asa prayed, ** Let not man prevail against thee.*' (2 Chron. 
xiv. 11) 

It is that which he hath promised, never to fail nor forsake 
us; {Jos. i. 5) to be with us while we are with him; (2 
Chron. xv. 2) to keep us in our ways. {Psalm xci. 11) "The 
way of the Lord is our strength." {Prov. x. 29) We are 
ever under God's protection, while we are in God's way. 
He will encamp about his house, and will be a wall of fire 
unto it. 

From this point, we learn ; 

1. That even when we are about God's work, we must look 
for difficulties, some arising from within ourselves, our own 
ignorance, weakness, frowardness, impatience, which usually 
make easy things hard: — such is Christ's yoke in itself, 
though to our corruption it may seem irksome. However, 
though we bring never so much love and resolution to tlie 
work, yet Satan will resist lis; the world will hate us; God 
himself will try us, and put us hard to deny ourselves, to 
empty ourselves, and to captivate our reason unto his will. 
There, will be mountains in our way* when we are to build 
God's house ; mountains of pride and prejudice, and high 
imaginations, vStv xi^fia, mav vwifia, within ourselves ; hr[Mv 
ca^loi Kof eeunoov, xa) Kara t^^ uyie/oe; ^fupv hrnrnjfjLong, as 
Gregory Nazianzen speaks*; we are strong and learned against 
ourselves and our own good ; and mountains of opposition 

■ ^ftg. Tom. 4. lib. de ptticntia, cap. 18. t Greg. Nax. Orat. 1 . 


and coDiradiction from others, who will ever malign, and, as 
they are able, obstruct the prosperity of so good a work. 
And therefore we may not lean on carnal wisdom, or self- 
coaBdence, for performance of any duty, as being wholly in 
ourselTes without strength. '* Novi ego istos in pace leones, 
in prselio cervos,** said Tertullian " ; a man may be more 
than a man before the battle, and less than a woman in it, as 
Peter was : None sooner fall, than they that fight in their 
own strength. {Numb. xiv. 44) 

2. We must not murmur against the Lord, nor complain of 
austerity in him, as if he called us to harder conditions than 
we can bear. This was Job's error, when he complained 
thai God dealt with him, as if he had been made of stones or 
.brass. {Job vi. 12) We are too apt to esteem our trials sin- 
gular, our difficulties unparalleled, and so to chide with our 
condition, and therein with God ; when, many times, it is 
not the difficulty of the service, but the impatience of the 
heart which so makes it We pervert our ways, and then 
we fret against God. {Prov. xix. 3) A meek and humble 
spirit will make things easy, which we think intolerable. 
Take David in a passion, when Nabal refused to send him 
and his men provision, and compare him with David humbled 
under the baud of God ; when Absalom rebelled, and Shimei 
cursed him ; and then judge how easy a hard duty is to a 
prepared heart, and how hard an easy thing is to a froward 

3. We may not betake ourselves to carnal shifts for avoid* 
ing any danger, which assaults us in doing duty. If the Lord 
set us on work, he is able, without our sin, to deliver us. 
God^s all*sufficiency is an invincible argument to sincerity. 
{Gen, xvii. 1) Why should 1 make myself bvholden to a 
sinful shift, when 1 have an all-sufficient God ? — There were 
some Christians in the apostle^s time, who, out of confidence 
in their own knowledge and strength to stand, would venture 
to eat meat at the idols* table ; thereby keeping in with their 
idolatrous friends, for fear of persecution. To these the 
apostle giveth ; 

* Tertul. de curona militia, c. 1. Primus impctui eis major ^uam viroium f»l, 
teqocnt minor quam feminarum. L. Fturus. I. 2. cap. 4. FoitiMimut in i|-m) «lia- 
chmtnc cicrcitus cac, qui ante dUciimen quictiitirouk. Tu€, Hat. 1. I. 


(I.) A shftirp exbottation, to take heed of falling when 
they think they stand. (1 Cor. x. 12) 

(2.) An answer to their fears, that (Sod will not suffer them 
to be tempted beyond the etrength, which he will supply them 
'Withal, (ver, 13) 

4. We may not therefore shrink from duty upon any dis- 
couragement, bat follow the call of God, and be upright be- 
fore him. When it. is our duty to obey, it is his promise to 
protect Say not with Solomon's sluggard, * There is a lion 
in the way f {Pr<m, xxii. 13) but remember there are angels 
with us to bear us in our way. (Psalm xci. 11) Jonah was 
afraid to go to Nineyeh, a great, and a wicked city ; one man 
to threaten so many thousands with speedy destruction ; — it 
was the next way to be swallowed up, and destroyed himself. 
He thinks thete was no means to fly this danger, but by de- 
cliiiiing duty. And now he that feared the raging of the peo- 
ple, met ^th th^ tempest of the sea; he that feared to be 
swallowed up of danger, was swallowed up of present death 
into the belly of the whale ; and the Lord, by delivering him 
from that death, taught him to trust on his power, who could 
as well faaire ddivered bim from any other. 

The Lord hath called you. Right Honourable, unto arduous 
ftiid Weighty i»eryic6s. A very difficult work it is to cure 
complicated diseases, to extricate and unrayel the entangled 
interests of divided minds, to allay animosities, to calm 
jealousies, to moderate rigours of judgement, to close distant 
opinions, to sefparate the gold from the dross, — the precious 
truths and vKirship of Ood, from those many prodigies of 
ert'or and madness, which had so long assaulted it ; to settle 
the house of Ood| and the hearts of men, upon firm founda- 
tions of truth, jpeace and righteousness, to join together the 
sticks of Ephraim and Judah, and to make whole * the broken 
Utaves of beauty and bands.' If you shall now say, as David 
did, ^'- Make thy way strai^t before our face i^ as Jehosha- 
phat did, ^' We knoW not what to do, but our eyes are upon 
thee ;** as Paul did, ^' Lord, what wilt thou have me to do V 
Thou hast done great things for us, whereof we are glad ; 
thou hast delivered our eyes from tears, our feet from fall- 
ing ; what is it that we now shall render to the Lord for all 
his benefits ? Truly, Lord, we are thy servants, and would 
willingly act in our places for thy name, and for the interests 


of thy Christ, and of his church ; we have do higher design 
than this, that the God, who hath wrought wonders for us, 
may be alone magnified and advanced by us, in orthodox 
doctrine, in pure ordinances^ in spiritual worship, in united 
aflbctions, that no unnecessary thing may remain, as a ground 
of offiince, and * fomes' of division and separation, but that all 
healing and closing counsels may be used to make us all of 
one heart, and of one soul ;~If you thus, in singleness and 
oprigbtness of heart, do bespeak the Lord, I can confidently 
■ay from him to you, that be will be with yon, and uphold 
you; that his spirit will level all mountains before you, and 
b^ns^ in pieces any gates of brass, and cut asunder any ban 
of iiOD which stand in your way : the service he requires of 
yon* be will work for you ; he will not only command you 
by bis authority, but assist you by his grace. When our 
interests and God's are folded up together ; when we make 
bis will our will, and his end our end ; we are sure never to 
fail in our designs, because he can never miscarry in his. 

^e have seen how the Lord encourageth bis servants 
against all difficulties, which might dismay them in his ser- 
vice. Now the means by which he doth it, is by a word, 
* This is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel.^ 

Nothing can so effectually uphold the spirits of men abov^ 
difficulties and discouragements, which they meet with in the 
duties whereunto they are called, as a seasonable word spo- 
ken unto them from God. The word of the Lord to 2^rub- 
babel, is confirmation enough against all the oppositions of 
most potent adversaries. So it was to Joshua ; ^ I will not 
fail thee, nor forsake thee,"* &c. {Jos, i. 5, 8) So to Asa; 
' When he heard the words of the prophet, he took courage.* 
(2 ChrotL XV. 8) ' The righteous are bold as a lion ;' (Prov. 
zxviii. l)and their confidence i:* founded on a word. {Psalm 
cxix. 49) And well it may, it y\e consider, 

1. The truth of it, confirmed by signs and wonders, and 
by the solemn oath of God. Now it is impossible for God to 
lie; every word of his is founded on his own immutable 
being; and these are grounds of strong consolation, (//eft. 
vi. 17, 18) 

2. The authority of it, which is sufficient to animate any 
man unto obedience. A man that hath an ample commission 
from a supreme power, acteth with courage, as knowing the 

328 mviNE EFFiCAcr [serii. xxir. 

power he hath to back him. No commission so full of 
power as that which God giyes. This made Moses and 
Aaron venture on Pharaoh and all his sorcerers ; — Amos, a 
herdsman, upon the court of Jeroboam a king ; Peter and 
John, illiterate men, to speak boldly, notwithstanding the in- 
hibition of the chief priest and his council. {Acts iv. 19, 20, 
and V. 29) 

3. The efficacy of it. Nothing more operative than the 
word of Ood. It was a word onlv which made the world. 
' He said. Let there be light, and there was light : by the 
word of the Lord were the heavens made, and all the host of 
them by the breath of his mouth.' (Psalm xxxiii. 6) ASyog 
8iyfuovp/ixi;, Eusebius calleth it. And it is a word only which 
* upholds the world :' (Heb. i. 3) and the word is able still to 
give being to every promise, and subsistence to every pur- 
pose of his towards his people. It is a ' commanding^ and a 
'creating word.' {Psalm xliv. 4. Isa. Ivii. 19) God's pur- 
poses and promises are ever seconded by his power. He will 
not leave, till he have done what he hath spoken. (Gen. 
xxviii. 15) ' I have spoken, I will bring it to pass ; I have 
purposed, I will do it' (Isa. xlvi. 11) 

The Lord hath ordered all duty to have some difficulty in 
it And the same word which is the rule of the duty, is also 
the comfort against the difficulty. We have therein the 
comfort of his authority requiring it of us. It is the work 
which he hath given us to do ; we have not rushed upon it 
presumptuously ourselves. We have the comfort of his pro- 
mises quickening us unto it; for every word of command 
hath a word of promise with it. (2 Cor. vii. 1. Heb. x. 36) 
We have the comfort of his grace working together with the 
word, facilitating the duties required, and proportioning the 
soul to the service, giving a heart to do the word. (Ezek. xi. 
19, 20) And therefore, by faith and hope, we may improve 
every word unto comfort and courage in duty. Faith, giving 
a kind of being unto the things promised, (Heb. xi. 1) and 
hope waiting for joy for the accomplishment of them, do 
powerfully work the heart above difficulties unto chearful 
obedience. Faith quencheth temptation, overcometh the 
world, purifieth the heart, worketh by love, removeth fear, 
the discourager and obstructer of duty. (1 John iv. 18) 


Hope causeth us to purify ourselves ; (1 John iii. 3) to serve 
the Lord instantly day and night; {Jct$ xxvi. 7) to deny un- 
godliness and worldly lusts; {Tit. ii. 11, 12, 13) to wait on 
the Lord, and to keep his way ; (Psalm xxxrii. 34) to renew 
our strength, to run and not be weary, to walk and not faint* 
(/«a. xl.31) 

When the soul of a man is in such straits and perplexities, 
that all the world is not able to comfort him ; one sentence 
out of the word, wisely managed by the hand of faith, is able 
to bear up the heart, and to make it victorious, aboTe all the 
power* of darkness. Wit, wealth, power, policy, youth, 
strength, security, sensuality, worldly employments, will 
peradventure serve awhile to fence against fear and dis- 
couTBgement ; but these are but like a bush in a storm, whidi 
shelters awhile, and after annoys with its own dropping. 
Nothing will minister durable and final comfort against all 
doabts and fears, but a word from God seasonably brought 
unto the conscience : this alone can hold up the heart against 
the roarings of Satan, and all the powers of darkness. You 
may haply have before you many knotty and difficult de- 
iiates, and be at a stand which way to steer your judgement, 
and to dispose your suffrage. Men may, like Carneades, 
dispute plausibly aud probably on either side ; and the sub- 
stantial merits of a question may lie hidden under the oratory, 
which hath ' pro et con' been spent upon it. 

Id such cases, attend not only to what you have heard 
spoken, but with David« * Make the word of Ood your coun- 
sellors.' (Psalm cxix. 24) Let not frowns dismay you ; let 
not interests bias you ; let not parallogisnis dazzle you ; but 
seriously weigh what is most consonant to the will of God, 
what is most likely to promote the great ends which that 
calls for, the glory of God, the salvation of men, the cause of 
religion, the simplicity of the gospel, the spirituality of wor- 
ship, the peace, unity, and integrity of the church, the heal- 
ing and setting in joint the dislocated and divided affections 
of men; the impartial settling of judgement and righteous- 
ness in the l.ind. And when you hear a word behind you, 
saying, * This is the way,' then walk in it, turn not to the 
right hand or to the left. (Isa, xxx. 21) 

We have seen, liow the Lord encourageth hi« servants in 


difficulties, and by what means he doth it, by the word of 
his own mouth : now this word is brought by the prophet 
^nto Zecubbabel, and by the angel. 

(1) By Christ unto ti^e pi;ophet. The angel in the former 
phapt^r spake immediately to Joshua ; here mediately, by the 
prophet Zechariah, unto Zerubbabel. 

(2) The first reveller of the counsel of God unto the 
qhurcb, is the ?tngel of the covenant. It was his spirit which 
^pake in the ^prophets. (1 Pet. i. 11) He, by his spirit, 
preache4 in ^he d^ys of Noah, to the spirits which are now in 
prison ; 1 Pet. iii. 19, 20 : for so Andradius * ; a learned 
Pontifician, as well as Beza and other Protestants, have ex- 
pounded that place. * No man hath seen the Father but by 
the revelation of the Son.' (John i. 18. Matth. xi. 27) He 
vvn^ the ang^l that spake unto Moses, (Acts vii. 30, 38) and 
liDto Isaiah. (John xii. 40, 41) He instructed his apostles 
in things pertaining to the kingdom of God. (Acts i. 3) 
They must deliver pothing to the church, but what they had 
QfBt received from him. (1 Car. xi. 23) 

Greatly do they profane the ministry of tke word, and 
betray the trust which Christ hath put upon them as his am- 
ttassadors, who preach the vision of their own heart, and not 
put of tbp mouth of the Lord ; and a woful curs^ they incur 
by so high a presumption. (Deui. xviii. 20) The less there 
is of Christ in a sermon, and of the evidence and demonstra^ 
lion of the Spirit, how full soever it may otherwise be of ex- 
otic learning, of heaped allegations, of strains of wit, or lux- 
uriances of fancy and language, it hath so much the less of 
the power of God to the salvation of the souls of men : — for 
we are not to preach ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord. 
(2 Cor. iv. 5) And as they are the best ministers, who so 
preach, so they are the beat hearers, who savour and relish 
nothing so well in a sermon, as the gracious and powerful 
manifes^tions of Christ to the conscience, and evidencea of 
the commission which the preacher bath received from him. 

2. When the prophet brings no other than the word of the 
Lord unto Zerubbabel, it is his duty to hear it. Princes, and 
magistrates, men of highest place and authority, must receive 
God''s counsel from the mouth of his messengers, and be con- 

> Dcfensio fidci Trident. 1. 2. 


tented to be directed, comfortedy encouraged, by their 
minietry. Dtvid, though himself a prophet wa« not with* 
out his seers. Gad, Heman, Asaph, Jedutbun, Nathan^ to ad« 
moniah, reprove, comfort him as his condition required. So 
we find Shemaiah a prophet, sent to reprove Rehoboam ; 
Oded, and Aariah to encourage Asa; Jehu, and Jahaaiel^ 
to threaten and comfort Jehoshaphat We read of the 
writing of Eliah to Jehoram ; of the threatening of Zechariab 
to Joaah ; of the prophet Isaiah counselling and rebuking 
Ahaz, comforting and encouraging Hezekiah ; Jeremiah and 
Esekiel, denouncing judgement against Zedekiah ; Hosea 
and Amoa, against Jeroboam ; Jonah sent to the king of 
Nineveh, and John Baptist to Herod. And though great 
diflference is* to be used in the manner of our application to 
great and to ordinary persons, yet the same fidelity is due 
ulo all. ^ Cum eadem omnibus debeatur caritas, noo 
eadem omnibus adhibenda medicina,^ as St. Austin speaka. 
If m minister must show all meekness to all men, much more 
mu0t he deliver his message with all reverence and humility, 
with all awe and tenderness, with all honour and pmdenoa^ 
smto those great persons, whose dignities do as well call for 
our veneration, as their consciences for our fidelity. We 
anist be so true to their souls, as that we be not rude and un» 
civil to their persons. Meek and humble preaching, in this 
case especially, is like a fall of snow, unto which Homer 
compares the eloquence of Ulysses, which soaks and sinks 
more kindly than a hasty shower. ' 

And the Lord doth hereby greatly commend the power of 
his word, and the secret impress and character of bis divine 
mageaty stamped upon it, when, from the mouth of mean in* 
strnments, he giveth it an efficacy on the hearts of the 
greatest men, and causeth princes themselves with meekness 
to receive his counsel from the lips of poor and inconsider- 
able persons, who have no other authority than the evidence 
of the spirit of God, and the mimstry wherein they stand 
related unto him, to bear them up, and encourage them in 
hm service. Thus great ships are turned about with a very 
sasall helm ; and, as some say, stopped in their course with 
a very little remora.' We have this treasure in eaitben 

f 'EvM mipdUff9i9 ««uc^« x*<M«p<{rru', Iliad, y. • Pint. Hikt. Nat. 1. 32. c. 1. 


vessels, that the power might be of God, who did not choose 
the earthquake, or the strong wind, but the still small voice 
to manifest his presence by. (1 Kings xix. 11, 12) 

We have seen the encouragement in building God^s house, 
the means of it, a divine word ; the vehicula of that word, 
Christ the great angel of the covenant delivers it to the pro- 
phet, and the prophet as his messenger to Zerubbabel. So 
then Zerubbabel is the subject animated by this word ; and 
the work whereunto he is animated, is the building of 
the temple. 

L Then princes and magistrates are to build the house of 
God, and to take care of the interests of religion, and to see 
that his truth and worship be advanced in their territories. 
And although we have no examples hereof in the New Tes- 
taroent, when the empire and the church were divided from 
one another, yet in the state of the Jews where they were 
conjoined together, we have examples in most of the good 
kings, David, Solomon, Ana, Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, Josiab, 
how careful they were to purge God's house of pollution, to 
abolish false worship, to pull down high places, to send 
priests and Levites to teach the people, to establish true re- 
ligion, to cause people to enter into covenant with God, to 
build his house, and order the courses and services thereof. 
And in like manner the Christian princes, Constantine, 
Theodosius, Valentinian, and many others, called synods, 
and made laws to condemn and suppress heretical doctrines, 
and comforted and encouraged the orthodox bishops and 
pastors of the church. 

1. They are fathers of the people; and therefore must take 
care of the souls of those, to whom they have so near a 

2. They are God^s ministers for our good ; (Rom. xiii. 4) 
therefore certainly they must not be careless of our chief 

3. We are to pray for them, that under them we may lead 
quiet and peaceable lives, in all godliness and honesty ; 
(1 Tim. ii. 2) therefore certainly there lies a care upon 
them, as well of the godliness^ as of the peace of their 


4. He is to have the book of the law before him continu- 


ally ; (Deui. zvii. 18, 19) not only that he may keep it him- 
self, bat that he may be careful to make others keep it. 

6. He is to be a nursing father to the church. (Isa. xlix. 
23) Code's people are promised, that they shall suck the 
breasts of kings. (Isa. Ix. 16) Therefore certainly it belongs 
to their care to see, that the people be provided with the sin- 
cere milk of the word ; where religion, and the means thereof 
are wanting, to set it up ; where it is, to preserve it ; where 
it is corrupted, to reform, and to restore it. It is one thing, 
saith St. Austin % for a prince to serve God in his private 
capacity as a man; this he doth by living faithfully :— ano- 
ther thing to serve him in his public capacity, as a prince; 
this he doth by a vigorous sanction of laws, requiring righ- 
teoua things, and forbidding the contrary. 

There is a twofold building of the church : the one doc- 
trinal, and persuasive by the ministry of pastors, and preach- 
ing of the word : the other legal, and coercive by the sanction, 
and constitution, and command of princes; for so they are 
said to build up the churches wail. (lia. Ix. 10) For the 
safety of the state being greatly concerned in the welfare 
and peace of the church; the care of this must needs belong 
mito them, whose office and duty it is to preserve the other; 
since without this, the other cannot be preserved. And 
therefore Aristotle ^, a heathen philosopher, reckoneth di- 
vine worship, as a principal thing, without which a city or 
civil polity cannot be. 

And thus we find Constantine % by his laws, prohibiting 
heathen sacrifices and idolatry. And when Julian restored 
them, and Valens allowed the liberty of them, Jovinian and 
Theodosius did root them out, and remove them again. We 
find the same Constantine settling Christian religion in his 
empire, by his royal authority, judging in the causes of 
Athanasius, and Ccecilianus ; the emperor Gratian, granting a 
commission to eject Arians : Aurelian, casting out Paulus 
Samosatenus out of the church ; Justinian, making special 
laws in matters of religion. I conclude this with that me- 
morable saying of St Austin"*, " In hoc reges Deo serviunt 

• Mug, Epist. 50. ^ Aristot. Polit. 1. 7. c 8. • Theodoret. I. 5. 

c20. Nicfpfu 1. 12. c. 25. Kusrl. de vit. Constant. 1. 2. Jug. Epitt. 166. Soxom. 
1. 2. c 27. Theod. 1. 7. c. 2. Eusel-. I. /. c. 24. Cod. lib. 1 . Tit I— 11. ^ Aug. 
eoatr, Cretcoa. Grmroinat. 1. 3. c. 51. 


in quantum reges sunt, si in suo regno bona jubeant, mala 
prohibeant, non solum quae pertinent ad humanam societatem, 
yemm etiam quee ad divinam religionem :^ the princes then 
serve God as princes^ when they command good things and 
forbid evil thingSi not only appertaining unto human so* 
ciety» but also unto divine religion. 

Ilie church of God amongst us, hath, in our late misera- 
ble and licentious confusions, suffered great dilapidations in 
the holy truths, and in the unity and peace thereof. I shall 
not pollute the solemnity of this day^s joy» with giving you 
in (which is hardly possible) a catalogue of them. Unto 
you. Right Honourable, and the other orders of the kingdom, 
it belongeth to be the repairers of our breaches, and the 
restorers of paths to dwell in. Do this as it ought to be 
done; and certainly there will be nothing more conducent 
to the settling of our tranquillity, to the establishing of go- 
vernment, to the re-uniting of the shattered and divided 
hearts of the people, and to the edification of the church ; 
which it infinitely more concerneth all wise and good men 
to look after, than any single, domestical, or separated in* 
ieffest. Nor are you without direction in the text for this 
weighty employment. For, 

2. Zerubbabel must not be without the word of the Lord. 
In the building of God^s house, magistrates must wait upon 
the mouth of God for direction and counsel. It is no less 
than eight times observed in one chapter, Exod, xl. that in 
the setting up of the tabernacle and worship of God, Moses 
' did every thing as the Lord commanded^ Moses ; for so he 
had received bis instructions. (Etrod. xxv. 9) And in like 
manner, David gave unto Solomon his son, the pattern of all 
that he had by the spirit (1 Chron. xxviii. 11, 12) So runs 
the apostles* commission from Christ, ' teaching them to 
observe all things whatsoever I have conunanded you." (Mat. 
xxviii. 20) ' Non ex arbitrio Deo serviendum, sed ex impe^ 
rio,* saith TertuUian. ' Even heathens would have their 
superstitious services done by rule ; ' Semper agatne rogat, 
nee nisi jussus' agit.^ If men, who may err and mistake in 
their commands, are offended with such as disobey them. 

• TerUL dc praescript. c. 6. ' Vid. Brisson, de fonnulb, 1. 1. 

p. 12. 


though thereby they do them better senrice *, judging it ft 
corrupting and despising of commands, when they be not 
obeyed, ^ough they be mended ; how much more must the 
Most-wise Ood be offended with us, when we do his work 
not according unto his will, but our own, thereby presumang 
to see what is meet and convenient better than Ood himsdf^ 
diereby taking upon us to be controllers of his wisdom ; aa 
learned Hooker speaks. ** It was a very pious propoail, 
which Bigismond the emperor made to the council of Trent, 
aa we read in the learned review of that council ; that tfie^ 
would »>nform their constitutions to the obligation of the 
law of Ood. Certainly, the more religion, and the churok 
of Ood is settled by the rule of the word ; tha less matter of 
mere dispute and discrimhiation is admitted ; the less of di« 
Tided ends, 'and mere human interest, and partial design is 
ftttetided ; the more men seek the glory of Ood, the salvatum 
of men, the peace of the church; the more they do, in sin». 
plicity and godly sincerity, consider what is intrinsically, and 
' in natmra rei,' necessary ; what ' hie et nunc' expedient for 
edification ; what course will be most healing, most uniting; 
moat Kkely to establish truth, peaot, and holineaa in the 
chn^, to close up the divided minds of men, and cement 
tiiem in that wherein they may all agree, or draw as near as 
may be to an agreement; — the more certainly will Ood be 
pleased and honoured, and the more will the churches of 
Ood abroad be joyed and comforted, with whom it is doob^ 
leas our religious interest, to procure -as firm a union is 
we can. 

We have seen the encouragement, the Ineans of it, a word ; 
the vehicnla of that word, Christ, and the prophet; the sub- 
ject to be encouraged, Zerabbabel, the magistrate, who is 
to build the church by the help of the word and prophet. 
There only remaineth the matter of the comfort set forth : 

1. Negatively : Not by might, nor by power. 

2. Positively; * But by my Spirit,^ saith the Lord. 
Might and power is here denied, not generally and in 

' theai,^ as if Ood did prohibit human power from looking 
after the interest of the church ; for the magistrate is the 

t jiuL CM. 1. 1. c 13. Pereunte obtequio, edain imperhsm intercnitc. TmeH, 
HbL 1. 1. ^ Hooker, 1. 2. sect. 6. lib. 6. cap. 6. 


churches guardian. The same Lord did, by the victories and 
spoils of David, make provisions for Solomon's temple, who 
would use no such helps for the glory of Zerubbabel's. But 
it is excluded hypothetically, in this particular case and con- 
dition. Though they bad potent enemies, though they were 
destitute of might and power in themselves, yet God will 
not have them desert their station, or despond of success. 

1. He can blast every sword that is formed against them. 
ilsa. liv. 17) 

2. He can convert to the good of the church, that very 
power which doth oppose it; and make Human's tongue the 
petitioner for Mordecai's honour. {Esther vi. 6, 7) 

3. He can build the church upon the sufferings of his ser* 
vants, as seed in the ground first dies and then multiplies. The 
more the adversaries of Paul, the wider the door of his minis- 
try. (1 Cor. xvi. 9) It matters not how weak the instru- 
ment, when Ood is the agent. 

The church and worship of God is reared and restored by 
the virtue of God's spirit alone. In the present case, the 
Lord, by his immediate providence, ordered various intercur- 
rent means unto the finishing of the temple, which, of them- 
selves, had no natural influence or tendency thereunto. It 
was the spirit of the Lord, that, by the ministry of Moses 
and Aaron, brought Israel out of an Egyptian bondage. It 
was the spirit of the Lord, that, in the wilderness, preserved 
them by miracles, with bread from heaven, and water out of 
the rock. It was the spirit of the Lord, that overruled the 
heart and tongue of Balaam to bless, when he was hired to 
curse them. It was the spirit of the Lord, that divided the 
waters of Jordan, and demolished the walls of Jericho by the 
sound of rams^ horns. It was the spirit of the Lord, that 
stirred up saviours for bis oppressed people, and by them 
wrought deliverance for them. It was the spirit of the Lord, 
that brought the ark from the Philistines into its place, by 
the conduct of kine contrary to nature. It was the spirit of 
the Lord, that rescued the Jews from the malice of Hauian, 
by a chain of events, which had no cognation one with ano- 
ther, nor any natural suitableness to such an end. It was 
the spirit of tlie Lord, that, when they were as fast in Baby- 


loD as dry bones in a grave, atirred up the spirit of Cyms to 
give them a resurrection. 

This divine power may be obsenred both in the head, and 
in the mystical body of the church. For Christ the head, 
I . His incarnation spiritual ; a stone cut without hands ; a 
tabernacle pitched by the Lord* and not by man ; fashioned 
in the Virgin's womb, by the overshadowing of the Holy 
Ghost 2. His economy in the work of redemption wholly 
spiritual, borrowing nothing of human power; by the Eter- 
nal Spirit he oflfered himself to God. (Heb, \x. 14) 3. His 
resurrection spiritual, made the chief comer stone, after he 
had been rejected by men. Thus the foundation of the build- 
ing, laid nor by might, nor by power, but by the Spirit of 
God. (Psaim cxviii. 22, 23) 

2. The church or mystical body of Christ had nothing* 
either in its original or propagation, from the power of mao, 
but all from the Spirit of God. 

1. The original alone heavenly, and from the Spirit, * born 
not of the will of man, but of God.' (John u 13, and iii. 6,6) 
* A kingdom not of this world,' (John xviii. 36) * made by 
a heavenly callin^,^ (HeL iii. 1) ^ as dew which doth not 
stay for man.** (Psalm ex iii. Mic. v. 7) 

2. The propagation wholly from the Spirit, when mouD> 
tains of opposition and persecution, the gates of hell, and 
powers of darkness, combined against it. 

Now for a doctrine uhich taught men to deny themselves, 
to renounce the world, to take up a cross, to suffer afflio* 
tions, and follow Christ without the camp, bearing his re- 
proach,— for such a doctrine to prevail over the world, by 
twelve weak and naked men, upon the promise of things no( 
seen, and the hopes of reward in another world, cannot be 
ascribed to the wisdom of man, but only to the Spirit of 
God, by whom alone the weapons of our warfare are mighty. 

It is a spiritual building; and therefore not to be reared by 
human power : a kingdom unattended with worldly splen- 
dor, and theref(5re cometh not with observation. (Luke 
xvii. 20) 

The enemies of it, for the most part, spiritual ; and there* 
fore not vsnquished but by u spiritual power. (Ephe$. vi. 12. 
2 Cor. X. 4, 5) No human power able to encounter^ no 
human wisdom to disappoint, the gates of hell. None but 

VOL. V. z 


He who is the power and wisdom of God, hath power enough 
to overcome, or wisdom enough to defeat, the kingdom of 

The special end which Qod had in erecting the church, 
was, to glorify his power, wisdom, and grace, in the nothing- 
ness of the matter, out of which he framed it. 

The visible world, as it doUi, by the beauty, order, and 
greatness thereof, set forth the glory of God, so in nothing 
more than this. That all this great being is made out of 

Now God^s glory is more magnified in the church than in 
the world. The church is the jewel ; the world but the ring 
wherein it is set. The world, a house or farm, for creatures 
and tenants to dwell in; the church, God's own palace, 
•wherein he dwells himself. (Psalm cxxxii. 13) And the ex- 
.c^Uenejr of this glory is, that it is a creation out of nothing, 
no material aptness, no active concurrence of the subject 
onto the heavenly being, which, by God's Spirit alone, is 
inrought in it. 

We contribute no more to our own conversion of or from 
•ourselves, than water doth to its own heating, which natu- 
rally resisteth the fire that heats it We have no good in us, 
either formally or potentially, so as to be educed out of us ; 
all is to be superinduced by the Spirit of God upon us. No 
flesh must glory but in free grace, which alone could raise a 
corrupted mass into so stately a palace. 
^ And therefore we must not despair, when things seem to 
iiuman view helpless and hopeless ; but look up to the Spirit 
of God, who can, beyond all our thoughts, make those that 
dwell in the dust, to awake and sing. Whereas, if we build 
our hopes on human might or power, we shall find them 
vain, every man a liar ; sometimes weak and cannot help us ; 
sometimes false and will not help us; always mutable, and 
ipay not help us. 

The more we attribute to persons, the more we derogate 
from God. Let us not, therefore, be troubled at mountains 
of opposition, or any difficulties which we conflict with in 
the work of God. It is his promise to bring all Chrisf s ene- 
mies under his feet. Let us believe it, and he will do it, 
though we see not how. 

And now to conclude, and bring all home to the mercies 


of this day. There is no nation had more experience of the 
truth of these words, than we in this land have had. 

When the Lord had commanded the sword of a citiI war 
back into the scabbard, and things seemed to draw towards 
a comfortable close, by the King's gracious concessions in 
the last treaty. Divine Providence was pleased to carry us 
back into doleful confusions, into the surges of the sea again, 
by the subtile counsels of a divided party ; who, having poa* 
session of the sword, and intending to use it to the altering 
of the fundamental constitution of govemment,-*-in order 
thereunto, debarred the Peers of their right ; plucked out all 
such worthy persons from the other house, who would ob* 
strvct their work ; laid the foundation of their Utopia in the 
blood of their natural prince, and in the exile of his childrsn 
and family ; and concluded, by might and power, to carry 
aU before them. And now comes in the Spirit of the Lord, 
to stop this career of domination. 

And first, he stirred up an Abimelech against these men of 
Sbechem, who liked not that threescore and ten persons 
shoold reiga, but rather to reign himself. By this hand a 
Stop was put to their domination, till, by the strange con- 
duct of the same Providence, his family was pulled down by 
the hands of his own allies. And so the threescore and ten 
get into the throne again. 

These confusions in state, seconded with desperate con- 
fusions in religion, ministry, and uniyersities, and all sup- 
ports of truth and learning endangered, and by a miscellany 
of all religions, way made unto none at all ; — the Spirit of the 
Lord then works again ; mingleth a perverse spirit between 
them and their military officers; and divideth their counsels, 
and maketh use of another violence to thrust them out again. 
The same Divine Providence awakeneth an honourable 
instrument in the north, to give a check to this new design; 
and on a sudden, by the secret power of the Spirit of God, 
the military officers, who had so long been the terror of the 
nation, became, no man can tell why, like women; their 
hearts dismayed, their counsels confounded, their soldiers 
scattered ; and by that Divine Providence, whereby they had 
so often justified their irregular actions, were they, in one 
day, without might or power, but merely by impressions 

z 2 


from the hand of God, as it were, annihilated, and made ut- 
terly to disappear. 

By the same divine impression, are the hearts of the people 
of the land in all places strangely excited as one man, to call 
for the restoring of the secluded patriots, by them to make 
way for a free parliament, and by them to bring back from 
exile, in the chariots of Aminadab, a willing people, and 
upon the wings of love, our dear and dread Sovereign, not 
only to the throne of his father, but to the hearts of his 
people. They who bad long known what it was to fear where 
they did not love, were now ambitious to love, where they 
need not so to fear. 

And now that the Lord hath brought these kingdoms upon 
the basis of their ancient and fundamental constitution, and 
hath restored into your bosoms, a prince of the greatest sua- 
vity and meekness of spirit (one of the best tempers in the 
world for government), that ever swayed these sceptres; 
whom he hath trained up, like David, in a school of afflic- 
tion, to sit upon a throne, and fitted, by a crown of thorns, 
to wear a royal diadem ; and, by the bitter cup of his own 
sufferings, to provide against the sufferings, and to heal the 
wounds, of his poor exhausted people ; 

What remaineth but these two things i 

1. To fill our hearts and mouths with the praises of Ood 
for these divinely coiitrived mercies, without the effusion of 
one drop of blood, beyond the view of human counsel to 
have effected ; to ascribe all to the spirit and grace of God ; 
^ Not unto us, not unto us, but unto thy name give the 
glory :" to bless him for this first fundamental step to settle- 
ment, without which we should ever have been in danger of 
flames and blood : to bless the Lord for inclining the heart 
of his Majesty to dedicate his government with so religious 
a public testimony against profaneness, than which there is 
nothing which doth more loudly call upon you to second the 
zeal of his Majesty in: to bless the Lord for that Christian 
meekness of his Majesty, in anticipating and preventing the 
very petitions of his people for pardon, and hastening the 
means 9f their security therein : to bless the Lord for his 
Majesty^s firmness in, and zealous care of, the Protestant 
religion, and withstanding all temptations which would have 
drawn him from it : to bless the Lot^ for his tender indul- 


gence towards men of sober, peaceable, and pious affections^ 
who cannot in every thing come up to the judgement or prac- 
tice of other of their brethren : to bless the Lord for his 
Christian prudence, and healing moderation, in endeavour- 
ing such a fraternal condescension amongst brethren, as may 
bory all past animosities, prevent all further distempers, and 
reduce things unto an equal and amicable temperament. 

2. To consider how to use these mercies unto the glory of 
God that gave them, and to the good of the whole body, and 
not the particular divided interest of any one party alone. It 
is a distinct virtue, as the historian tells us, to get victories, 
and to use them : — and so likewise it is to receive mercies, 
and to improve them. 

Cooader, I beseech you, what it is which the Lord calk 
for at your hands, in such a time as this. Whether, after 
•och earthquakes and concussions, such afflictions and temp- 
tations, such little less than miraculous vicissitudes of Divine 
Providence which we have seen ; after the effusion of so many 
thousand men^s blood, after the expense of so many millions 
of treasure ; whether he doth not justly expect, that now yon 
should be more zealous for his glory, more tender of his 
chnrch, and the souls of men therein ; more severe against all 
impiety and profaneness ; more careful of the power of godli- 
ness, and the powerful preachers and preaching thereof, and 
parity of divine ordinances; more active and solicitous to close 
np breaches, to remove offences ; and by the most satisfactory 
provisions that may be, to prevent the danger of any further 
distempers, than ever any parliaments have done before you. 
That it may be recorded amongst the memorials of this na- 
tion, as once of Josiah,— Like unto this king and this parlia- 
ment (who have been so obliged with such a series of mercies 
and of wonders), that there was no king nor parliament be- 
fore them, that *^ turned to the Lord with all their heart, 
and with all their soul, and with all their might, according 
to all the law of God. — This shall be written for the genera- 
tion to come ; and the people that shall be created, shall 
praise the Lord." 


Opened in a SERMON, praached at St. Peter'i Churdh in the City of Norwidi, 

at an Ordination, September 32, 1691. 

2 COR. iv. 5. 

For we preach noi ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord, and 
ourselves your servants for Jesus'" sake, 

A GREAT part of this epistle is apologetical, wherein the 
mpostle laboureth to assert and vindicate bis apostolical of- 
fice and dignity from the prejudices, which either the suffer- 
ings which attended him in the dispensation thereof, or the 
suggestions of false apostles and deceitful workers^ might 
have raised up against him. With these men, he putteth 
himself in the balance; and as in many other respects he 
preferreth himself before them, so particularly in the point 
of fidelity and sincerity in the work of the ministry : which 
having mentioned, chap. i. 12, and ii. 17, and iii. 6., and 
thereupon having set forth the excellence and glory of the 
evangelical ministry, chap, iii. 7 — 18, he further demonstrateth 
bis uncorrupt and sincere administration thereof in this pre- 
sent chapter, and in divers consequent parts of this epistle : 
professing his diligence therein, as in the discharge of a ser- 
vice whereunto he was in special mercy called, ver, 1 ; his 
endeavour in godly simplicity as in the sight of God to mani- 
fest the truth thereof unto the consciences of men ; wr. 2. 
for it was not his prevarication, but men^^s own blindness, 
and satanical delusion, which hid the gospel from those who 
received it not, ver. 3, 4. And this his (idelity he further 
proveth by the substance and tenor of the doctrine which he 
taught, which was to set forth ' not himself, but Christ Jesus 
the Lord ;' and by the ' excellence of the divine power** con- 
curring with his ministry, to give unto men, ' the light of the 



knowledge or the glory of God in the face or Christ ; ver. 5, 
6. 7. 

The words contain, the mention of a duty, xtipiitra-oftfy, * W« 
preach/ and the subject or matter of that duty, Bet forth, 

1. Negatively, ' Not ourselves.' 

2. Positively, ' But Christ,' as the Lord of the church, 
whereof the apostle waa but a servant in order to their good, 
and biE master's glory ; of which particulars we shall speak 
with all brevity and perspicuity. 

And 1. Of the duty, xijpwu-a-oftw, * we preach,' implying 
an allusion to those xiipuxti and ' Caduceatores,' who were 
wont, with an open and loud voice, to promulgu and publish 
the edicts of magistrates ; of whom ive read so often in Ho- 
mer and others. In which respect, the prophet is commanded 
to * lift up bis voice like a trumpet ;' {ha. Iviii. I) alluding 
onto those trumpets which the priests were commanded to 
soBod, in the calling of solemn aesemblies. {Numb. x. 1) 

I shall not here insist on the dignity and excellence of this 
office, which not only the holy prophets and apostles did 
attend upon, (/so. vi. 8. Mat. iii. 1. Mat. \. 7) but the 
blessed angeU, liafyeki^ofuu, {Luke ti. 10} Yea, he who is 
the ' Lord of men and angels,' was solemnly anointed unto 
this function, to preach the gospel to the poor, to preach de- 
liverance to the captives, to preach the acceptable year of 
the Lord ; {Luke iv. 18, 19, 43, 44) and though he were the 
Lord of life and glory, unto whom every knee must bow, 
(PAtf. ii. 10) whom all the angels are conunauded to wor- 
■liip; {Heb. i. 6) yet he did not disdain to be a minister, 
(i£imi. XV. 8) and to go about, preaching of the; gospel of the 
kingdom. {Mat. iv. 23) 

And therefore how mean and ignoble soever this function 
nay be esteemed by men, who value not their own souls, 
tnd therefore are not to be so much wondered at, ae pitied, 
if they undervalue the means of making them happy ; yet 
we learn from hence, with the apostle, ' to magnify our office,' 
{Rom. xi, 13) and to esteem it a singular gift of divine grace 
bestowed upon us, that we should ' preach the unsearchable 
licbea of Christ;' {t'.ph. iii. 7, 8) and accordingly to adorn 
OUT ministry by such lives and learning as becomes it ; 
and not to dishonour, by sordid, earthly, sensual, or brutish 
couversations, so sacred and divine an office. 


Neither shall I at all mention the difficulty of it, which 
made the prophet cry out, M am a child/ (Jer. i. 6) and 
the iapostle, * Who is sufficient for these things?' (2 Cor. ii. 
16) thereby teaching us, by unwearied diligeixe in our 
studies, and assiduity in our prayers, to wait upon God for 
supplies of his Spirit and grace, who alone maketh able 
ministers of the New Testament. (2 Cor. iii. 6) 

But I shall speak a very little of the necessity of this 
weighty work, to awaken and provoke those who are called 
unto it, with the more fear and trembling, with the more 
fidelity and assiduity to attend upon it. 

A thing is necessary two ways, either < Necessitate prae- 
cepti,* because it is commanded ; or * Necessitate medii,^ be- 
cause it is instituted as a special means unto some great and 
weighty end, which is to be thereby attained. The preach- 
ing of the gospel is necessary both these ways. 

1. ^ Necessitate prsecepti,' as in special manner appointed 
by Christ, who is the * King and Lawgiver' in his church ; as 
bis ' Father sent him,' and gave him a commission, and a 
command to discharge the service which was entrusted in his 
hand ; which he, with all willingness and obedience, set 
about, though it were not only to preaching but to dying, 
that so the ' pleasure of the Lord might prosper in his hand.^ 
Even so did he send forth his disciples, {John xxi. 21) with 
a strict commission and command (as having all power in 
heaven and earth given to him) to preach the gospel. {Mat. 
xxviii. 18, 19, 20) And in order to the perpetual discharge 
of that service, he appointed not only apostles, prophets, and 
evangelists, which were temporary officers, but pastors and 
teachers to attend the same to the world's end, for the per- 
fecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the 
building up of the body of Christ. {Eph, iv. 8 — 13) And 
accordingly, the apostles took special care to commit the 
same service unto faithful men, who might be able to teach 
others, and appointed elders to be ordained in every city for 
carrying on this necessary work. {Acts xiv. 23. 2 Tim. ii. 2. 
Tii. i. 5) And as our Saviour, by the argument drawn from 
his power over them, and their love to him, presseth the ex- 
ercise of this duty upon his disciples ; {Matth. xxviii. 18, 19. 
John xxi. 16—17) so do the apostles afterward, by the author 
of their superintendence, the Holy Spirit, by the property of 


God in his church, by the blood whereby it was purchased, 
(Jd9 XX. 28) by the presence of God, by the judgement to 
come, (2 Tim, ir. 1) by the crown of glory which they shall 
receive from the Chief Shepherd, (I Pet, ▼. 1, 2,3,4) press 
diligence and fidelity in the same upon those, whom they 
ordained therennto. 

2. It is necessary, * Necessitate medii/ unto the great ends 
of conversion and salvation : for where there is no vision, 
the peoplf perish. {Prw). xxix. 18) When they were witli- 
out a teaching priest, they were without the true God. 
(2 Chran. xv. 3) No salvation without calling upon God, no 
calling without faith, no faith without hearing, no hearing 
without a preacher : it is the apostle's gradation, Rom. x. 
13—16. For albeit it be not ' medium naturale,^ which doth, 
by an intrinsecal and constant virtue, perpetually produce 
the effect intended, (for many more are called than chosen) 
insomuch that the prophet complains, < Who hath believed 
our report? (lia, liii. 1) All the day long, have 1 stretched 
forth my hand unto a rebellious people;^ (Isa. Ixv. 2) yet it 
is ' medium institutum,' appointed by God to be the minis^ 
try of reconciliation ; (2 Cor. v. 18) and the word of gracey 
{Act$ XX. 32) whereby ordinarily men are called to salvation^ 
repentance and remission of sin being thereby preached in 
the name of Christ ; (Luke xxiv. 47) the Lord working toge^ 
ther therewith by the excellence of his power, as it pleaseth 
him, and dividing unto every man as He will. (1 Cor. iii. 6—7, 
and xii. 11) 

In one word, it is necessary, 1 . In regard of Christ, whose 
authority instituteth it, and whose glory is greatly concerned 
in it, as being bis effectual inRtrument to demolish the king- 
dom of Satan, and to bring into captivity every thought to 
the obedience of him. {2 Cor. x. 5) 

2. In regard of the church of Christ, the collection, edi- 
fication, perfection, and salvation whereof, doth so greatly 
depend upon it, as the mighty power of God unto that pur- 
pose. {Rom, i. 16. 1 Cor. i. 21) Hereby men are gathered 
together, and turned from darkness to light, and from the 
power of Satan unto God. {John xi. 62. AcUixwi. 18) Here- 
by they are built up towards the attainment of their inheri- 
tance. {Acts XX. 32) Hereby they are carried on in the unity 
of the faith, and knowledge of the Son of God, unto a per- 


fed man. (EpA^ iv. 13) Hereby ibey save ihemselTes, and 
those that hear them. (1 TV/n. iv. 16. j/cU xi. 14) 

3. In regard of ourselves, it is necessary, 1. ' Ad imple- 
tionem muneris :' for of all stewards, the stewards of the 
mysteries of God must be found faithfoL (1 Cor. iv. 2) 2. 
* Ad acquisitionem mercedis ;* for they that turn many to 
rigfateonsness, shall shine as the stars, for ever and ever. 
(Dan. xVu 3) 3. ' Ad evitationero periculi f for wo be unto 
IIS, if we preach not the gospel. (1 Cor. ix. 16) So, in every 
one of these ways, a necessity is laid upon us. 

Therefore great diligence, fidelity, and wisdom, are to be 
used in this so weighty a service. It is no small work, 
whereby strong holds must be pulled down, and every high 
thing that exalteth itself against the kingdom of God, be de- 
molished ; whereby sin and Satan must be dispossessed, and 
the whole man subdued to the obedience of Christ; whereby 
the very natural propensions of men must be changed, and 
they e&ctually persuaded to hate what they loved, to love 
what they hated ; to deny themselves, their reason, their will, 
their appetites, their interests, their lands, their relations, 
their lives, their all, (for this they must sometimes do ' quoad 
exercitium,^ ever ' quoad prssparationem animi^) to please an 
invisible God, and to obtain an invisible inheritance. This 
is not the work of an illiterate reader, but of one who hath 
the tongue of the learned, a workman that need not to be 
ashamed. This is not the work of a careless loiterer, that 
shears the fleece, and starves the flock, but of one who gives 
himself wholly to it. So did those renowned bishops in the 
primitive times : we read every where, in Saint Chrysostom, 
of his XSif, intimating that he was a daily preacher ; and of 
Saint Ambrose's ' Omni die Dominico,' as Saint Austin tells 
us, Confes. vi. c. I^ Prayer and preaching are two excellent 
and worthy parts of the ministry of reconciliation, appointed 
as mutual helps and furtherances each to other ; and there- 
fore they, on either hand, do very ill, who justle out and dis- 
parage the one by the other ; as if performing the one were a 
sufficient discharge of the ministerial function, and means 
of the people^s edification and salvation without the other. 
Certainly our Saviour^s commission extends to the world'^s 
end. (Mat. xxviii. 20) As long as there are strong holds to 
be demolished, sin to be reproved, a church to be edified. 


Mints to be perfected, enemies to be resisted ; there will be 
a necessity of every ordinance of Christ, by which tliese 
grttt woriLs may be effected. 

And onto the more sure effecting of them, this weighty 
work of preaching is to be managed and discharged with 
that spiritual skill, that we may approve oorselyes unto God, 
as workmen' that need not be ashamed, rightly dividing the 
word of truth : (2 Tim. ii. 16) that is to say, 

1. With evidence and demonstratioo, so as to affect the 
conscience, and make powerful and awakening discoveries 
and impressions upon the practical judgement, which may 
not, by any sophisms or subterfuges, be evaded or gainsaid. 
This, the apostle calleth ^ demonstrative, or convincing 
preaching r " my speech and my preaching was not with 
eotioing words of roan's wisdom,'' with ostentation of wit or 
human elocution, with rhetoricating sophisms, or plausible 
insinuating deceptions, as Cicero somewhere boasteth thai 
he had dazzled the eyes of the judges ; and as Saint JerooM 
complains of many in his time, ^ id habent curse, non quo- 
modo Scripturarum medullas ebibant, sed quomodo auras 
popali dedamatorum floscuiis mulceant : But," saith the 
apostle, " my preaching was h ianii^ «vfu^Mnr»f nei fo«£- 
§umft in a spiritual, powerful, and invincible demonstra^- 
tioD,^ which admits not of any possibility of being gain* 
said or disproved : — for such is that syllogism which the 
philosopher calls a demonstration, wherein a conclusion is 
most eiridently deduced ' ex principiis primis necessariis et 
per se veris.' (1 Cor. ii. 1,4) And elsewhere, speaking of 
an unbeliever, who heareth evangelical preaching, he saith, 
hxif)(fnm dm mavroov, m»axplvwTcu 6srd wirrw¥, ' He is SO 
convinced, that he is judged ; the secrets of his heart are 
so discovered, that he falls on his face as a cast and con- 
victed prisoner, worshippcth God, and acknowledgeth Qod 
to be in such preaching.' (1 Cor. xiv. 24, 2o) So the pro- 
phet is said to judge men, when he maketh thorn know the 
abomination of their fathers. {Ezek. xx. 4) And once more, 
• We have not,' saith the apoHtle, ' walked craftily, nor han- 
dled the word of God deceitfully, kKkot rjj ^vtpmvtt 1% 
iJafitlof, by manifestation, or evident discovering of the 
truth, wc commend ourselves to every man's conscience in 
the sight of God.' (2 Cor. iv. 2) And thus it is said of 


Stephen, ^ that his adversaries were not able to resist the 
wisdom and the spirit, by which he spake/ {Acts vi. 10) 

2. With wisdom and seasonableness, as men are able to 
hear and bear ; so Christ spake the word. (Mark iv. 33. 
John XVI. 12) We must have milk for the weak, and meat 
for the strong; so manage our ministry, as to prevent and 
remove all occasions of prejudice and of&nce, from any, 
which watch for matter of advantage and exception against 

3. With sincerity and faithfulness; not dissembling any 
necessary doctrine, nor daubing with untempered mortar, 
nor corrupting the word of truth ; but delivering the whole 
counsel of God, pleasing men in all things for their profit 
and edification ; and to all other purposes, ^ not pleasing 
men, but God, which trieth the heart ;^ (1 Cor. x. 33. 1 Tkess. 
ii. 4) speaking his words, whether men will hear or forbear ; 
{Ezek. ii. 7) and telling them the truth, though we be judged 
enemies for so doing. {Gal. iv. 16) 

4. With spiritual power and authority, as Christ did ; 
{Mat* vii. 29) to declare unto men their transgression, in 
such a manner as to judge them for it ; {Mie. iii. 8. Ezek. 
XX. 4) that their hearts may be pricked, {Act$ ii. 37) and 
they made to fall on their face, and give glory to God ; 
(1 Cor. xiv. 26) to shew unto a man his uprightness^ in such 
a manner as that he may find God gracious to him, and may 
see his face with joy : {Job xxxiii. 23 — 26) so to preach the 
word as to bind and loose^ to remit and retain, to heal and 
settle the consciences of our hearers, that they may find the 
gospel come unto them, not in word only, but in power. 
(1 Thess. i. 5) 

5. With meekness and all winning insinuations, that there 
may appear nothing but love and gentleness in every thing 
which we deliver: as the apostle professeth to theThessa- 
lonians, that he was ' gentle among them, as a nurse che- 
risheth her children;' (1 I'hess. ii. 7) and exhorteth Timothy 
and other spiritual persons, with meekness to instruct op- 
posers, and to restore such as are overtaken with any fault. 
(2 Tifiu ii. 24, 25. Gal. vi. 1) It is an excellent character 
which Saint Austin giveth of a preacher, that he should so 
manage his ofiice, ^ ut doceat, ut delectet, ut flectat, ut intcl- 

'enter, ut libeuter, ut obedienter audiatur ;' so to teach, as 


withal to delight and persuade, and, by a constraint of love» 
to gain willing and cheerful obedience to the doctrine which 
he teacheth. 

6. With courage and boldness ; not to fear the faces of 
any presumptuous sinners, who dare to affront the law, and 
not to fear the face of God. Shall any man be so bold as to 
do what God forbids ? and shall a minister be so timorous 
as not to speak what God commands ? Shall I be afraid to 
offend him by doing my duty, who is not afraid to offend 
God by neglecting his ? Shall I be afraid to save him who 
is not afraid to destroy himself? or shall I be dismayed at 
the face and frown of a man, and neglect the wrath of God 
who can tear me in pieces ? * Be not dismayed at their face/ 
saitb the Lord, * lest I confound thee before them/ (Jer. i. 
17) Yet this boldness must be in a way of conviction and 
persoasion, without indiscretion and exasperation ; that when 
we shew our zeal against men's sins, we may withal manifest 
onr lore to their persons, and that honour and reverend 
esteem which we owe to their dignities and conditions. 

Lastly, Our lives and examples must teach the people, as 
well as our doctrine. We must be like the star which did 
not only light the Wise Men, but lead them unto Christ 
(Mai. ii. 9) lie who, by his wicked life, buildeth again 
those things, which by his holy doctrine he destroyed, niak- 
eth himself a transgressor, (fial. ii. 18) " Verbis tantiim 
philosophari non doctoris est, sed histrionis.' It is rather 
pageantry than seriouH piety, for men to preach angelical 
sermons, and to lead diabolical conversations ; * Ut dicta 
fiictis deficientibiis erubescant,' as Tertullian speaks. We 
cannot expect, that other men should follow our doctrine, 
when we ourselves forsake it. The greatest part of men 
being like sheep, which go * non qua eundum, sed qua itur/ 
rather as they are led, than as they are taught. — And so much 
of the duty here supposed, the excellence, necessity, and 
manner, of preaching. 

We proceed to the object or matter of preaching, express- 
ed; 1. Negatively, ' not ourselves.'* Men may be said to 
preach themselves these four ways : 

1. When they make themselves lords over the flock, and 
exercise dominion over the consciences of those that hear 
them : as if a ministry were a sovereignty ; or as if the sheep 


were their own, to be ordered and disposed as they please. 
This is the character which the apostle giveth of the man of 
sin, ' That he sitteth, as God, in the temple of God/ usurping 
a divine authority over the souls of men, (2 Tkess. ii. 4) and 
exercising a bloody tyranny over their bodies. And there- 
fore both our Saviour and his apostles, to prevent the dan- 
ger of so tempting an ambition, have left strict and severe 
provision against it. * Be not ye called Rabbi ; for one is 
your master, even Christ' {Mat. xxiii. 8 — 12) * We have 
not dominion over your faith, but are helpers of your joy ; 
(2 Cor. i. 24) not as being lords over God^s heritage, but 
ensamples to the flock.* (1 Pet. v. 3) 

2. When they make themselves the authors of their own 
ministry, undertaking so weighty an employment of their own 
heads, and running before they are sent ; as many did in the 
prophet Jeremiah's time : {Jer. xxiii. 21) and many more in 
the late licentious days amongst us : of whom we may say, 
M the historian said of an obscure person, that he was 
' homo ex se natus ;* they were ' concionatores ex semetipsis 
nati ;* self-created preachers ; as Agathocles, a prince, of a 
potter, — a preacher, of a trooper : — men who made it the prin- 
cipal business of their usurped preaching, to disgrace and 
pull down legitimate preachers, and beget an undervaluing 
of those serious principles, which (they knew) sober and 
fixed divines would never desert, and contrary unto which 
they were resolved to act. 

3. When they make themselves the matter of their preach- 
ing; prophesying lies, and the deceits of their own hearts; 
{Jer. xxiii. 16, 26) teaching for doctrines the traditions or 
commandments of men; {Matth. xv. 9) making sad the 
righteous, apd strengthening the hands of the wicked by 
their lies; following their own spirits, {Ezek. xiii. 3, 22) 
venting, in the place and name of Christ, their own passions 
and animosities, ttheir own interests and jealousies, their own 
private opinions and paradoxes ; fomenting distempers, in- 
generating discontents and divisions in the hearts of the 
people; corrupting the minds, perverting the judgements, 
ensnaring and entangling the consciences, of those that hear 
them; 'turning aside to vain jangling; departing from the 
faith ; giving heed to seducing spirits ; speaking lies in hy- 
pocrisy; teaching things which they ought not ; leading cap- 


tive, and deceiving the hearU of the simple ; sowing tares in 
the Lord's field ; being the snare of a fowler in all their 
ways; walking in the Spirit and in falsehood; prophesying 
of wine and strong drink ; causing the people to erj through 
their lies and their lightness.' — That you may keep yoor- 
selrea from this crimson and bloodv sin, often recount that 
dreadful intermination, Deut, xviii. 20: ' The prophet which 
shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have 
not commanded him to speak, or that shall speak in the 
name of other i;odi«, even that prophet shall die/ — [See also 
Jer. xiv. 14, 15, and xxiii. 11, 12, 15, 30. 31, 32, 39, 40. 
Ezek. xiii. and xxxiv. Hos. iv. (i, 9, and v. 1, and ix. 7. 
Mic. iii. 5, 6, 7. Mai. ii. 1, 2, 3. and viii. 9. Maiih. xxiii. 
13—29. 2 Cor. xi. 13, 14, 15. Gal. i. 8, 9. 2 PeL ii. 1, 2. 3.] 

4. When they make themselves the end of their preach* 
ing; making so holy an ordinance subservient to their vain 
glory, or ambitious pursuits, or filthy lucre, or plausible 
compliance, or private interests: as the Pharisees, who ' for 
a pretence made long prayers, that they might devour 
widows* houses ;' — * supposing gain to be godliness,' as the 
apostle speaks: (1 Tim. vi. 5)^when they pursue crooked 
and indirect aims of their own, ostentation of learning, en- 
ticing words of men's wisdom, commending themselves, 
pleasing others ; (1 Cor. ii. 4. 2 Cor. x. 12. Gal. i. 10) quite 
contrary to the practice of the holy apostle, who, in his func- 
tion and ministry, * walked not in craftiness, handled not the 
word of God deceitfully ; (2 Cor, iv. 2) did not exhort out of 
oncleanness, or in guile ; used not flattering words, nor a 
cloak of covetousness ; pleased not men, nor sought glory of 
any ;' (1 Thess. ii. 3 — 6) but made it his only end to please 
God, and by all means to save souls ; to manage his master's 
interest, and not his own, that Christ alone might be glori- 
fied in the hearts of men : for how much soever we attribute 
to ourselves, so much we detract from Christ ; whom the 
apostle makes the sole matter of his preaching. 

Which leads to the positive part of our preaching, ' Christ 
Jesns the Lord ;** whereby is intimated, that the Lord Jesus 
is both the author, the object, and the end, of all our 

1. The Lord Jesus is the author and insti tutor of this 
church. How high a presumption it is for men to intrude 


into a ministry without a call and warrant from God^ the sad 
examples of Korah, Dathan, Abiram^ Uzziab, the vagabond 
exorcists, (Acts xix. 13 — 16) and others, do abundantly tes- 
tify. And therefore as Aaron was solemnly separated to 
minister to the Lord, (1 Chron. xxiii. 13) and, in like man- 
ner, Christ was called of God a High Priest after the order 
of Melchizedec; (Heb. v. 5, 6, 7, 10) even so were his 
apostles sent by him ; {Matth, xxviii. 19) and by authority 
from him, did they ordain others unto the same service, 
{Act9 xiv. 23) and direct the same course to be observed 
afterwards. (2 Tim. ii. 2. Tit. i. 5) From him then, and 
those whom he hath appointed, must we receive both our 
mission and our message. Our whole ministry we must 
* receive in the Lord,^ as it is said of Archippus, Col, iv. 17. 
It must be given and committed to us, before we presume to 
take unto ourselves the styles of ^ ambassadors for Christ.' 
(2 Cor. y. 18, 19, 20. John iii. 27) 

I. From him we must have our mission : for ' how shall 
they preach, except they be sent V saith the apostle, Rom. x. 
14. An honour must not be undertaken without a call. ^ No 
man taketh this honour unto himself, but he that is called of 
Ood :^ (Heb. v. 4) the ministerial function is an honour, as 
the apostle sheweth, 1 Tim. v. 17. — A trust must not be 
undertaken without a call : the ministry is a trust and eco- 
nomy. (1 Cor. ix. 17) Great would be the disorder and con- 
fusion, great the mischief and danger, if heretics and se- 
ducers might, of their own heads, sow their tares, and sub- 
vert the souls of men ; if ignorant and self-conceited men 
may heap up to themselves hearers ; if giddy and unstable 
people may run after novelties, and be carried about with 
divers and strange doctrines; if so honourable an office 
should be exposed to contempt, and be destitute of divine 
blessing and assistance, by the invasion of unqualified and 
worthless intruders. 

A call then is necessary ; and this call, though mediate 
and by the ministry of men, is from Christ. Pastors and 
teachers, who have only a mediate call, are set up by him, as 
well as apostles and prophets. (Ephes. iv. 11) The elders 
of £phesus, though appointed by an ordinary call, are said 
to be made * overseers by the Holy Ghost/ (Acts xx. 28) 
This call is twofold, internal and external. 


1. Internal, standing, 

(1.) In an evidence of fit qualifications for so weighty a 
work) TIE. 1. Sanctity of life : which may fit and dispose for 
the faithful and conscionable discharge of the ofiice, to make 
a man zealous for the {;lory of God *; sensible of the interest 
of souls ^; exemplary to the flock; able to speak experi- 
mentally of the ways of God ^, the devices of Satan *, the 
deception of lust *, the issues of temptation ^^ the consola- 
tions of the Holy Spirit <, and other the deep mysteries of saU 
vatitm. 2. Soundness of doctrine, and such able parts of 
sobstantial learning, as that he maybe apt to teach^; to 
speak a word in season ^ ; to show a man his uprightness ^ ; 
to convince gainsayers ' ; to use sound speech which can- 
not be condemned. "" It is not a little measure of learning 
which will senre to open the scriptures, to confute errors, to 
resoljre cases, to speak with demonstration and authority to 
the consciences of sinners. The Lord hath been pleased to 
iateraperse something of almost all kind of other learning, 
beside divine, in the scriptures:-— Phy sick, in what is report- 
ed of beasts, birds, plants, meteors, precious stones, &c ; 
ethicksand politicks, in Solomon^s proverbs and Ecdesiastes ; 
logick and rhetorick, in the strong reasonings, and powerful 
elegancies of prophets and apostles : mathematics and ar- 
chitecture, in the structure of Noah*s ark, and of Solomon^s 
and Ezekiel's temple : languages, the Old Testament being 
written in Hebrew and Chaldee, and the New in Greek : al- 
lusions to exotick and profane history and antiquity ; mytho- 
logies, parables, poetry, quotations out of profane writers. 
And all this to instruct us what abundance of leamin<; is 
requisite unto him, who will rightly understand and divide 
the Word of Truth. 3. Aptness to teach ; spiritual skill 
and wisdom to show himself ' a scribe instructed to the 
kingdom of heaven;^ (Matih. xv. 32) MaMjwii et huofi^ 
VUfeu, as the apostle's expressions are, 1 Tim. iik 2. 
2 Tim, ii. 2. 

(2.) This internal call standeth in a sincere desire, by the 
secret work of God on the heart, to serve him and his 

• Aces zvii. 16. ^ 1 Tim. iv. 1 1, 12. 1 Tbeu. u. 10. c Bjihai. 

tiL 4. a 2 Cor. ii. 11. • Ephcs. iv. 12. ' 1 Cor. zvi. 13. 

f Rom. i. 11 , 12. k 1 Tiro. iii. 2. * Itai. 1. 4. ^ Job 

Kxiii. 23. t Tit. i. 1 1. ■ Tit. ii. 8. 

VuL v. 2 A 


church in the work of the minisU'y ; and that not out of 
ambition, covetousness, or carnal aflTections, but out of an 
entire regard to the glory of God, and salvation of souls. 
The Apostle calleth it o^is» (1 Tim. iii. 1) a willingness 
unto it; (1 Cor. ix. 17) an addicting oneVself unto it; (1 
Cor. xvi. 16) an offering a man^s self to be sent by God. 
{Isa. vi. 8.) 

2. The external call, instituted by Christ in his Apostles^ 
is managed by their successors, the bishops and pastors of 
the church ; 1. In examination of the fitness of those who 
judge themselves thus inwardly called, by the preceding 
qualifications, that the office may not be invaded by ignorant 
or unworthy persons. (1 Tim. iii. 10) 2. In approbation; 
when, upon trial, men are found able, willing, apt, faithful, 
the church by her officers dedareth them such, and giveth 
testimony unto them, as the Apostle doth unto Epaphraa 
and Tychicus. {Colos. i. 7, and iv. 7) 

3. In separation and solemn consecration unto the func- 
tion by fasting and prayer, commending the persons so ap- 
proved, unto the grace of God. {Ads xiii. 2, and 14, 23) 
And this done in the church-assembly, 'prsesente plebe/ 
whose assent and testimony was ancientiy required ; of whieh 
we read in S. Cyprian, Ep. 68. Condi. Carthag. 4. Can. 22 
and in Leo, Ep. 89. Hereby the church are witnesses, and 
(not declaring their dissent and dissatisfaction) approvers of 
what is done. And it was done with the rite and ceremony 
of imposition of hands, (1 Tim. v. 22) as importing ; 1. A 
dedication and devoting the person to the office. (Numb. 
xxvii. 18) 2, A deriving authority to administer the office. 
3. An imploring the gifts, blessing, protection, custody of 
the Holy Spirit upon them, and commending them to the grace 
of God. {Acts xiv. 26) Thus from Christ, and according to 
his institution, ministers of the gospel have their mission. 

I. From him they must receive their message. He is king 
in the church ; and they his ambassadours, who must, firom 
him only, receive their instructions. (2 Cor. v. 20) They 
must speak his words ; {Ezek. ii. 7) that the church may 
have a proof of Christ speaking in them, (2 Cor, xiii. 3) and 
of the counsel of God delivered by them; {Acts xx. 27) 
teaching the people the things which he hath commanded^ 


{MaaL xzriii. 20) His command ig oar commission. We 
must ddifer nothing but what we have received. ' I have 
received of the Lord that, which also I delivered unto you.' 
(1 Cor. ii. 23) < That which I have heard/ saith the pro- 
phety < of the Lord of HosU, the God of Israel, have I de- 
clared unto you.' (Isa. xxi. 2) * Speak unto all the cities of 
Jodah, which come to worship in the Lord's house, all the 
words which I command thee to speak unto them, diminish 
not a wonL^ {Jer, xxvi. 2) ' What thing soever I command 
you, obaenre to do it; thou shalt not add thereto, nor 
duniiiiah from it' (Deut. xii. 32) ' If any man speak, let 
him speak as the oracles of Ood.' (1 Pet. iv. 11) The Lord 
hath committed unto us the word and ministry of reconcili* 
ation« What we do in attendance on that ministry, we do 
in Christ's stead: and therefore ought seriously to consider 
with ourselves, whether the words which we speak unto the 
people, be, for the truth, gravity, and sancUty of them, such, 
as may, without indignity done to Christ, have his name and 
authority prefixed on them. He will not own the dictates 
and inventions of men for the oracles of God. Though it 
belong to the duty, authority, and wisdom of the church to 
direct mere circumstantials in the service of God, so as may 
most conduce unto that order and decency which Grod re- 
quireth, so as may best become the seriousness, simplicity, 
and sanctity of so heavenly and spiritual worship ; yet she 
may not impose as doctrines her commandments. {Matth. 
XV. 9) She may not add any thing to the alUsuflBciency and 
plenitude of the holy scriptures. {DetU. iv. 2. Prot?. xxx. 6) 
When we speak of the means of salvation, of the rules, prin- 
^ples, and grounds of faith and worship, of the adequate 
subject of evangelical preaching, we must keep ^ to the law 
and testimonies ; if we speak not according unto them, it is 
because there is no light in us.' (ha. viii. xx) No doctrine 
is necessary or sufficient to carry us unto heaven, but that 
which first came down from heaven. Thus ' we preach Christ 
Jesus the Lord,' as the author both of our mission and of 

1 1. We ^ preach Christ Jesus the Lord,' as the matter and 
substance of our preaching. There is not any matter of 
preaching, which doth not either ' cxplicitc^ or reductiv^' 



comprise Christ in it. ^ We preach Christ crucified.^ (1 Cor^ 
i. 23) ' I determine not to know any thing among you, sare 
Jesus Christ and him crucified.* (1 Cor. ii. 2) 

All materials of religion are contained under four heads, 
'agenda, credenda, petenda^ partici panda :* duties to be 
done, mysteries to be believed, mercies to be implored, seals 
to be imparted. 

1. Of the 'agenda/ the law is the rule ; and this is 
a schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ. (Gal. iii. 24) 

Consider it as a covenant of life, and so it sends us unto 
Christ, by whose only obedience the righteousness thereof 
hath been fulfilled for us : ' I am not come to destroy the 
law, but to fulfil it :'*-^(Matth. v. 17) by whose only sufiTerings 
and satisfaction, the curse thereof hath been removed from 
128. {Gal. iii. 13) ' Christ is the end of the law.** (Rom. 

Consider it as a rule of living ; and so also it sends us unto 
Christ 1, His spiritual doctrine openeth the sense and wide- 
ness thereof unto us; for his commandment is exceeding 
broad« This was one great end of his sermon on the mount, 
to vindicate the law from the narrow glosses which Itad been 
cast upon it 2. His most holy example leads us in the way 
of it, that we may walk as he walked. (1 Pet. ii. 21. 1 John 
ii. 6) 3. His holy Spirit and grace, and his love shed abroad 
in our hearts, enable and constrain us to the obedience of it; 

* I am able,* saith the apostle, ' to do all things through 
Christ, who strengtheneth me.* (Phil. iv. 13) We must 
never preach the law without Christ. As it was delivered, 
80 it must be preached, * In the hand of a mediator.* (Gal. 
iii. 19) When we discover the disease, we must show the 
physician. So Ood to Adam : first, conviction,—' Where art 
thou?* then consolation, — 'The seed of the woman shall 
bruise the serpents head.* (Gen. iii. 9, 15) So John Baptist 
to the multitudes; firsf, 'Generation of vipers;* — then, 

* Bring forth fruits worthy of repentance.* (Luke iii. 7, 8) 
So Christ to Laodicea; first, — 'Thou art poor, and blinds 
and naked ;* then, — ' I counsel thee to buy of me gold tried.' 
{Rev. iii. 17, 18) Thus * omnia agenda* lead to Christ. 

2. ' Omnia credenda," contained in the gospel, are com- 
prised iu Chtist 

(1) All the doctrines of the gospel, as is evident by every 


article of the cree<l. I believe in the Father, as the Father 
of Christ ; by whom he made the world ; {CoL i. 16) and in 
whom he is oar Father. {J ohm xx. 17) I believe in tlie 
Holy Ghost, who is the spirit of Christ ; (Rom. viii. 9. G0L 
iv. 6) * Vicarias Christi/ who brings him and his comforts 
to the soul. — I believe the holy Catholic church, the spovise 
of Christ, the body of Christ, the ' fulness of him that filleth 
all in all ^ (Eph. i. 23) * Caput et Corpus onus est Christus.* 
1 believe the communion of saints : and oar communion is 
with the Father, and the Son. as King of saints, (1 JoHm i. . 
3) and with holy angeU and men, as subjects to that King.— 
The remission of sins ; and this is from him ; it must be 
preaehetl in his name. (Jjuke xxiv. 47) The resurrection of 
tbe body ; and this also is from him ; ^ The Son quickenetb 
whom he will/ (John v. 21. 23, and xi. 25) The life ever- 
lasting ; and this from him : * Christ in us the hope of glory/ 
{Col. i. 27) 

(2) All the promises of the gospel have their foundatioo 
and stability in Christ; Uhey are in him yea, and aroeo;' 
(2 Cor. i. 20) he the purchaser of them by his propitiation ; 
be the procurer of them by his impetration ; he the falfiller of 
tbem by his princely administration. 

(3) All the comminations of the gospel lead us to consider 
Christ as the sanctuary and refuge, through whom they arc 
by believers to be avoided, as the Prince and Judge, by 
whom they are upon unbelievers to be inflicted. {Ads x. 42, 
43, and xiii. 39) 

(4) The whole covenant of grace leads us unto him. For 
as the covenant of works was made with the first Adam in 
behalf of his posterity, so the covenant of grace is made 
with tiie second Adam in behalf of his posterity. He, being 
both God and man, is equally concerned in the interests of 
both : and accordingly he preserves God^s interest by his sa- 
tisfaction and righteousness ; andnnan^s interest, by his re- 
eonoiliation and blessedness. He is the surety of the cove« 
nant for the satisfaction of God ; (Heb. vii. 22) and he is tbe 
mediator of the covenant for the reconciliation of man. (Heb. 
viii. 6) Thus * omnia credenda' lead unto him. 

3. ' Omnia petenda,^ All things to be prayed for do ne- 
oeaaarily carry us unto Christ. Ilis Father, the answerer of 
oar prayers : * I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord 


Jesus Christ/ (Eph. iii. 14) His spirit the author of our 
prayers : the spirit of the Son in our heart * crieth Abba, 
Father/ (Gal. i?. 6) His name the argument of our pray- 
ers : * Whatsoever ye ask the Father in my name, he will 
give it you/ (John xvi. 23, 24) His intercession the efficacy 
of our prayers ; this the incense offered with the prayers of 
all Saints on the golden altar. (Rev. viii. 3) 

4. ' Omnia participanda^ lead unto him. Baptism^ ' simu- 
lacrum Mortis et Resurrectionis Christi/ the image of the 
death and resurrection of Christ, wherein we are planted and 
regenerated to his life and likeness. The Lord's Supper, the 
memorial of the death of Christ, wherein we feed and feast 
upon him, as our passover which was sacrificed for us. 
(1 Cor. V. 7, 8) 

In one word, we preach him, 1. In his office, as the Christ 
anointed of his Father. 2. In the great ends of those offices, 
which are to be our Jesus to save us, and our Lord to rule 
us ; to be a * Prince and a Saviour, to give repentance and 
remission of sins/ (Acts v. 31) 

III. We preach Christ Jesus the Lord as the great end of 
til our preaching, that thereby we may advance his interest, 
and promote his designs, that he may ^ see of the travel of 
his soul, and be satisfied ;^ — ^tliat his people may be gathered, 
his body edified, his saints perfected, his enemies subdued, 
his gospel propagated, his name glorified, and he finally ad- 
mired in all them that believe. (2 Thess. i. 10) These are 
' in se, finis operis ;^ {Eph. iv. 12) and they ought to be in 
us, * finis operantis/ 

And having now secured Christ'*s honour and interest, the 
apostle returns again to himself, and showeth in what ca- 
pacity he looketh on himself in the church of Christ, not as 
a Lord, but as a servant. ^ Ourselves your servants ;^ far 
from the temper of those whom you suffer to bring you into 
bondage, to smite, to devoar you, to exalt themselves. (2 Cor. 
XL 20) Whatever titles of honour or dignity, the pastors of 
the church are adorned withal ; (as the apostle assureth us of 
an honour due unto it, 1 Tim. v. 17^ and an authority en- 
trusted with it, 2 Cor. x. 8) yet this very honour consists in 
a service, which they owe to the church of Christ. Christ 
only hath domination and pre-eminency ; all others, even 
apostles themselves, nothing but service and ministry : — as 


the PrietU and Levites are commanded by Jotiah, ^ to senre 
the Lord, and bit people Itraei/ (2 Ckron. exxv. 3) The 
higbest oflBcea, and noblest abilitiei, are all the church's ; 
and for her edification. (1 Car. iii. 22) The names in scrip- 
tare given to pastors, as * stewards, ministers, watchmen, la- 
bourers ;' all import a service, excluding domination, which 
our Saviour expressly forbids ; {Maitk. xx. 26—28) including 
humility, industry, fidelity, love, helpfulness, all endeavours 
to attend the service of the church's faith, as the apostle 
calls it (PkiL ii. 17) 

Yet withal, tliey are such servants and stewards as are 
also nders ; so they are called. (Luke xii. 42. 1 Tim. v. 17) 
* Senriunt utilitati, non potestati :' servants they are to the 
souls of the people, but not to their power ; whom the people 
have no despotical authority over, but are to submit unto, as 
unto those that watch for their souls. (1 Car. xvi. 16, 16» 
Heb. iii. 17) 

And therefore the apostle addeth, that they are the peo- 
ple's * servants for Jesus' sake," in order to promoting of his 
hoooor and interest in the church. The church is his spouse, 
his flock, his body ; is, to him, the purchase of his own 
blood. We are his officers, and must give an account of you 
to him. Our love, our loyalty, our fidelity, our fear of him^ 
constrain us to spend and to be spent in the service of your 
souls. He is our Jesus and your Jesus. As we expect our 
own salvation from him, or value and desire youi's, we must 
serve your faith, and sohw ourselves his servants by being 

I shall conclude all with a word of exhortation to my 
reverend brethren in this sacred function, and you that are 
candidates thereof. 

1. Preach the gospel; ^be instant in season and out of 
season ; reprove, rebuke, exhort with all long-suffering and 
doctrine;^* think not much to further the salvation of those 
by your labours, whom Christ purchased with his blood. 
Magnify your office % not by pomp and state, by scorn or 
saporcaliousness ; — these things debase it ; — but by humble 
and painful attendance upon the ministry which you have re- 
ceived of the Lord. ^ Esteem not that a neeilless office, 

• 2 Tim. iv. 2. »> Rom. xi. 13. « Col. iv. 17. 


which the apostle bath made necessary ; nor a bootless ser- 
▼ice, unto the perfonaance whereof so great a reward, unto 
the omission whereof so great a wo, is annexed. (1 Cor, ix. 
16, 17) If you be not the souls of others, preach 
for your own sakes, that you may save, yourselves. If you 
value not your own salvation, preach for the sake of others^ 
that you may save those that hear you. (1 Tim. iv. 16) If 
there be yet ignorance in the people, let them not continue 
in darkness for want of your teaching. If there be yet sins 
amongst them, let them not perish under them, for want €d 
your reproving. If they be yet imperfect, let. them not be 
still children, for. want of your instructing. If they be yet 
exposed to temptation, let not Satan swallow them up, for 
want of your resisting him. If Satan destroy men by his* 
suggestions, he shall uot answer for them as an officer, (he 
bad not inspection over them) but as a murderer only. If 
you destroy them by your negligence ; if the shepherds do 
not feed, nor the physicians heal, nor the watchmen keep, 
nor the stewards provide for the flock ; you have betrayed m 
trust, abused a Lord, exposed a ' deposituro C you shall give 
an account, not only for souls murdered, but for an office 
neglected, for a talent hidden, for a stewardship unfaithfully 
and injuriously administered. O, therefore, studiously and 
conscientiously apply yourselves to this heavenly skill of 
spiritual preaching. Preach in good earnest, as those who 
seriously intend their own and their hearers'* salvation. Preach 
not as a rhetorician at a desk, only to tickle cars, and to play 
a prize ; but as an advocate at a bar, to preserve a client, to 
save a soul. So convince of sin ', the guilt, the stain, the 
dominion, the pollution of it^ the curse and malediction 
whereunto the soul is exposed by it, that your hearers may 
be awakened, and humbled, and efiectually forewarned to flee 
from the wrath to come.* So convince of the all-«ufficient 
righteousness ^ and unsearchable riches of Christ^; the ex- 
cellency of his knowledge ^ ; the unmeasurableness of his; 
love ' ; the preciousness of his promises^ ; the fellowship of 
his sufierings ; the power of his resurrection ^ ; the beauties 
of his holiness ^ ; the easiness of his yoke " ; the sweetness of 

^ John zvi. 8, 9. • Luke iii. 7. f John xvi. 10. f Ephes. 

iii. 8. h Phil. iii. 8. 1 Ephes. iii. 18, 19. ^ 2 Pet. i. 4. 

1 Phil. iii. 10. <n Psalm ex. 3. • Matth. zi. 30. 


his peacs * ; the joy of hit talTalioii ** ; the hope of his glory ^ ; 
thmt the hearts of your bearers rosy bum within them '. and 
they may fly, like doves ' unto their windows, for shelter and 
ssactoary into the arms of such a redeemer, who is able and 
willing to save to the uttermost those that come unto God 
by him*; that they may, with all ready obedience, and by the 
constraining power of the lore of Christ % yield up them- 
selves to the government of this Prince of Peace % by whom 
the Prince of this world is judged and cast out, his works 
destroyed"^ ; and we for this end bought with a price % that we 
shonld not be our own, but his that bought us ; nor live any 
longer onto ourselves, but unto him that loved us and died 
for OS, and rose sgain. ^ 

2m 'Preach not yourselves,^ your own imaginations, the 
devices of your hearts ; set not up your reason against God^s 
wordy nor your will against his grace, nor your interest against 
hia glory, nor your fleshly wisdom against the simplicity of 
his holy gospel. Preach not, out of ostentation merely, to 
the fimcies and wits of men, to please, or to tickle them ; but 
out of manifestation of truth to the conscience, to pleasiis 
God. Preach not your own passion^ and animosities, things 
tending to widen breaches, to foment jealousies and discon^ 
tents, to kindle sedition, to cherish faction, to beget turbu* 
lency and disquiet ; to shake the piety which the people owe 
to God, or the loyalty they owe to their prince, or the tran« 
qnillity which they ought to promote in church and state : 
bat, as servants of a Prince of Peace, preach those things 
which make for peace ; and which may heal the divisions, and 
compose the distempers, which yet remain in the midst of us. 

3. Preach ^Christ Jesus the Lord;^ determine to know 
nothing among your people, but Christ crucified : let his 
name and grace, his spirit and love, triumph in the midst of 
all your sermons. Let your great end be to glorify him in 
the hearts, to render him amiable and precious in the eyes of 
his people ; to lead them to him as a sanctuary to protect 
them, m propitiation to reconcile thom, a treasure to enrich 
them, a physician to heal them, an advocate to present them, 

• Joha ziT. 27. p Psalm li. 12. q Col. i. 27. ' Luke 

xxiv. 32. • Isai. Iz. 3. * Heb. vii. 25. "2 Cor. ▼. 14. 

^ John xii. 31. xvi. 11. ^1 John iii. 5, 8. « I Cor. ¥J. 19, 20. 

f 2 Cor. V. 15. 


and their services unto God : as wisdom to counsel, as righ- 
teousness to justify, as sanctification to renew, as redemption 
to save, as an inexhausted fountain of pardon, grace, comfort, 
victory, glory. Let Christ be the diamond to shine in the 
bosom of all your sermons. 

4. * Serve the souls,^ not the wills, or lusts of men. Con. 
sider the worth of souls, their excellency, their immortality, 
the price that bought them, the sin which defiles them, the 
curse which destroys them, the grace which renews them, the 
glory which blesseth them. Consider the vigilancy of Satan, 
who goeth about to devour them ; his malice and industry, 
bis power and policy, his sophisms and devices, his artifices 
and temptations, the indeiktigable diligence, and various 
methods he useth to destroy them, against whose engines and 
machinations, our ministry is appointed. Is it a small sin to 
gratify Satan, by neglecting to save those precious souls, 
which he seeketh to ruin ? Is it a small sin, by our careless- 
ness to betray such souls as those, and our own with them, 
to the peril of eternal perdition ? Shall we be able to endure 
the hideous outcries of destroyed souls, wherewith we had 
been entrusted, howling'out that doleful accusation against 
lis, ^ Parentes sensimus parricidas ?' our guides have misled 
us, our watchmen have betrayed us, our pastors have starved 
us, our stewards have defrauded us, our fathers have been 
our parricides. 

* For Jesus' sake,' if you love Jesus. It is the argument 
which himself useth. (JoAn xxi. 16, 16, 17) And, 'if any 
man love not the Lord Jesus, let him be Anathema Maran 
Atha. If you would have Jesus love you, if you tender his 
sheep, if you regard his command, if you fear his wrath, if 
you value his salvation ; study the price of souls, snatch souls 
out of the fire, forewarn souls of the wrath to come ; be hum- 
ble, be faithful, be painful, be pitiful, towards the souls of 
men. Commend your fidelity ; set forth ChrisOs excellency 
mito the souls of your hearers, that you may be able to say 
to him at his coming, as he to his FaUier ; ' Behold me, and 
the children which thou hast given me.' Thus doing, you 
shall both save yourselves, and them that hear you. 



Opmmi la » 8ERMON, yrmihtd September 11, 1660, at the Funerml oT 
ihm MMt raUfpcmt and Tiitiioui Lady, The Lady Mary i^f»n*»«w 

ISAIAH uvi. 18, 19. 

We have been with child ; we have been in pain : we have^ om 
it werCf brought forth wind: we have not wrought any de^ 
Uverance in the earth : neither have the inhabitants of the 
world f alien. Thy dead men shall live ; together with my 
dead body shall they arise : awake and sing, ye that dwell 
im tie dust: for the dew is as the dew of kerbs: and the 
earth shall cast out the dead. 

Thb holy prophet, having, in the foregoing chapter, att 
forth many gracious evangelical promises, doth here, in this, 
celebrate them with a song of solemn and publick thanks* 
giving ; blessing the Lord for his salvation to his church, 
and his severity against the enemies theieof. Whereupon 
we find the church entertaining many holy resolutions, as 
fruits and expressions of that her joy. She resolves to * trust 
in the Lord for ever/ in regard of his strength and fidelity 
towards his people, and of his power and jealousy against 
their enemies, ver. 4, 6, 6, 7. She resolves to * wait upon 
God^ in the midst of judgements, upon the remembrance 
of that name of his, whereby he made himself known to hia 
people in Egypt, Exod. xxxiv. 6, 7 ; as a God able to give 
being to every promise, and by his truth and power, to per. 
form what his mercy had covenanted to do for her. {Micak 
vii. 20. Isa. xxvi. 8, 9, 12) And this confident waiting upon 
God in trouble is commended ^ ah opposite,' by the contrary 
disposition of wicked men, whom favours and mercies can- 
not persuade to learn righteousness, ver. 10, 11. She re- 

364 THE church's triumph [s£rm. xxiir. 

solves ^ to submit to God^s fatherly government aloDe» and 
to renounce all other usurping and tyrannical lords, who had 
exercised domination over her, in regard of God's judgements 
executed on them, and his mercies renewed to his people, 
ver, 13, 14, 16. She resolves to • pour out her prayer' unto 
God in the midst of all present troubles, acknowledging her 
own impotency, and the miscarriage of all her own carnal 
counsels and contrivances : and thereupon trusting no longer 
in herself, but in God which raiseth the dead, ver. 16, 17, 18, 
19. Lastly, after all these pious dispositions and noble re- 
solves, she concludeth her song with a triumphal epinicion 
and insultation over all her enemies, and with an assurance 
that as they should 'die and not live, fall and not rise,' 
their persons and their memory should perish, ver, 14. So 
she should * live, and rise and sing, and flourish/ as the herbs 
buried in the earth, when the dew of heaven falls on them to 
refresh them, ver, 19. 

Some refer the words to the Babylonian captivity, wherein 
they were as dead bones in a grave, (Ezek. xxxvii. 11, 12) 
without any strength, wisdom, or visible hope of being ever 
delivered. • 

Some, to the afflicted state of the church under the gospel, 
and the rest, or sabbath, which the Lord would give them at 
the last, out of all their labours and sufferings. {Heb. iv. 9. 
Rev, XX. 2) 

Some, to the last resurrection and the faith of the church 
touching that. And there is nothing more usual than for 
the church, and holy men therein, to support their hearts 
above their incumbent afflictions, and to secure to themselves 
the comfort of promised deliverance, notwithstanding all the 
seeming improbabilities thereof, by the general doctrine of 
the resurrection. (See Job xix. 25, 26, 27. Isa, Ixvi. 14. Hos. 
vi. 2. 2Cor. i. 9) 

Whatever wun the particular state of the church then, 
certain it is, that, in the general, the words extend to the re- 
surrection of tlie faithful ; and are so interpreted by the 
ancients % Irenseus, Tertullian, Jerome, Cyril, Austin, and 
by learned modern expositors ^. 

» Iren^ruSf lib. 5. cap. 15, 30. T«rtuL de Resurrect, c 32. Hierbn, ct Cyril, ir. 
loc. Aug, dc Civ. dei, lib. 20. cap. 21. t> Calvin, Institu. 1. 2. c. 10. sect. 

21. 1. 3. c. 25. sect. 4 


The sore affliction here of the charch is compared to the 
pftngB of a woman in travail, who earnestly crieth out, and 
•triveth to be delivered ; a frequent allusion to express any 
ezqoiflite pain by. {Isa. xiii. 8. Jen xiii. 12) She had, in 
this ber sore distress, cried with strong groans and cries unto 
God, to be delivered ; but all in vain ; she brought forth nothing 
hot ' wind/ pain without profit. (Jer. xii. 13) Wind is a 
usual expression, whereby the scripture describeth frustrtr 
neons events. {Jer. v. 13. Hos. viii. 7, and xii. 1) The womb 
of the church miscarried, and brought forth * flatum pro 
fcetu '/ they looked for salvation and deliverance, but they 
were totally disappointed; they had the pains of a travailing 
wonao, but not the comfort of a child bom. {John xvi. 21) 
When they looked for deliverance from one calamity, they 
fell into another ; or as some render it, instead of bringing 
fortk a child, or working any deliverance, they * were de- 
livered of their own spirit,' or * gave up the ghost.' The 
nexl words are a literal explication of the metaphor, *' We 
' have not wrought any salvation^ or deliverance. All our 
cooceptioDS and cries end in vanity and disappointment All 
oar hopes, touching the ruin of our enemies, ver. 14, are 
come to nothing : they ^ are not fallen ;' but we are dead 
men, very carcasses ; we * dwell in the dust,' we are as low 
as calamity can make us." 

Now above all this misery, the church, by faith, lifteih up 
her head, in the assurance of a glorious resurrection. She 
toms away from the view and sense of her own sufferings, 
from the conceptions and parturitions of her own counsels, 
and carnal contrivances, and, with a triumphant apostrophe, 
turns to God. 

Tlqf dead men ahali live.] The pronoun it very emphatical, 
for they are the words of the church to God, as appears by 
the continuation of the context, from ver. 16 : so it is not 
meant of all« but of * God's dead men,^ whether figuratively 
in any desperate calaftnity, or really in their graves; for the 
words will extend to both. 

Shall live] or * do live ;^ are prisoners of hope; have a 
seed of life in them, even in the grave. It is the apostle^s 
similitude and illustration. (1 Cor. xv. 36, 37, 38) 

With my dead bo^lt/] In the original it is thus ; ** My dead 
body, they shall live ;'" by a usual enallage of the number. 

366 THE church's triumph [sebm. xxiv; 

* Ev^ry one of my dead bodies shall live.' Some make it an 
expression of the prophet^s faith % applying to himself the 
comfort of that common salvation ; preaching nothing to 
them which he was not in his own particular assured of. 
Some take it as an answer of Christ to the church^ &ith^, 
as if it related to that. {Mat. xxvii. 62, 53) I conceive them 
to be the words of the church, still comforting herself in the 
assurance of God's mercy to every one of her mystical mem- 
bers ; which assurance is expressed by a kind of hypotyposis, 
calling the dead to come forth out of the dust, and to rejoice 
for her deliverance. 

For thy dew is as the dew of Jierbs], ** Thy divine word, 
power, and promise, is able to do unto us as dew unto herbs ; 
though they seem outwardly dried up and dead, yet having 
a vital root, they do, by the fall of the dew, send forth their 
leaves and beauty again. Now God hath more care of us 
than of herbs, and his spirit more efficacy than the dew ; 
and, therefore, however we may be withered and consumed 
with calamity and death, yet he will raise us up again, and 
clothe us with beauty and glory .^ Thus the scripture often 
argues from natural to supernatural things. (Jer. xxxi. 35, 
36. Jer. xxxiii. 20, 21. Psal. Ixxxix. 36, 37. 1 Cor. xv. 36) 
And this s^nilitude of dew, reviving and refreshing decayed 
herbs, we frequently meet with. (Prot?. xix. 12. Isa. Ixvi. 14. 
Hos. xiv. 5, 6) 

And the earth shall cast out the dead] As a woman doth an 
untimely birth : the grave shall be in travail with the dead, 
(the apostle seems to point at such a metaphor % Acts ii. 24) 
and shall be delivered of them. Another version thus, '^ Thou 
shalt cast the giants in the earth .^ They who here as giants 
did trample on the church, and were formidable unto her, 
shall then fall and perish, when thy people shall awake and 
sing, as ver. 14. So elsewhere, '^ They shall take them cap* 
tives whose captives they were, and they shall rule over their 
oppressors.'' (Isa. xiv. 2) ** The sons of them that afflicted 
them, shall come bending unto them.'^ {Isa. Ix. 14, and Ixv. 
13, 14) 

In the words, we observe two general parts. 1. The 
church's complaint under very great calamity and disap- 

^ SaibouC. • AiSffas rds c»87rar rod ^opdrov. 


poiBtmenty ver. 18. 2. Her triumph over all her enemies and 
Bufferings, ver. 19. The complaint, being expressed by the 
metaphor of conception and parturition, intimatcth, 1 . The 
greftloesB of their affliction. 2. The contrirances they used 
Id procure deliverance from it 3. The disappointment of 
them all ; we have ' brought forth wind •/ as elsewhere, 
'Ye shall conceive chaff, and bring forth stubble.^ (/m. 
xxxiiL 11) 

In the triumph, we may consider, 1. The matter of it; 
delnrersnce from the lowest to the best condition, from 
'death to life, from a carcass to a resurrection, firom cor- 
ruption to glory, from dust to singing.' 2. The reasons of 
it; 1. In regard of the subject, * mortui tui,^ *' Ood^s detfd 
men,** * cadaver meum,' the churches dead body. 2. In regard 
of the author and virtue whereby it should be effected, the 
wordy the power, the spirit of God ; metaphorically express- 
edy ' roa tuns, ^ thy dew is as the dew of herbs.^ 

From the first general, the prophet's complaint, we may 
observe three things. 

I. That the Lord exercises his own people, yea his whole 
chvch, sometimes with sore and sharp afflictions, with the 
pangs and throes of a woman in travail. Sometimes we find 
them in a house of bondage, in Egypt ; sometimes in a 
grave, in Babylon ; often oppressed with Philistines, Midi- 
anites, Canaanites, Ammonites, Edomites, Syrians, under 
the tyranny of the four great monarchies of the earth. So 
the christian church, first, under the persecutions of the 
heathen emperors of Rome, and then under persecutions of 
antichrist and her witnesses prophesying in sackcloth 1260 
years '. As Christ first suffered, and then entered into glory, 
(Lmke xxiv. 26) so must his church. {Rom. viii. 17) Christ 
hath a double kingdom, that of his patience, and that of his 
power: We must be subjects under the kingdom of his pa- 
», before we come to that of his power. The church 
pass through the sea and the wilderness, to Canaan : 
they must be in a working and suffering condition, before 
they come to the rest or sabbath which remaineth for them. 
(Heft. iv. 90 David^s militant reign must go before Solo- 
moo's peaceable reign. 

' Rer. zi. 3. zii. 6. 

368 THE church's triumph [serm. xxiy. 

Our sins must this way be mortified : our faith, hope, 
iove, patience, humility. Christian courage and fortitude, be 
exercised : our conformity unto Christ, evidenced : the 
measure of the wickedness of the enemy, filled : the glory 
of God magnified in supporting them under, in delivering 
them out of» all their afflictions ; and raising them up, when 
they are at lowest 

Therefore we should not esteem it strange, when we fall 
into divers temptations, or see the church of God in the 
world in a sufieringor dying condition. (1 Pet. iv. 12, 13, 17. 
James i. 2) If we will have Christ for our husband, we must 
take him for better, for worse. 1. His afflictions are short, 
and but for a moment {ha. liv. 7. 2 Cor. iv. 17) 2. Sanc- 
tified by the spirit of glory and of God resting upon us. 
(1 Pet. iv. 13, 14) 3. Seconded with grace and the power 
of Christ to support us under them. (2 Cor. xii. 0) 4. 
Operative unto peace, righteousness, and glory. {Rom. viii. 
28. Heb. xii. 11) 5. Not * Avortby to be compared^ with the 
glory that shall be revealed. {Rom. viii. 18) 6. Proportion- 
ed to our need, (1 Pet. i. 6) and to our strength. (1 Cor. x. 
13) If we will come to glory, we must go the same way 
unto it as Christ did, the way of holiness, and the way of 
sufferings. {Acts xiv. 22) And surely if there be enough in 
a woman^s child to recompense the pains of her travail ; 
{John xvi. 21) there will certainly be enough in the glory 
to come, to recompense all our pains, either in our obedi- 
ence, or in our afflictions. 

II. We might here note, that even God^s own servants, in 
time of trouble and calamity, are very apt to betake them- 
selves to their own conceptions and contrivances for deliver- 
ance : they arc big oftentimes with their own counsels, and 
ia pain to bring forth and execute their own projections, in 
order to the freeing of themselves from trouble. Abraham, 
when be was afraid of Pharaoh and Abimelech, dissembled 
his relation unto Sarah s. David, fearing Achish the king 
of Gath, feigned himself mad; (1 Sam. xxi. 11, 12, 13) 
when he feared the discovery of his adultery, he gave order 
for the killing of Uriah. (2 Sam. xi. 15) One sin is the 
womb of another. When Asa was in dans^er from Baasha 

t Gen. xii. 13. xz. ii. 


king of Israel, he bought his peace with the spoils of the 
temple. (2 Chron. xvi. 1, 2) When Jonah was afraid of 
preaching destruction unto Nineveh, he fled unto Tarshish 
from the presence and service of the Lord. {Jonah i. 3) 
When Peter wa^ afraid of suffering with Christ, he flies to 
that woful sanctuary of denying and forswearing him. 
{Maiik. xxvi. 69—74) Thus the fear of man causeth a 
snare. (Pror. xxix. 25) 

Tlus, therefore, is a necessary duty in time of fear and 
danger, to look up (as the church here, after disappoint- 
ment by other refuges, doth) with a victorious and triumph- 
ant fiuth unto God, and to make him only our fear and our 
dread ; not to trust in fraud, and perverseness, or to betake 
ourselves mito a refuge of lies, {I$a. xxx. 12, and xxviii. 16) 
but to build our confidence upon that sure foundation, on 
which he that believeth, shall not need to make haste. If 
we lean not upon our own understanding, nor be wise in our 
own eyes, but in all our ways acknowledge him, and trust in 
him, and fear him, and depart from evil, — we have this gra- 
cioos promise, that he will direct our paths. {Prov. iii. 5, 7) 
The more we deny ourselves, the more is he engaged to 
help OS. But when we travail with our own conceptions, 
and will needs be the contrivers of our own deliverance ; it 
cannot be wondered, if the Lord turn our devices into 
vanity, and make our belly prepare wind and deceit: {Job 
XV. 36) as it here followeth, — " We have • brought forth 
wind, we have not wrought any deliverance T all our en- 
deavours have been vain and successless.^ 

III. Carnal counsels and human contrivances are usually 
carried on with pain, and end in disappointment, and do 
obstruct the progress and execution of God^s promises unto 
us. If we would go on in God's way, and use the means 
which he hath directed, and build our faith and hope upon 
his promises ; we have then his word to secure us, his spirit 
to strengthen us, his grace to assist us, his power and fide- 
lity to comfort us ; we have him engaged to work our works 
for us, and his angels to bear us in our ways. But when 
we seek out diverticlcs and inventions of our own, when we 
will walk in the light of our fire, and in the sparks which we 
have kindled, {Isa, 1. II) and be wise in our own conceit, 
( Aofii. xii. 16) and walk after our own thoughts ; (/<a. Ixv. 2) 

VOL. V. 2 B 

370 THE church's triumph [s£HM. XXIY. 

no wonder if we be disappointed, and made ashamed of 
our own counsels. {Hos. x. 6) When we sow the wind, il 
is not strange that we reap the whirlwind. {Hos. viii. 7) 
And therefore it is our wisdom to cease from our own wis- 
dom> as the Wise man exhorteth, Prov. xxiii. 4 ; inasmuch 
as the Lord hath pronounced a curse upon those* that are 
prudent in their own sight ; {Isa. v. 21) whom usually he 
disappointeth. (Job v. 12) 

We have considered the church'^s complaint, her anguish, 
herr disappointment. Now, in her triamph, we are first to 
view her deliverance, and then the causes of it. 

In the deliverance, is a gradation, both in the misery from 
which, and in the condition unto which, they are restored. 
For the former, 1, It extends unto dead men, whom to 
quicken exceeds the power of nature. But we do not use 
to give men over, and lay them out for dead, as soon as 
their breath fails them. Some diseases look like death; 
therefore the deliverance goes further, unto ' cadaver meum/ 
my carcass, which the reinainders of vital heat have for- 
saken, laid out, carried away, severed from the living, hasten- 
ing to putrefaction. But death makes yet a further progress: 
this carcass must be had out of sight, lodged in the bowels 
of the earth, and there dissolved into dust ; ^ his house must 
know him no more/ (Job. vii. 10) And yet even here, when 
death :hath carried a man to the end of his journey, and land- 
ed him in its own dominion, so far shall the deliverance 
extend. The damsel whom Christ raised, was 'mortua,* 
though yet in the house amongst the living. (Mark v. 35) 
The widow^s son gone a little further into the region of 
deaUi, coffined up, laid on the bier, carried out from the 
house^ a carcass. (Luke vii. 14) Lazarus in death's den, 
' inhabitator pulveris,' as far as death could carry him ; yet 
raised up, (John xi. 38, 44) So there is a gradation in the 
'. terminus a quo' of this deliverance. There is likewise a 
gradation in the * terminus ad quem,^ the condition unto 
which they are restored. 

1. ^They shall live;^ and this is a favour, though one 
stay in prison. 

2. * They shall rise ;' their life shall be to an exaltation ; 
the wicked shall live agaip, but it shall be to die again : but 
these dead shall live and rise ; their life shall be an advance- 
ment to them. 


3. 'Tbey shalt awake;* Hke a man out of sleep refreshed 
aad oomferted. {Ptalm xvii. 16) 

4. * Tbej shall sing ;* as victon over the grare, nerer to 
ielani thither nore. So we have here, 1. The sad condi- 
tion of the cfaarcb. 2. The great mercy and povrer of God 
to them in that condition. 

Their sad condition in the former of diese two gradations. 

L They are * dead men*, in a condition of death ; their 
whole life a conflict with mortality. And Aongh this be 
not a cahMnity pecaliar to them, (for death feedeth equally 
«po« all) and though there be a great alleriation in their 
being ' mortal tni/ ' the Lord's dead men ;' yet, in some re* 
specta^ we find the weight of mortality on the churches side. 
Wicked men meet many times with an Mcofxftm ; live in 
ffeaaare, and then die in ease ; spend their days in wealth 
and j<dlity, in vanity and folly, and go suddenly to the grave, 
* die only once and together :' ( JoA xxi. 13) whereas holy 
men have complained of dying daily ; (1 Car. xv. 31) of 
being in deaths often ; (2 Cor. xi. 23) of being compassed 
abont with death. (Psalm xviii. 4.) The wicked have no 
bands in their death ; {Psalm Ixxiii. 4) they are at an agree- 
nMot with it; have, as it were, hired it not to disquiet them. 
(Imu xzviiL 15) They pot it far from them ; (Amos. vi. 3) 
whereaa good men have their souls often drawhig nigh to 
the gmve. (Psalm Ixxxriii. 3) 

Dead, then, here they are, 1 . * Quoad mortis prspludia ;' all 
the fotenmncrs and harbingers of deatli common to them 
with all others, sorrows, sicknesses, distresses, and infirmities 
of all sorts. 

2. ' Quoad vitsB exitum;^ they end their days in the same 
mnnaer as other men ; the wise man as the fool : ( Eccles. ii. 
18. Psalm xiix. 10) thus in common, good men and bad. 
B«t godly men 

3. Are dead, * quoad aifectus/ Their afTections and mc«* 
dtladons are upon death. Wicked men feed and fat their 
lasts, fetch out all the sweetness thut sin hath in it: whereas 
holy men mortify their earthly members, crucify the tlesh 
with the aflectiuns and luKts, are ever dying to sin and the 
world. (Rom. vi. II) 

4. They are des^d, ' quoad seculum \* cnicifled to the 
1, (Gal. vi. 14) and therefore hated by it: (John xv. 19) 

2 s2 

372 THE church's TUrUMPH [SEUM. XXIV; 

nothing to be looked for from it, but persecution and tribu- 
lation. {John xvi. 83) As men have done to the green tree* 
80 they will to the dry. {Luke xxiii. 31) Suffering belongs 
to the essence and calling of Christians : (1 Pet. ii. 21) they 
are hereunto appointed. (1 Thess. iii. 3) They are in this 
sense properly * Mortui tui ;' '* the Lord's dead men :'* for 
worldlings are not sufferers by calling and profession, as true 
Christians are ; they are not in trouble, as other men. {Psalm 
Ixxiii. 5. Job xxi. 7 — 13) 

II. From * Mortui tui/ it proceeds to * Cadaver meum;* 
and such they are not only by dissolution after death, but by 
condition before it ; used like a dead carcass, exposed to 
contempt and dishonour, as the refuge and offscouring of 
men; {Lam, xxxi. 45. 1 Cor. iv. 13) trodden under foot; 
(I$a. Ixiii. 18) had in derision, {Psalm cxix. 51. Jer. xx. 8) 
filled with contempt: {Psalm cxxiii. 3) made as the ground 
and as the street for proud men to go over. {Isa. li. 23) Thus 
the righteous is an abomination to the vricked ; they loathe 
him, as a man would do a dead carcass. {Prov. xxix. 27) 

III. From dishonour they proceed to a kind of despair. 
They are * habitatores pulveris,' they ** dwell in the dust :^ 
they are not only dust by constitution, {Gen. iii. 19) and by 
dissolution, making the grave their house, and their bed in 
darkness; {Job xvii. 13) but further by estimation, they 
judge 80 of themselves ; abhorring themselves, and putting 
their mouths in the dust. {Job xlii. 6. Lam. iii. 29) They 
are valued so by others, {Isa, x. 6) as the mire of the streets. 
This is the sad condition of the church sometimes in this 
world under persecution and captivity : so they were in Ba- 
bylon, as dead bones in a grave. {Ezek, xxxvii. II, 12) 

By all which we learn what to look for in the world, when 
we ^ive our names to God ; — the usage not only of strangers 
and enemies, but even of dead carcasses, to be buried in con- 
tempt and dishonour. The way to life lies through the 
country of death, as the way to Canaan through a sea and a 
wilderness. No scorns, no graves, must deter us from a 
godly life, if ever we hope for a blessed resurrection. Nei- 
ther may we think it strange, when we meet with troubles in 
the world, which are but the preludes and prefaces unto 
death ; nor when one evil is over, may we sing a requiem to 
our souls, as if all were passed ; but look for vicissitudes 


and saccessions of Borrow, for clouds after rain, till we are 
koded in the country of death. And since our tenure in this 
world is so obnoxious both to encumbrance and uncertainty, 
we shoold die to the world while we are in it, as those who 
are very shortly to be translated from it ; and having no abid- 
ing station here, be careful to look after that city which hath 
fouodations, and so to acquaint ourselves beforehand with 
death by meditation on it, and preparation for it, that it may 
not coflse as a messenger of wrath, but as a harbinger of 
glory ; that, in our death, we may be * mortui tui,^ the 
*' Loffd^s dead men," and prisoners of hope ; the Spirit of 
Christ in us being the earnest and seed of a resurrection unto 

We have considered the sad condition of the church, ex- 
pressed by our prophet in that emphatical climax, ' dead 
men, a carcass, inhabiters of the dust.** — Let us next take a 
view of the mercy of God in her deliverance ; a deliverance 
not only commensurate to her troubles, but victorious over 
them; dead indeed, but she shall live: a carcass^ but she 
shall ariie ; asleepy but she shall awake ; in the duitj but she 
shall Ming. So there is mercy fully answerable to the misery; 
DO temptation without an issue; no calamity, without an 

I. * Vivent mortui,' or as others read it, • Vivunt.' True 
both. '* They do live ; they shali live.** They have life in 
death ; and that life shall work them out of death. 

1. Thev do live in death. Wicked men are dead while 
they live; (I Tim, y. 6) dead in law under the sentence of 
the curse, as Adam was legally dead by guilt and obnoxious- 
Bess the same day that he did eat the forbidden fruit. Dead 
in conscience under the pain of that sentence, and under the 
bondage of deserved and denounced wrath. {Heb. ii. 15. 
X. 27) Dead in sin, under the power of lust; {Eph. ii. 1 
Psalm xiv. 3) their throats, sepulchres full of rotten words; 
(Rumi. iii. 13) their hearts, sepulchres full of unclean affec- 
tions ; (Mat. xxiii. 27, 28) their lives, sepulchres full of dead 
works. (Heb. vi. 1) But * mortui tui,' the " lord's dead 
men," live even in the kint^dom and country of death. 

2. They live in * pra^ludiis mortis,' in all the forerunners 
of death : in the greatest calamities, they boar up their hearts 
in the favour of God, which is better than life. (Psalm Ixiii. 3. 

j374 the church's TUIi^MPH [stMM. XXIV. 

2 Cor- vi. 9) In th^se things^ dll these tliisgt, ire are 
jCQoqx^erora ; more tban owquesQrs. {Rom. wiii. 37) 

3. They liwe in * jsegw udortis,' in the kiDgdoin and eomi^ 
try of d(9«th. When dettth bath possession of theM, they 
live »\^\l : you are deiid^.eiid y^our life is hid. {Col. in. 3) The 
i^h of a Christian is inot jthe taking »way of life, but tkte 
trying ^^ Uh; as a pstrewt takes the ohild's eiioQey, and 
kf^9 ift jfer him. He ithat bdiieyMh ishaU bve, ihoa^ hm 
4ie; iJfilm xji. 25) las AM, bemg Aead, yet isfieaketfa. 
(Heb. ici. 4) 

Y^Sv their very bodies, though dead t^ them, do live to 
Ppd ; for h^ AS th# God of the liTiag. iiiat. uti. 32) There- 
fore the Jews call their burying places, * Domus viyentium.' 
h They live m tike piHHnise asid power of God. {Mat. sxii. 
29) 2. They li?« in th^ life of Chrki their head ; whether 
we wakjB or sl^ep, '*we lire together with Jhim C <1 Tkem. w. 
10) as we ane .risen <kvith him, and sit with him in heaven. 
(Co/, iii. 1. ^hes. ii, 6) 3. They live ia the seed of the epicit 
of holiness^ wb^e temples they v^^ wbicb is in them a pledge 
and ^(Bmioal viruiie of the resurrection* (i{<m. viij. 11, cinnr 
pared with 1 Cor. iM- 16| and yi. 19) In which respeoi, the 
a4pK)st)e eompafiejbh the bodies (Of the faithful unto seed ; 
(1 Cor. XV. '42) to note, that, by the inhabitation and sancti- 
fioal^on of thf fip^it, t^iere if a yital virtue in the body to 
spring up ftud awake a^n. 

Thus even 'm t^ state of death, we have ' vitam abscoB»> 
ditamt^ iCol. iii. 3) hiddjSQ out of oar rsight and sens^ ; as 
se^ in th^ furrow, asia ^wel in the ^cabinet, as an orphan's 
estate in tibe head of his guardian ; hidden with Christ the 
ftsst fruita»;and jo Ood the author and fountain of life. Tfeus 
* munty' they do Jive. 

Aqd furth^, ^ viv.ent,^ tjbey zhall live ; for our life in Christ 
if not js .decaying, but a growing uid abounding life. {John 
X. 10) Theicefore it wilj W^eak forth into the similitude of 
Christie glori<Mis body, in whom it is hid ; as the corn grow^ 
eith into the likeness of that seed, wherein it was originally 
vad virUially contained. {Join xii. 24. Col. iii. 4. Phil. iii. 
21. 1 John iii. 2, 3) Of natural life we cannot say, ** I live, 
and I shdl live ;^' for natural life runs into d/eath, as Jordan 
into the Dead Sea : But of Christian life we may say, ^^ I live, 
and I shall Jive :** it is a life which runs into life, though 

SEIIif. XXIV.] pVKR DEATif. 375 

tbro^gk Ibe way of dealh ; m Um waieiB of tbe CMpiao Sea 
9M iaid» tbroagli tubterranean pasaagei^ to have Gommooioo 
vilh the great ocean. It cornea from heaveiit Cbritt the 
fowilain and centre of it^ and it goea back unto beaven. Aa 
t pieoe of earth fiilk to the whole earthy eo every piece of 
hnvan will find tbe way to ita whole. 

II. « Beamrgent :' '' With my deid body ahall they ariie i^ 
Iheir life ahall be given them for their advancement. Wick- 
ad wma riMdl live again, that they may die again ; and shall 
riacu **t htpau graviore roanC that they may be thrown 
deeper. Pharaoh's butler and baker came both out of priaon, 
the one to his office, the other to dishonour; the one to be 
the other to be executed : So * mortui tai» and 
a aecoli/ shall both come oat of their gravea, the one 
a prison to a furnsce, the other from a prison to a pa- 
in which respect, believers only are called, * children 
ef the leanrrection.^ {Luke xz. 36) It is a reaurrection of 
life to the one, of condemnation to tbe other : ( JoAa ▼. 29) 
thesefore to distinguish them from the other, it is 

IIL ^ Expergiscimini.' They shall awake as a man r^ 
fc ss h ed with sleep ; which puts a great difference between 
the deaths and resurrections of the godly and the wicked. 

L The <leath of the godly is but a sleep : 1. In regard of 
the s e eds of life abiding in them. A man in sleep ceaseth 
firom the acts of sense, but the faculties he retaineth still : 
so a holy man, though be lose in death the acts of life,-»yet 
tbe seed and root be hath not lost ; he Uvea to Ood still. 

2. In regard of his weariness of the world, and fulness of 
days. A man, wearied with labour, lies down willingly to 
rest Abraham died full of days ; he was satiated, and de- 
sired no more. (Gen. xxv. 8) The apostle had enough of 
tbe world, when " he desired to depart, and to be with 
Christ f {Phil. i. 23) whereas a wicked man, how old so- 
ever, ia not said to die full of years, or satisfied with life : be 
ssay be loaded, but not replenished : he knows not whither 
he ia going ; and therefore be would fain stay in the world 

But it may be said, — have not wicked men brought death 
themselves as Ahithophel, Saul, Judas? and godly 
been sometimes unwilling to die, as Heiekiah? (/m. 
xxx?iii. 1, 2) 

376 TH£ church's triumph [sERIf. XXIV. 

True both ^ yet neither the one out of the love of death, 
nor the other, out of love of the world. Wicked men are 
impatient of present anguish, and inconsiderate touching 
future terrors ; and therefore rush upon the one to avoid the 
other : but godly men are weary of the body of sin, and 
believe the favour of Grod, and glory of Christ's presence ; 
and that makes them desire to depart, and to be with him. 
Nor did Hezekiah decline death out of a servile fear, being 
able to plead unto Ood his uprightness, — ^but out of a desire 
to live to complete the reformation of the church which he 
had begun, and that he might have a successor to derive the 
line of the royal seed unto. 

So then death to the godly is but a sleep, in regard of the 
rest it giveth them, {Rev. xiv. 13) from sins, from sorrows, 
from labours, from enemies, from temptations, from fear, 
from evils to come. And therefore Job calls the grave, ^ his 
bed ;^ (Job xvii. 13) and so the prophet, ** They shall lie 
down in their beds/' (Isa. Ivii. 2) 

2. This awaking makes a great difference between the re- 
surrection of the godly and the wicked. The one riseth re- 
freshed, as sleep repaireth the decays of nature, so that a 
man riseth vigorous and recruited ; Uierefore the time of the 
resurrection is called ^ the time of refreshing, and of resti- 
tution of all things.^ (Acts iii. 19, 21) The other riseth a£. 
frighted, as a man awakened by a thunder-clap, or whose 
house is in a flame about him. The one awakes to his work ; 
the other, to his judgement. It is morning and everlasting 
day to the one ; it is horror and darkness to the other ; and 
therefore it is added, 

IV, * Cantate :^ when they are awake, they *' shall sing :" 
as David, when he awaked, calls on his lute and harp to 
awake with him. (PsaL Ivii. 8) In their graves at Babylon 
they hung their harps on the willows ; no music then ; (PscU. 
cxxxvii. 3) but they go out of their graves, as Israel out of 
the Red Sea, with victory and triumph over death and hell, 
and so shall sing the Song of Moses and the Lamb. — < Dust 
and ashes,' ,in the scripture-phrase, are ' ceremonies of 
mourning;^ {Job ii. 12. Afic. i. 10) but here they who in- 
habit the dust, are called upon to < put off their prison gar- 
ments,' and to shake themselves from their dust; {ha, Iii. 
1, 2) to awake unto singing and triumph. When they awake 


they are satis&ed. (PsaL xvii. 15) Thus we see, the delU 
veraooe of the church is fully as large as their distress. 
From all which we learn, 

1. The true cause, why death and the calamities leading 
thereunto, do still remain after Christ's victory over them; 
to wit : 1 . To exercise our faith and hope in God's promises ; 
for the righteous hath hope in his death. {Prav. xiv. 32) 2. 
To conform us unto Christ, as well in the way to life, as in 
the end. (1 Pet. iv. 13) 3. To weanms from the love of the 
world, which both useth us ill, and passeth away. (1 John 
ii. 15, 17. John xv. 19) 4. To encrease ourdesires of glory, 
that we may, with good Jacob, wait for the salvation of the 
Lord. {Geif. xlix. 18) 5. To commend our love to Christ, 
which makes us willing to be dissolved, that we may go to him, 
as a stone is contented to be broken in moving towards its 
centre. {PhU, i. 23) 6. To commend the power of righ. 
teousness, which is not afraid of the king of terrors ; nor to 
go to Christ, though there be a lion in the way. {Acts xxi. 
13. Bom. viii. 36 — 37) 7. To shew the sweetness and virtue 
of the death of Christ, which makes a bed of a grave, an an- 
tidote of a serpent; hath brought sweetness out of the 
strong, and meat out of the eater ; hath bound death with 
her own grave-clothes, and set a guard of angels over the 
bodies of the saints ; hath rolled away the heavy stone from 
the graves of his people, and made it a place of ease and re- 
freshment; hath made our grave like a garden, that our 
bodies, like herbs, might spring out again ; hath slain death, 
as Benaiah did the lion, in its own pit; and hath made it 
sick of the bodies of his people, and travail in pain like a 
woman with child, till at last it be delivered of them. 

2. We should, by faith and hope in this doctrine, comfort 
ourselves a^i^ainst nil other calamities, and encourage our- 
selves against death itself, which is but a depository, and 
shall be an accountant unto God for every member of his 
church. Thoui]^h it hath swallowed them, as the whale did 
Jonah, it shall cast them up again. Though to the wicked 
it be a trap-door which lets them down to hell, and so keeps 
them in the midst of lau|:;hter sorrowful, in the midst of 
plenty and pleasures fearful, in the midst of hope doubtful, 
when they remember the days of darkness, for they be many, 
and the days of torment, for they be more ;— yet, to believ- 

378 THE church's triumph [SEKM. XXIV. 

era, it is a bed, a rest, a sleep, a friend. When it shuts the 
door between us and the worid^ it opens a door between us 
and heaven. Pardon of sin, and peace with God, makes us 
bold to play upon the hole of the asp, and on the cockatrice^s 
den. {Isa. xi. 8) 

We have tlius far considered the church as dead^ buried in 
the dust ; as quickened, raised, awakened, delighted in God : 
we are 

III. To take a view of the causes of this deliverance 
which are, 1. Dispositive, in regard of the subject. 2. £f- 
6cient, in regard of the author. 

The dispositive causes, qualifying the subject for this de^ 
Uverance, are in the two pronouns, < tui,' and * meum ;* — 
'* thy dead men : my dead body.^ These mercies are not 
promised generally unto all dead men, but unto the * Lord's 
dead men,^ whom be hath chosen and formed for himself. 
{Psal. iv. 3. Ita* xliii. 21) If he say, * thou art mine ;* nei* 
tb^ water, nor fire, nor east, west, north, south, Egypt; 
Ethiopia, nor any other enemy, shall keep us back from him. 
(lio. xUii. 1, 2, 6) 

1. His we must be, if we will not be lost in death. 1. His 
by consanguinity ; {or Christ hath taken upon him the na^ 
tttPe of Adam, and the seed of Abraham, and so vouchsafeth 
to call believers brethren. (Heb, ii. 11) By that means, 
God is become our father; {John xx. 17) and, therefore, in 
the deluge of desolation, he will bring us into his ark^ as 
Rahab, when she was delivered herself, called together her 
kindred to share therein with her. {Josh. vi. 23) 2. His, by 
purchase : there was a dear and precious price paid for us ; 
we were bought with no less a price than the blood of God, 
{Acts XX. 28) and therefore he will vindicate his claim and 
title unto us. No man will lose what he hath paid for, if he 
be able to rescue and recover it out of the bands of unjust pos- 
sessors : Christ having bou^t us, death shall not withhold 
us froxn him ; " the redeemed of the Lord shall return.**" 
{Isa. li« 11) 3. His, by covenant. ' Thy Maker is thy hus- 
band i* {Isa. liv. 5) and being married to her, he will make 
her return. {Jer. iii. 14) Any loving husband would fetch 
bcLck his wife from the dead, if he were able to do it. 4. 
His, by dedication^ inhabitation, consecration, as a temple. 
(1 Cor. yi. 19) If death destroy his temple, be will raise it 


op figtiiu (John ii. 10) The Spirit that dwtUeth in us, will 
quicken oar Biortal bodies. {Rom. tiii. 11) 

2. ' Hii dead men^ we mutt be : we moat die to sin, be* 
caoae he diedy<^ it : we mutt kill that which killed Chriets 
we mnat be dead unto sin, if we will lire nnto Ood. (Rom. 
wL 11) Hit dead nen, his perseTenuitly until deadi; {Rev. 
ii. 10) bis patiently, even mail death. {Heb. x. 36) Nothiag 
mnat separate us froai his love. His ultimately ; whether 
we live, wa must live to the Lord ; or whether we die, we 
mast die uato the Lord ; {Rom. xiv. 8) that he may be glo- 
rified IE our flsortal bodies by life, or by death. {PUL i. flO) 
Aod being thus his dead men ; 

1. We are sore, death comes not but with a commisaioE 
fropi him ; his providence sendeth it, his power featraioetk 
it, his love and wisdom guideth and ordereth it to our good t 
it is bb officer ; it shall touch us no further than he gives it 
aatboiity^ (JoAm xix. 11) He hath muxxled and chained it } 
be aaiih to death, as to Satan concerning Job, ''He is in 
thine besMl, but touch not his soul; meddle not with his 
conscience, or with his peace : and for his body, thou shalt 
bnt brep it ; thou shalt not deatroy it ; thou shalt be ao- 
coontable for every piece of it again .^ 

% * Being lut dead men, he hath always an eye of coas* 
passion epon us ; our sorrows and sufferings he esteems his 
own. (Zmi. UiiL 9. CoL i. 24. Acts ix. 4) And if they be his, 
he will certainly save us from them, and conquer them as 
wdl in us, as in himself; for ** unto him belong the issues 
from dieath.'' {Psal. Ixviii. 20) 

3. As ever therefore we look for blessedness in death, or 
deliverance from it, we must labour, both living and dying, 
to ' be the Lord's,^ that he may own us when the world hath 
east us out ; that we may be precious in bis sight, when we 
are Ipathsome to the world ; jeweb to him, when dung to 
laen ; that our graves may not only have worms in them to 
consume us, but angels to guard us. If we die in our sins 
and be Satan^s dead men, we shall never rise with comfort ; 
rottenness will feed not on our bodies only, but on our namea; 
we shall have worms in our consciences, as well as in our 
carcasses : but when we can say, *' Lord, I am thine, thoo 
art mine,** we may thence infer,-^' We shall not die.' {H§h. 
i. 12) We have a life which death cannot reach. {(M* UL 
3) This therefore must be our special care, to be ' mortui 

380 THE church's triumph [sERM. XXIV. 

tui/ to die to the Lord, to fall asleep in Christ ; (1 Cor. xv. 
18) that when he conies, we may be found in him, and so 
may be ever with him. (1 Thess. iv. 17) This the first qua- 
lification of the subject for deliverance, to be ' mortui tui/ 
•' the Lord's dead men.*** 

. 2. The next is, that it is * Cadaver meum :'* L Mine, as 
the words of Christ ; ^ Being my body, they shall surely rise :' 
2. Mine^ as the words of the church ;-^" Every member of 
my dead body shall rise in the unity of the whole.^ 

1. Then my dead body, being members of a head that 
lives for ever, and hath the keys of hell and the grave, shall 
certainly rise : his life is the foundation of ours : ^ Because I 
live, ye shall live also/ (John xiv. 19) If death had held 
him, it would much more have held us : but because in him 
the mercies of David are sure, therefore his resurrection is 
an assurance of ours. {Acts xiii. 34) Christ will not be in- 
complete, and the church is his fulness. {Eph. i. 23) The 
feet under water are safe, when the head is above it. Christ 
is said to be the first that rose from the dead ; (Ads xxvi. 23) 
the first-begotten, the first-bom from the dead. {Rev, i* 6. 
Col. i. 18) For though some were raised before him, yet 
not without him, but by the fellowship of his resurrection : 
as though light rise before the sun, yet it doth not rise but 
from the sun. The mace goes before the magistrate, but it 
doth so only in attendance upon him. He the only con- 
quefor of death ; and as the first-fruits did sanctify the whole 
mass, {Rom. xi. 16) so Christ, by his resurrection, did con- 
secrate all such as die in the Lord, to be a kind of first- 
fruits, and first-born; {James i. 18. Heb. xii. 23) and there- 
fore it is said, that they ** shall rise first. ** (\ Thess, iv. 16) 
His resurrection is unto all his members, — 

1 • ' Arrhabo,^ a pledge and earnest of theirs. He having 
paid our debt, death cannot detain us in prison for it: his 
resurrection hath justified us against the claim of death, and 
will glorify us against the power of death. What he did 
purchase by the merit of his death, is made applicable to U6 
by the power of his resurrection. {Rom. viii. 34) 

2. ' Exemplar ;^ his the pattern of ours : he taken not only 
from prison, but from judgement, death had no more to do 
with him. {Isa. liii. 8. Rom. vi. 9) In like manner, we shall 
rise victors over death, never any more to be subject unto it : 


this the apostle calleth * the image of the heavenly Adam.'* 
(1 Cor. xv. 49. PAiV. iii. 21) 

3. * Primitiae :* the beginning of the future resurrection; 
for he rose not barely in a personal, but in a public capacity. 
Though it were a damnable heresy of Hymeneus, that the 
resurrection was past, (2 Tim. ii. 18) yet it is a truth to say, 
that it is begun. He first, then we at his coming. (1 Cor. 
XV. 23) By what is past in the head, we are assured of what 
is expected in his members. 

2. All the particular members of the church shall rise in 
the unity of one body, as mystically joined unto one head, 
and as one family ; {Eph. iii. 1 5) and all one in Christ ; (Gal. 
iii. 38) not barely the persons singly considered, but as a 
church and body shall rise. 

1. Then be careful to be found in Christ at his comins : 
for though all men shall rise, yet with a great difference : the 
wicked, * potestate Judicis,^ — as malefactors are brought out 
of prison to the judge to be condemned : — the godly, * vir* 
tule capitis \' the life of Christ shall be manifested in their 
bodies. (2 Cor. iv. 10) 

2. A Christian must not only believe, * Thy dead men 
shall live,^ but further, *' My dead body shall arise too.* 
Herein is the life of faith in bringing down general promises 
to our own particular cases, interests, and comforts. (2 Cor, 
IT. 13, 14. John XX. 28. Gal. ii. 20) 

3. Since we bhall all rise as one, we should all live as one. 
As we have all one head, one spirit, one faith, one hope, one 
inheritance, one common salvation ; so we should have one 
heart and one soul ; (Acts iv. 32) love as brethren, have the 
same care as fellow members one of another ; weep with them 
that weep, rejoice with them that rejoice ; that our life of 
faith on earth may, in some measure, express our life of 
vision in heaven ; and since we shall agree there, not to fall 
out in our way thither. {Eph, iv. 1 — 6. Phil. ii. 1,2, 3. Col, 
iii. 12, 13) And thus much of the dispositive cause, quali- 
fying the subject of this deliverance. 

2. .The efficient follows, the word and command of God, 
beitig like dew to the tender * herbs,* to revive them when 
they seem dead. Whence we observe, 

1. The facility of the last resurrection in regard of God, 
to whom miracles are as easy as natural operations, a miracle 


beiug nothing but a new creation. It is as impossible to us 
to cause rain, as to raise a dead body. He Uierefore who' 
(we see) doth cause the one, we may believe on his word, 
that he will the other. We find rain and dew used as argu- 
ments to prove the omnipotency and greatness of Grod. 
{Psalm cxWii. 6, 8. Job v. 9, 10. Jer. xiv. 22. Zeck. x. 1) 

And this teaclies us a very useful point, to observe the 
wisdom and power of God in the ordinances of heaven and 
course of nature ; and from thence to argue for the settling 
our faith in such things, as exeeed the course of nature ; for 
there is no less omnipotency required to govern natural 
causes^ than to work those that are supernatural. He there- 
fore that keepeth his law, and sheweth his power in the one; 
will do so in the other too. The Lord strengtheneth our 
faith by the consideration of natural things ; the bow in the 
clouds, (Gen. ix. 12. Jsa. liv. 9) the stability of the moun- 
tainSj (Zmu liv. 10) the multitude of stars, (Gen. xv. 6) the 
height of the heavens, {Psalm ciii. 11) the beauty of the 
lilies, {Matth. vi. 28, 30) the ordinances of the moon and 
stars, (Jer. xxxi. 35, 36) the covenant of day and night (Jer. 
xxxiii. 20, 21) Thus the Lord teacheth us to make use of 
the rudiments of nature to confirm our faith in him. 

I go quietly to bed, and am not frighted with the horror 
of the night I know the day will return ; it is God^s cove- 
nant. — I put my seed into the ground in winter ; I know it 
will grow into a harvest ; the sun will return ; it is God^s 
covenant-— And why should not I trust him, as well in his 
covenant of grace as of nature ? why should I not believe, 
that that power which quickens dead corn, can quicken dead 
men^ and can provide as well for my salvation as for my 
nature ? 

The truth is, all unbelief doth secretly question the power 
of God. Things past and present all can believe, because 
they are seen. But things promised, when they oppose 
reason, and transcend the course of natural causes, and the 
contrivances and projections which we can forecast, we many 
times stagger and falter about. Israel confessed what God 
had done, and that omnipotently, ** He smote the rock, and 
the waters gushed out ;^ and yet in the same breath they 
question his power ; *^ Can he furnish a table in the wilder- 
ness? can he give bread also and provide flesh for his 

SEaif, XXIV.] OVER DEATH. 383 

people r (Piolm Ixxviii. 19, 20, 22) Moset himself sUg- 
gered, when the Lord made a promise which seemed to ex- 
ceed the power of ordinary causes. {Nufnb. xi. 21, 22) And 
tkerefore when God will confirm the faith of his servants, he 
draweth them off from viewing the greatness and strangeness 
of the proBUses in themselves, to the consideration of his 
power. *' Is any thing too hard for the Lord r (dm* xviu. 
14) "^ I am the Lord, the God of all flesh ; is there any thing 
too haid for me ?** {Jer. xxxii. 27) '' If it be manrellous in 
the eyes of the remnant of this people in these days, should 
it also be marvellous in mine eyes, saith the Lord of hosts I** 
(<SecA. viiL 6) And therefore in all oases of difficulty, when 
sense and reason, flesh and blood, dictate nothing but 
despair ; we should, by faith, look up to the truth of God 
promising, and to the power and name of God giving being 
to bis promises, whose ways are higher than our ways, and 
his thoughts than our thoughts. {Isa. Iv. 8, 9) So did Jebo-> 
sbaphat; (2 Chron. xx. 12) so David ; (1 Sam. xxx. 6) so the 
prophet Exekiel, (xxxvii. 3) so Abraham, {Rom, iv. 19, 20, 
21) %o Peter : (Luke v. 5) so we should all do, when we walk 
in darkness and have no light, still trust in the name of the 
Lord, and stay upon our God. {I$a. 1. 10) 

2. We hence learn the original of the resurrection ; it is a 
heavenly work, as dew which comes from heaven to revive 
the grass. The Lord resolves the lineage and genealogy of 
com into heaven; {Ho$. ii. 21) takes it to himself to be the 
Father of the dew. {Job. xxxviii. 28) It comes from him 
whose body did shed drops of heavenly dew in the garden, 
and by them did slay death, and revive the herbs of the 

We must labour, therefore, by a heavenly conversation, to 
have our bodies, temples of the holy Spirit ; that this heaven* 
ly virtue, when it hath drawn us out of our graves, may then 
carry us to heaven. For as that which is earthly, when it is 
out of its place, never leaves descending till it goes to earth ; 
so that which is heavenly, will never cease rising, till it g^t 
to heaven. Earthly vapours may be <irawn up ; but they 
fall again in rain and wind. Wicked men, though raised, 
will fall again. Any thing of heaven will go to heaven; any 
thing of Christ will go to Christ 

Concerning this dear and worthy lady, though my 

384 THE church's triumph [sERM. XXIV. 

custom be to be very sparing in funeral elogies, yet many 
things were in her so remarkable, that the mentioning of them 
cannot but tend to the edification of others. 

I shall not mention her mere externals ; the worth, credit, 
and dignity of her family ; the gentleness and sweetness of 
her disposition, and all amiable accomplishments which ren- 
dered her lovely to those that knew her : nor set forth the 
proportion between her and the present text. I shall only 
name such things, as commended her to Qod as well as to men. 

She looked after heaven very young: would frequently 
bless God for the religious education, which she had under 
her parents. She was even then assaulted with temptations 
unto atheism, and to think that there was no God : but took 
the best course to repel and resist them, that the most expe- 
rienced Christian could have directed her unto : immediately 
betaking herself by prayer unto that God, whom she was 
tempted to deny. 

She was a woman mighty in the scriptures ; read them 
over once a year ; and searched after the sense of difficult 
places out of the several annotations before her. She was 
(as it were) a concordance directing usually to the book and 
chapter, where any place of scripture, mentioned in dis- 
course, was to be found. 

She was constant in reading substantial authors of dog- 
matical and practical divinity; and by that means grew 
greatly acquainted with the whole body of wholesome doc- 

She was unweariedly constant in the performance of pri- 
vate duties : insomuch that it is verily believed by him, who 
had best reason to know it, that for twelve years together she 
never intermitted her morning and evening addresses unto 
the throne of grace. When she was suddenly surprised with 
the pangs of this last child, she ran into her closet to be first 
delivered of her prayer, and to pour out her soul to God, be- 
fore she was delivered of her child. 

She had a singular delight in the public ordinances, and 
was a most constant frequenter of them, with very serious 
and devout attention; calling her memory to an account 
when she came home ; and if any particular slipt from her 
forgotten, she would enquire of her husband in bed, to re- 
cover it for her. 


She left behind her in her closet a paper book, wherein^ 
with her own hand, she had collected divers general direct 
tions for a holy spending of the day, with several particular 
means for the faithful observance of those general rules. 

She highly honoured holiness in the poorest and meanest 
person, and would frequently with some decent and modest 
excuse get off from unprofitable and impertinent discourse^ 
that she might have her fill of more edifying conference 
with such, in whom she had learned of David, to place her 

For divers months before her death, she was wonderfully 
improved heavenward, as those about her observed, not re- 
garding the world, nor letting any vain word drop from her : 
and her countenance, many times, after her coming out of her 
closet, seemed to have strange impressions of her conversing 
with Grod shining in it, as some conversant with her have 
professed to observe. 

She was greatly adorned with meekness, modesty, and hii> 
mility, which are graces, in the sight of Ood, of great price. 
When one wished her joy with the honour lately come to her, 
she answered, ' that there was a greater honour which she 
looked after, which should bring with it more solid joy/ 

She always expressed much honour and reverence to her 
parents, in all comely and dutiful comportment towards them; 
which much endeared her unto them. 

Full of conjugal affection to her dear husband, revoking 
with an ingenuous retraction any word which might fall from 
her, which she judged less becoming that honour and reve- 
rence, which she did bear to him. When he was engaged 
upon public concernment, aud more particularly when he 
crossed the seas to wait on his sacred Majesty, she daily put 
up such ardent and heavenly petitions unto God for him, as 
caused those about her to conclude it impossible that the 
husband of so many prayers and tears should meet with any 
miscarriage. Wonderful watchful over his bodily health; 
and spying out distempers in him before he discovered them 
himself; earnestly desiring what is now come to pass, that 
he might survive her, that she might never know the wound 
of a deceased husband. 

She had a more than ordinary care in the education of her 
children, holding them close to the reading, and committing 

VOL. V. 2 c 

386 THE church's triumph [sERM. XXIV. 

to memory both scripture and catechism ; wherein by her 
diligence they made a very strange progress ; a pregnant in- 
stance whereof (to speak nothing of her children yet living,) 
was her eldest son, who went to heaven in his childhood, 
about the age of five or six years ; of whose wonderful profi- 
ciency in the knowledge of God, an exact account is given 
by a grave and godly divine in the printed sermon, which he 
preached at his funeral. 

She was very affable and kind to her servants, especially 
encouraging them unto holy duties ; who have professed 
themselves very much benefited in their spiritual concern- 
ment by the discourses which she had with them. 
. She was very charitable and ready to do good to poor dis- 
tressed persons, especially those of the household of faith ; 
visiting, edifying, and comforting them, and with her liber- 
ality relieving their necessities: acknowledging Ood^s free 
and rich mercy, in allowing her a plentiful portion of out- 
ward blessings, and that she was not in the low condition of 
those whom her charity relieved. 

In her sickness and extremities of travail and other pains, 
she earnestly pleaded God's promises of healing, of easing, 
of refreshing, those that were weak and heavy laden ; ac* 
knowledging herself so to be, not in body only, but in soul 
too ; and was full of holy and fervent ejaculations. 

Yea, when the disease affected her head, and disturbed 
her expressions, yet even then her speeches had still a tinc- 
ture of holiness, and savoured of that spirit wherewith her 
heart was seasoned. 

She advised those about her to set about the great and one 
necessary work of their souls, while they were in health ; 
assuring them that, in sickness, all the strength they had, 
would be taken up about that. 

She desired her husband to read to her in her sickness 
Mistress Moor'^s evidences for salvation, set forth in a ser- 
mon preached by a reverend divine at her funeral, meditating 
with much satisfaction upon them. 

And when some cloud overcast her soul, she desired her 
husband to pray with her, and seconded him with much en- 
largement of heart, and blessed God for the recovery of light 
again. , 

Thus lived and 3ied this excellent lady, a worthy pattern 


for the great ones of her sex to imitate. Such works will 
follow them into another world, where none of the vanities 
of this, no pleasures, no pomp, no luxury, no bravery, no 
balls, no interludes, no amorous or complimental discourses, 
or other like impertinencies of the world, will have any ad- 
mittance. The more seriously you walk with God, and ply 
the concernments of your immortal souls, living as those 
that resolve to be saved, the greater will be your treasure of 
comfort in your death, and of glory in another life : whereas 
all your other delights and experiments for content will ex- 
pire, and give up the ghost in Solomon^s ' vanity and vexa- 
tion of spirit' The Lord make us all wise unto salvation. 

2 c L> 



Opened in a VUitation-Sermon, preached at Ipswich, October 10, 166?. 

ZECH. XI. 7. 

And I took unto me two staves ; the one I called Beauty ^ and 
the other I called Bands ; cutd I fed thejiock. 

In this chapter, we have a prophecy of horrible and final 
judgements hanging over the nation of the Jews, for their 
rejection of Christ here foretold. The judgements are ex- 
ternal, arising from enemies abroad, ver. 1« 2, 3 ; from shep- 
herds at home, ver, 5 ; from intestine commotions, ver. 6 ; 
and spiritual, rejection by Christ's breaking the staves 
wherewith he had fed them, ver. 9 — 14 ; and tradition into 
the hands of cruel shepherds, ver, \b, 17 ; causes of these 
judgements, oppression, ver. 5 ; ingratitude against Christ 
their good Shepherd. Concerning whom we have, 1. His 
call to his pastoral office, ver. 4 : 2. His obedience to that 
call, ver. 7: 3. The hatred and dis-estimation he received 
from the pastors and people, ver. viii. 12. Lastly, God's ab- 
horring their so unworthy dealing with his Son, ver. 13. 

The Lord, being willing to save his flock, set a Shepherd 
over them who should feed them. And a good Shepherd we 
are sure it is, who could call God *' my God,' ver. 4 : and al- 
though we may take it for the prophet himself, representing 
by a synecdoche all faithful pastors whom the Lord from 
time to time sent to acquaint them with his counsel ; yet it 
is evident by the ensuing parts of the chapter, that Christ is 
here meant, the chief and great Shepherd, of whom the pro- 
phet in these actions was but a type. He threateneth them, 
ver. 6; punisheth them, ver. 10; was sold by them. {ver. 
12, compared with Matth. xxvii. 9) He principally, and 
other faithful pastors under him, are they, who here under- 


take the charge of this people to feed and goTern them. 
Which care is further set forth l>y a metaphor of ' two shep- 
herd^s staves/ noting his douhle vigilancy and superinspec- 
tion OTer them ; by the names of which, I understand two 
special ends of Christ's pastoral service. 

1. ' To restore beauty/ and to erect that collapsed order 
of doctrine and worship which had been corrupted : for 
verity of doctrine, purity of worship, and decency of order, 
are the special beauties of a church, which render it amiable : 
upon these accounts it is that Sion and the house of Ood 
therein are so often called the ' Beauty of the Lord» and the 
Beauty of holiness/ {Psalm xxvii. 4, and xlviii. 2, and L 2, 
and xcvi. 6, 9. Isa, Ix. 13, and Ixiv. 11) Christ, in his 
ministry, did cleanse the doctrine of the church in his Ser- 
mon on the Mount, and the worship of the church in his 
purging of the temple ; and so filled his house with glory, 
{Hag. ii. 7) and made beautiful the feet of his minister!. 
{Rom. X. 16) The magnificence of the temple, the glori- 
OQS garments of the priests, the pure vessels of the sano- 
tuary, the sweet incense and perfume, the admirable statt^ 
order, and government of Solomon^s house, were all sha- 
dows and types of these spiritual and heavenly beauties, 
wherewith Christ adorneth his church. 

2. To gather ' together into one' his scattered and divided 
people, (John xi. 52) that from him the whole body may h€ 
joined together and compacted, (Eph, iv. 16) in peace and 
love one unto another, according unto his prayer, John xvti. 
21, 22, 23. This, I take it, is meant by the ' staff' called 
' Bands\ making of the stick of Joseph and Judah one. (Exdk. 
xxxvii. 19) In those eastern countries*, such as entered 
into a covenant of peace were wont to twist a band, and, 
upon dissolving a covenant, to untwist it again ; whence a 
society of men joining together in one employment are called 
Van (Psalm cxix. 61. 1 Sam, x. 5) and their possessions 
were divided unto them per Txpufl^yMra by measured lines, 
(Psalm xvi. 6, and Ixxviii. 55) to note their dwelling toge« 
ther in unity. But now upon rejecting Christ, they who 
had been before ' in araoenitate Dei,' the Lord's peculiar 
people, and were knit together in the bands of a brotherly 
covenant, were at last loathed by Ood, vtr, 8 ; no longer 

* FuUvi. MiscrlUn. i. 6, c< 17. 



coDBOciated in the same policy or poasessions, but devoured 
by tbe Roman army, and dissipated into divers and remote 

In tbe words two tbings are observable. Tbe office or 
administration, * Feeding tbe flock f and tbe great ends of 
tbat service, purity and unity, set fortb by tbe symbol of 
* two pastoral staves,' called bere by tbe names of ' Beauty 
and Bands/ 

Toucbing tbis administration of feeding the flock* we 
shall briefly open, 1. The necessity of tbis pastoral office, 
both supreme in tbe Chief Shepherd, and subordinate in bis 
servants and inferior ministers. 2. Tbe particular duties 
wherein the discharge of our pastoral office doth stand, 
which the Supreme Shepherd is pleased to second with bis 
powerful and most efficacious co-operation. 

Necessity is twofold : absolute, as it is absolutely neces- 
sary for the first being to be : relative or hypothetical, when 
one thing is necessary in order unto, or upon supposition gf, 
another. Obedience unto God is a necessary duty to be 
done ; blessedness, a necessary end to be pursued. Unto 
the performance of tbis duty, there is a necessity to know 
tixe rule wherein it is prescribed : unto tbe obtaining of tbis 
end there is a necessity to know the means whereby it may 
be promoted ; for understanding whereof we shall premise 
two or three propositions. 

1. Though there remain some ingmfted notions of the law 
of nature, touching God and a service due to him, in the 
heart of man ; yet that law is much darkened and defaced 
by that sinful corruption, which doth as well indispose the 
mind as any other faculties unto its due operations. Of 
this blindness and vanity we have frequent mention; (1 Cor. 
ii. 14. Eph. iv. 17, 18) and therefore albeit rare tbings are 
recorded of the moral virtues of many heathen men, and 
though diverse of their philosophers, Plato, AristoUe, 
Uierocles, Plutarch, Cicero, Seneca, Epictetus, and others, 
have written excellently on those arguments ; yet unto a 
full knowledge. of moral duties, to be in a due manner per^ 
formed unto God and men, there is necessary a further 
patefaction of the divine will, than those remaining prin- 
ciples of tbe law of nature can dictate unto us. And this 
was done by tbe ministry of Moses, by whom to the church. 


and uoto whom, by the ministry of augels, the most holy 
and perfect law of God was fully discovered. 

3. Though the law delivered by Moses be pure aud per- 
fisct, though it be holy,just« and good ; and though the coiOi. 
manda thereof be exceeding broad ; yet thereby salvation 
pannot be had, since by the law is the knowledge of sin ; 
{Rom. iii. 20) and therefore it can curse only and not bless 
or save us, as the apostle argues, Gal. iii. 10. 11. All that 
the law can do, is to show us duty, to discover the sin 
whereby we come short of duty, the punishment due unto 
that SID, and our impotency to prevent, remove, endure, or 
avoid that corse. And consequently there must be a further 
patcfaction of life and grace by another prophet 

3. The doctrine of the gospel, as it stands formally dis- 
tinguished from the doctrine of the law, is wholly myste- 
rious and supernatural : there are no seminal notions in the 
mind of man, from whence it may, by rational disquisition, 
be deduced. Ajid tlierefore it is usually in scripture called 
a mystery ; * the mystery of Christ ;' (Eph. iii. 4. CoL iv. 
3) ' the mystery of the gospel ;' (£pA. vi. 19) of the ' faith,^ 
of 'godliness;' (1 Tim, iii. 9 — 16) 'hidden from ages and 
generations ;' {Rom, xvi. 26) ' which eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, nor hath entered into the heart of man to con- 
ceive ;' (1 Cor. ii. 9) as a mystery, above natural reason; as 
a mystery of godliness against carnal reason. Except there- 
fore it bad been by uome pastor revealed to the church, we 
could never have had the knowledge of it. 

4. Unto the perfecting of salvation by the gospel, two 
things concur ; a valid impetration of grace by the merit of 
Christ ; and au effectual application thereof by his Spirit, 
which he doth by begetting faith in us, called ' the faith of 
the operation of God." (CW. ii. 1*2) This knowledge of 
Christ is simply necessary to salvation, (/la. liii. 11. John 
viii. 24) Aud it is not of ourselves, but the gift of God ; 
(Epk. ii. b) and God Horks it by hearing. (Rom, x. 17) So 
there is a necessity of a divine pastor, by whose teaching 
this knowledge, so necessary to salvation, may be edectually 
wrought in us. 

5. The doctrine of re<lemption layeth an obligation on the 
redeemed, to live unto him that bought them. Christ there- 
fore died and rose, that he might be the LiOfd of dead and 


living. The grace, which bringeth salvation, ' teacheth to 
deny ungodliness/ See. (Tit. ii. 11, 12) Sanctification is 
necessary to salvation, as being the inchoation thereof. 
Nothing can be perfected till it be begun. {Heb. xii. 14) 
Since, therefore, holiness is necessary, and it belongs to him 
to whom this service is due, to prescribe the manner of it; 
and since we have naturally in us ignorance, impotency, and 
enmity, wholly disabling from the doing of it; there is, 
upon these accounts, an absolute necessity of such a pas- 
tor, who may reveal the right way of holiness unto us, and 
may efficaciously incline our wills thereunto. Upon these 
grounds we may see the necessity of the Great Pastor for re- 
vealing the supernatural mysteries of life and salvation by 
free grace, for working faith, whereby life and salvation 
may be applied unto us, for enabling us unto the duties of 
holiness, and removing those impedin^ents of ignorance and 
enmity, which indispose us thereunto. 

And now because the office of inferior pastors under this 
Great Shepherd hath, in these late unhappy and licentious 
days, by the subtilty or rather bungling of Satan, been 
greatly opposed, it will not be unseasonable to speak a little 
of the necessity of these also to feed the flock. 

That which God hath appointed as an office in his church, 
is to be acknowledged necessary. God hath, by his special 
institution, appointed pastors and teachers in his church, 
whose function the scripture owneth as an office, called 
hrtait(»ni et dtoiMOfla: (1 Tim, iii. 1. Col. iv. 17) therefore 
they are to be acknowledged necessary. The Lord is said 
to have set or constituted them in his church ; (1 Cor. xii. 
28) to have given them to her as part of her dowry. (£pA. 
iv. 11) They are sent forth by the Lord of the harvest 
{Matt, ix. 38) They are called ' ministers of Christ.' {CoL 1 . 
7) They receive their ministry from the Lord. {Col. iv. 
17) He hath made them overseers. {Acts xx. 28) There- 
fore none can, without sacrilege against Christ and his 
church, reject them. 

2. Necessary ordinances presuppose necessary officers to 
administer them. Christ hath appointed necessary ordi- 
nances to be to the end of the world administered ; therefore 
the officers who are to administer them, are necessary like- 
wise. He did not appoint a work to be done, and leave it to 


the wide world wbo tboQld do it, but committed tbe mi- 
nistrj of reconciliation to stewards and ambassadors, by bim 
selected for that senrice. (1 Cor. iv. 1. 2 Cor. v. 19) 

3. That which was instituted for necessary ends, so long 
as those en